Western Turkic Khaganate

The Western Turkic Khaganate (Chinese: 西突厥; pinyin: Xī Tūjué) or Onoq Khaganate (Old Turkic: 𐰆𐰣:𐰸:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣‎, romanized: On oq budun, lit.'Ten arrow people')[7][8] was a Turkic khaganate in Eurasia, formed as a result of the wars in the beginning of the 7th century (AD 593–603) after the split of the Turkic Khaganate (founded in the 6th century in Mongolia by the Ashina clan) into a western and an eastern Khaganate.

Western Turkic Khaganate
𐰆𐰣:𐰸:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣
On oq budun
Greatest extent of the Western Turkic Khaganate after the Battle of Bukhara (brown), and their southern expansion as the Tokhara Yabghus and Turk Shahis (ochre)
Greatest extent of the Western Turkic Khaganate after the Battle of Bukhara (brown), and their southern expansion as the Tokhara Yabghus and Turk Shahis (ochre)
StatusKhaganate (Nomadic empire)
CapitalNavekat (summer capital)
Suyab (principal capital)
Common languagesSogdian (coinage, official)[1][2]
Old Turkic[3][4]
Religion
Tengrism
Zurvanite Zoroastrianism[5]
Khagan of the Western Khaganate 
• 587-604
Niri Qaghan
Yabgu of the Western Khaganate 
• 553-576
Istämi
• 576-603
Tardu
Historical eraEarly Middle Ages
Area
630[6]3,500,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Hephthalites
First Turkic Khaganate
Protectorate General to Pacify the West
Turgesh
Oghuz Yabgu State
Khazar Khaganate
Kangar union

The whole confederation was called Onoq, meaning "ten arrows". According to a Chinese source, the Western Turks were organized into ten divisions.[9]

The khaganate's capitals were Navekat (summer capital) and Suyab (principal capital), both situated in the Chui River valley of Kyrgyzstan, to the east of Bishkek. Tong Yabgu's summer capital was near Tashkent and his winter capital Suyab.

The Western Turkic Khaganate was subjugated by the Tang dynasty in 657 and continued as its vassal until their collapse.

HistoryEdit

The first Turkic Khaganate was founded by Bumin in 552 in Mongolia and quickly spread west toward the Caspian Sea. Within 35 years the western half and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate were independent. The Western Khaganate reached its peak under Tong Yabghu Qaghan (618–630). After Tong's murder there were conflicts between the Dulu and Nushibi factions and many short-lived Khagans, and some territory was lost. From 642 onward the expanding Chinese Tang dynasty began to interfere. The Tang destroyed the Khaganate in 657–659.

Western expansion (552-575 CE)Edit

 
Western Turk officer attending the reception of ambassadors by king Varkhuman of Samarkand. Afrasiab murals, 7th century CE.[10] The Turks had a Mongoloid appearance.[11]

The Gokturks and Mongols were the only two empires to rule both the eastern and central steppe. The Gokturks were the first steppe empire to be in contact with three great urban civilizations: Byzantium, Persia and China. Their expansion west from Mongolia is poorly documented. Lev Gumilyov[12] gives the following. Bumin gave the west to his younger brother Istami (553-75). The campaign probably began in the spring of 554 and apparently met little resistance. They took Semirechye and by 555 had reached the Aral Sea, probably on a line from the lower Oxus, across the Jaxartes, north of Tashkent to the western tip of the Tian Shan. They drove before them various peoples: Xionites, Uar, Oghurs and others.[13] These seem to have merged into the Avars whom the Gokturks drove across the Volga River in 558, and who crossed the western steppe and reached Hungary by 567. The Turks then turned southeast.

At this time the Ephthalites held the Tarim Basin , Fergana, Sogdia, Bactria and Merv, with the Persians at approximately their present border. Khosrow I made peace with the Byzantines and turned on the Ephthalites. Fighting started in 560 [14] --> after the Ephthalites murdered a Turk ambassador to the Shah.[citation needed] The Persians won a victory in 562, and the Turks took Tashkent. In 565, the Ephthalites were defeated at Qarshi and withdrew to Bactria, where fragments of this people remained until the Arab conquest. The Turks demanded the tribute formerly paid to the Ephthalites and when this was refused, they crossed the Oxus, but thought better of it and withdrew. In 571 a border was drawn along the Oxus,[15] the Persians expanding east to Afghanistan, while the Turks gain the Sogdian merchant cities and their control of the Silk Road.

Around 567-576 the Turks took the area between the Caspian and Black Seas. In 568 they took part of Bactria.

Late period (575-630 CE)Edit

Istami was followed by his son Tardush (575-603). About 581 he intervened in the eastern Gokturk civil war. In 588/89 Turks were defeated by Persians near Herat. In 599-603 he gained the eastern half of the Khaganate, but after his death the two halves were definitely split. Heshana Khagan (603-611) was driven out of Dzungaria and then defeated by Sheguy (610-617), Tardush's grandson, who conquered the Altai, reconquered Tashkent and raided Ishfahan.

Yabghus of Tokharistan and Turk ShahisEdit

 
An early Turk Shahi ruler named Sri Ranasrikari "The Lord who brings excellence through war" (Brahmi script). In this realistic portrait, he wears the Turkic double-lapel caftan. Late 7th to early 8th century CE.[16][17][18]

His brother Tong Yabghu Qaghan (618-630) ruled from the Tarim basin to the Caspian Sea, and met Xuanzang.[citation needed] He sent men to fight the Persians south of the Caucasus, and also sent his son Tardush Shad to fight in Afghanistan, where he established the Yabghus of Tokharistan, who themselves projected the Turk Shahis as far east as India.

In the year of Tong's death the Chinese overthrew the Eastern Khaganate in Mongolia. He was murdered by his uncle Külüg Sibir (630) with Duolu support. The Nushibi put Tong's son Sy Yabgu (631-33) on the throne. However, Nushibi quickly rebelled against Sy and enthroned Ashina Nishu as Duolu Khan (633-34), followed by his brother Ishbara Tolis (634-38). There was a Dulu-Nushibi conflict and Yukuk Shad (638-42), son of the final eastern Khagan, was brought in.

The factions quarreled and the Nushibi and Emperor Taizong of Tang enthroned Irbis Seguy (642-51). The Chinese demanded part of the Tarim Basin and then seized part of it until the war ended with Taizong's death. Irbis was overthrown by (Ashina Helu) Ishbara Qaghan (651-58) who, after about six years of war, was defeated at Battle of Irtysh River and captured by the Chinese. After this there were several puppet Khagans. In 679-719 the old Gokturk capital of Suyab was one of the Four Garrisons of Anxi. The Chinese remained in the area until the time of An Lushan's rebellion (756).

Tang campaigns against the Western Turks (640-657 CE)Edit

 
Map of the six major protectorates during Tang dynasty.

The Tang campaigns against the Western Turks, were a series of military campaigns conducted during the Tang dynasty of China against the Western Turkic Khaganate in the 7th century AD. Early military conflicts were a result of the Tang interventions in the rivalry between the Western and Eastern Turks in order to weaken both. Under Emperor Taizong, campaigns were dispatched in the Western Regions against Gaochang in 640, Karasahr in 644 and 648, and Kucha in 648.

The wars against the Western Turks continued under Emperor Gaozong, and the khaganate was annexed after General Su Dingfang's defeat of Qaghan Ashina Helu in 657.

Tang protectorate (657–742 CE)Edit

The Western Turks attempted to capture the Tarim Basin in 670 and 677, but were repelled by the Tang. In 679, Chinese general Pei Xingjian led an army as far as Tokharistan, as he was also escorting back to Persia the last Sasanian pretender to the throne, Narsieh.[19] Pei Xingjian fought successfully against an invasion of Anxi led by Western Turkic Khan Ashina Duzhi, and numerous minor Turkic chieftains in the region then pledged their loyalty to the Chinese Tang dynasty.[19] Meanwhile, general Pei Xingjian lost interest in reinstalling the Persian King and left Narsieh in the Anxi Protectorate alone, although Narsieh was still able to maintain his many servants and a high quality of life, and would continue on to fight against the Muslim Arabs for twenty years.[19] Upon returning to China, Pei was appointed the minister of rituals and Great general of the right flank guards.[19]

Statue of a Western Turk Khagan at the Chinese court
Front, with double-parked tunic
Back, with long braids
Statue of a Western Turk Khagan among the statues of "61 foreign officials" at the Qianling Mausoleum, circa 705 CE.[20]

In 679, Turkic chieftain Ashide Wenfu rebelled. Protectorate general Xiao Siye, a noble from Lanling Commandery, was defeated by Ashide. Pei then took over the command from Xiao and decisively won a battle against the Turks in an ambush. Ashide fled. Not long after the first defeat, Ashide Wenfu gathered his troops and united them with the troops of another chieftain Ashina Funian. Pei saw the distrust and suspicions between the two chieftains and exploited this weakness by driving a wedge between them. Eventually, Ashina Funian murdered Ashide Wenfu out of the fear of Tang's revenge against him. When Funian was brought to the Tang court, he was executed regardless of the fact that he surrendered his troops. Pei had promised Ashina that he would not be put to death, however, the court did not respect Pei's promise. Due to this incident, Pei retired.[21] Ashina's death, according to New Book of Tang, was a scheme against Pei Xingjian by his very own clansman Pei Yan who was jealous about his victories in the West.

In 682, Pei was again put in charge of pacifying yet another Turkic rebellion against the Chinese empire. However, he died of old age before the troops were sent out. The imperial court rewarded him the posthumous name Xian (獻) which means "Dedication", as well as the supreme military honorary title Taiwei (太尉).

The areas controlled by Tang China came under the dynasty's cultural influences and the Turkic influence of the ethnically Turkic Tang soldiers stationed in the region. Indo-European prevalence in Central Asia declined as the expeditions accelerated Turkic migration into what is now Xinjiang. By the end of the 657 campaign, the Tang had reached its largest extent. The Turks, Tibetans, Muslim Arabs and the Tang competed for control over Central Asia until the collapse of the Tang in the 10th century.

The Second Turkic Empire defeated the fragmented Western Turks in 712, and absorbed the tribes into the new empire.

Relations with the Persians and ByzantinesEdit

 
Turkic officers during a audience with king Varkhuman of Samarkand. 648-651 CE, Afrasiyab murals, Samarkand.[22][23] They are recognizable by their long plaits.[10][24]
 
A Turkic nobleman with long plaited hair, from Tashkent.[25] Coin of the Turkic dynasties of Chach. Circa 605-630 CE.[26]

During the late 6th century, the Turks consolidated their geopolitical position in Central Asia, as the lynchpin in trade between East Asia and Western Asia – in which Persia and Byzantium were the dominant powers.[27] For much of this period, Istämi ruled the Khaganate from a winter camp near Karashar. A timeline of the westward expansion of the Turks under Istämi might be reconstructed as follows:

  • 552 Mongolia;
  • 555 Aral Sea (probably);
  • 558 Volga River (by defeating the Avars);
  • 557–565 in alliance with the Persians, the Turks crushed the Hephthalites, after which a Turco-Persian border along the Oxus lasted several decades; *564 Tashkent; 567–571 the North Caucasus;
  • 569–571 Turks at war with Persia;
  • 576 major incursion into the Black Sea area, including Crimea.

A first Turk legation (or embassy) to reach Constantinople visited Justin II in 563. A Sogdian merchant named Maniakh [de] led a Turco-Sogdian legation to Constantinople in 568, pursuing trade and an alliance against the Avars and Persians. A Byzantine official named Zemarchus accompanied Maniakh on his return journey; and later left a pioneering account of the Turks. Maniakh now proposed to bypass the Persians and re-open a direct route north of the Caspian Sea. If trade on this route later increased (uncertain) it would have benefited Khorezm and the Black Sea cities and might have had something to do with the later rise of the Khazars and Rus' people.

The Turks' control of the Sogdian merchant cities along the Oxus from the late 6th century on gave the Western Turks substantive control of the central part of the Silk Road. A Chinese general complained that the:

"Turks themselves are simple-minded and short-sighted and dissention can easily be roused among them. Unfortunately, many Sogdians live among them who are cunning and insidious; they teach and instruct the Turks."

Denis Sinor saw the Byzantine alliance as a Sogdian scheme to benefit themselves at the expense of the Turks. A related fact is that the Eastern Turks extracted a large amount of silk as booty from the Chinese, which had to be marketed westward. Before 568, Maniakh, a leading merchant, visited the Sassanian Persian court, in a bid to open up trade; this proposal was refused, apparently because the Persians wanted to restrict trade by and with the Byzantines. The members of a second Turk legatdion to Persia were reportedly[who?] poisoned. From 569, the Turks and Persia were at war, until the Turks were defeated near Merv; hostilities ceased in 571.

In 576, Valentinus led a Byzantine mission to a Turxanthos whose camp was west of the Caspian. Valentinus wanted action against the Persians and Turxanthos complained that Byzantium was harboring the Avars. Valentinus then went east to meet Tardu. What caused this hostility is not clear. In 576–77 a Turk general called Bokhan and an Utigur called Anagai captured the Crimean Byzantine town of Panticapaeum and failed at a siege of Chersonesus. This marks the westernmost extent of Turk power.

A major incursion into Bactria by the Turks, in 588–589, was defeated by the Sasanians. The Turk-Byzantine alliance was revived in the 620s during the last great Byzantine-Persian war before the Arab conquests. In 627 Tong Yabghu Qaghan sent out his nephew Böri Shad. The Turks stormed the great fortress of Derbent on the Caspian coast, entered Azerbaijan and Georgia, did a good bit of looting and met Heraclius who was besieging Tiflis. When the siege dragged on, the Turks left and Heraclius went south and won a great victory over the Persians. The Turks returned, captured Tiflis and massacred the garrison. On behalf of the Byzantines, a Turk general named Chorpan Tarkhan then conquered most of Armenia.

The Onoq or ten tribesEdit

 
Tang dynasty military campaigns against the Western Turks
 
Federal symbol of the Western Turks circa 650 CE. Eleven poles symbolizing the five Dulu tribes, the five Nushibi tribes, with the central pole symbolizing the rulership of a Yabghu-Qaghan. Afrasiab murals.[28]

For the origin of the Onoq two contradicting accounts are given:[29][30]

In the beginning [after 552], Shidianmi [Istämi] followed the Shanyu [Qaghan] and commanded the ten great chiefs. Together with their 100,000 soldiers, he marched to the Western Regions and subdued the barbarian statelets. There he declared himself as qaghan, under the title of ten tribes, and ruled them [the western barbarians] for generations.

— Tongdian, 193 and Jiu Tangshu, 194

Soon [after 635], Dielishi Kehan [of the Western Göktürks] divided his state into ten parts, and each was headed by one man, together they made up the ten shads (設 she). Every shad is given an arrow by him, thus they were known as the ten arrows. He also divided the ten arrows into two factions, each consisted of five arrows. The left (east) faction consisted of five Duoliu tribes, headed by five churs (啜 chuo) separately. The right [west] faction consisted of five Nushibi tribes, headed by five irkins (俟斤 sijin) separately. Each took command of one arrow and called themselves the ten arrows. Thereafter, each arrow was also known as one tribe, and the great arrow head as the great chief. The five Duolu tribes inhabited to east of Suiye [water] (Chu River), and the five Nushibi tribes to the west of it. Since then, they called themselves as the ten tribes.

— Tongdian, 193 and Jiu Tangshu, 194

The first statement dates their origin back to the beginning of the First Turkic Qaghanate with Istämi, younger brother of Tumen (Bumen), who had brought with him the ten tribes, probably from the Eastern Qaghanate in Mongolia and travelled west to expand the Qaghanate. The exact date for the event was not recorded, and the shanyu here referred to might be Muhan Khan.

The second statement attributes it to Dielishi, who took over the throne in 635 and began to strengthen the state by further affirming the initial ten tribes and two tribal wings, in contrast with the rotation of rule between the Tumen (through Apa) and Istämi (through Tardu) lineages in the Western Qaghanate. Thereafter, the name "ten tribes" (十姓) became a shortened address for the Western Turks in Chinese records. Those divisions did not include the five[31][32][33][34] major tribes, who were active further east of the ten tribes.[35][36]

The earlier tribes consisted of eight primary tribes ruled by eight chiefs-in-command: the five[37] Duolu (咄陆) tribes, and the three[38] Nushibi (弩失毕) tribes. Syriac and Greek sources (John of Ephesus, Menander Protector) also confirmed that initially, the Western Turkic Khaganate were divided into eight tribes during Istämi's lifetime and at his death.[39]

The ruling elites were divided into two groups and the relationship between the two groups were tense: the more aristocratic Duolu shads held the title churs,[40] and the lower-ranking Nushibi in west were probably initially made up of Tiele conscripts and their shads held the title irkins.[41][42][43] During the reformation the more powerful Nushibi tribes such as A-Xijie and Geshu were sub-divided into two tribal groups with a greater and lesser title under a fixed tribal name, resulting in the attested On Oq & 十箭 shíjiàn "ten arrows").

Primary SourcesEdit

Afrasiab murals (7th century CE)Edit

 
Western Turk attendants and officers, all recognizable by their long plaits, at the court of Samarkand. Afrasiab murals, 7th century CE.[10][24]
 
Seated Turkic attendants, at the court of Samarkand. Afrasiab murals, 7th century CE.[44]

Turkic delegates appear together with Chinese envoys in the 7th century CE murals of Afrasiab in Samarkand. The Chinese delegates (left in the mural) form an embassy to the king of Samarkand, carrying silk and a string of silkworm cocoons. The Turkic delegates (right in the mural), are recognizable by their long plaits.[10] They do not carry presents, as they are simply escorting the Chinese envoys.[10]

The scenes depicted in the Afrasiyab murals may have been painted in 648-651 CE, as the Western Turkic Khaganate was in its last days, before its fall in 657 CE, and the Han Dynasty was increasing its territory in Central Asia.[22][45][46]

Ethnic and sartorial characteristicsEdit

In the mural, the Western Turks are ethnic Turks, Nushibis, rather than Turkicized Sogdians, as suggested by the marked Mongoloid a features and faces without beards.[47] They are the most numerous ethnic group in the mural, and are not ambassadors, but rather military attendants.[47] Their depiction offers a unique glimpse into the clothing of the Turks of the 6-7th century CE.[47] They typically wear three or five long long plaits, often gathered together into a one single long plait.[47] They have ankle-length monochromic sleeved coats with two lapels.[47] This fashion for the collar is first seen in Khotan near Turfan, a traditional Turkic land, in the 2nd-4th century CE.[47] They have low black sharp-nosed boots. They wear gold bracelets with lapis lazuli or pearls.[47] On Western Turkic coins, "the faces of the governor and governess are clearly mongoloid (a roundish face, narrow eyes), and the portrait have definite old Türk features (long hair, absence of headdress of the governor, a tricorn headdress of the governess)".[48]

Orkhon InscriptionsEdit

Bilge Khagan inscription, main side, 16:

powerful enemies kneel and proud ones to bow. The Turgesh kagan (and his people) was our Turk. Because of their unawareness and foolishness, for their being traitorous, their kagan had died; his buyruqs and lords, had died too. The On-Oq people suffered a great deal. In order the land (lit.: 'earth and water'), which was ruled by our ancestors, not to be left without a ruler, we organized Az people and put them into the order... was Barys bek.[8]

Bilge Khagan inscription, 1st side, 1:

I, Tengri- llike and Tengri born Bilge kagan Turkic. Hear my words. When my father, Bilge kagan Turkic, ruled, you, supreme Turk beks, lower Tardush beks, Shadapyt beks led by Kul Chur, the rest Tyules beks, Apa Tarkhan. Led by Shadapyt beks, Bairuks. Tamgan Tarkhan, Tonyukuk, Boila Baga Tarkhan, Buyruqs…, Inner Buyruqs, led by Sebek Kul Erkin, all Buyruq beks! My father.

Bilge Khagan inscription, 2nd side: 15:

From sons of Ten Arrows to wives, see this. Erected stone inscriptions…[8]

Tonyukuk inscriptionEdit

 
A Turk (center) mourning the Buddha, Maya Cave (Cave 224), Kizil Caves.[49][50][51] He is cutting his forehead with a knife, a practice of self-mutilation also known among the Scythians.[52]

Tonyukuk inscription, main side, 19:[53]

I reached my army to Shantung towns and the seas. Twenty three town were destroyed. All of them had left on Usyn-bundatu land.(?). Tabgaches’ kagan (China) was our enemy. The kagan of "Ten Arrows" was our enemy.

Tonyukuk inscription, main side, 30:[53]

... he might kill us". "So the Turkic kagan started out" – he said. "All Ten Arrows people started out" – he said. – "(among them) there is also Tabgaches' (China) army". Having heard these words my kagan said: "I will be a kagan .."

Tonyukuk inscription, main side, 33:[53]

Three messengers came, their words were similar: "One kagan with his army went on campaign. The army of Ten Arrows people went on campaign too. They told that they would gather in the step of Yarysh". Having heard these words I told them the kagan. What to do?! With the reply (from khan)

Tonyukuk inscription, main side, 42-43:[53]

Killed there. We took to prison about fifty persons. That night we sent (messengers) to every nation. Having heard these words, beks and people of Ten Arrows all came and subdued. When I was settling down and gathering the coming beks and people a few people ran away. I led to campaign the army of Ten Arrows people.

Rulers of the Western Turkic KhaganateEdit

Yabgus during the United Empire (553-603)Edit

Yabgu reign father,
grandfather
Regnal name

(Chinese reading)

Personal name

(Chinese reading)

Istämi 553–576 Ashina Tuwu,
Ashina
Shìdiǎn mì Kèhán 室點密
Shìdiǎnmì
Tardu 576–603 Istämi,
Ashina Tuwu
Dátóu Kèhán 玷厥
Dianjue

Khagans during the independent Western Khaganate (603-658)Edit

Kaghan reign father,
grandfather
Regnal name

(Chinese reading)

Personal name

(Chinese reading)

Niri Qaghan 587–604 Yangsu Tegin,
Muqan Qaghan
Nílì Kèhán 向氏
Xiàngshì
Heshana Khagan 604–611 Niri Qaghan
Yansu Tegin
Chùluó Kèhán 達曼
Daman
Sheguy 611–618 Tulu Tegin,
Tardu
Shèguì Kèhán 射匮
Shèguì
Tong Yabghu Qaghan 618–628 Tulu Tegin,
Tardu
Tǒng yèhù Kèhán 統葉
Tǒng yèhù
Külüg Sibir 628–630 Tardu,
Istämi
Qūlìqí pí Kèhán 莫贺咄
Mòhèduō
Sy Yabghu Khagan 631–632 Tong Yabgu Qaghan,
Tulu Tegin
Yǐpí (shā)bōluō sìyèhù Kèhán 阿史那咥力
Āshǐnà xilì
Duolu Qaghan 633–634 Bagha Shad,
unknown
Duōlù Kèhán 阿史那泥孰
Āshǐnà Níshú
Ishbara Tolis 634–639 Bagha Shad,
unknown
Shābōluō Kèhán 阿史那咥力
Āshǐnà Tóng
Yukuk Shad 639–642 Illig Qaghan,
Yami Qaghan
Yǐpí duōlù Kèhán 阿史那欲谷
Āshǐnà Yùgǔ
Irbis Seguy 642–650 El Kulug Shad,
Ishbara Tolis
Yǐpí shèkuì Kèhán 阿史那莫賀咄
Āshǐnà Mòhèduō
Ashina Helu 651–658 Böri Shad,
unknown
Shābōluō Kèhán 阿史那賀魯
Āshǐnà Hèlǔ
Claimants
Later claimants

Khagans under Tang suzerainty (657–742)Edit

Kunling Protectorate (657–736)
Mengchi Protectorate (657–742)

See alsoEdit

SourcesEdit

  • Alram, Michael; Filigenzi, Anna; Kinberger, Michaela; Nell, Daniel; Pfisterer, Matthias; Vondrovec, Klaus (2012–2013). "The Countenance of the other (The Coins of the Huns and Western Turks in Central Asia and India) 2012-2013 exhibit". Vienna, Austria: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Coin Cabinet. Retrieved 1 November 2020.

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ TURKO-SOGDIAN COINAGE, Larissa Baratova, "Encyclopedia Iranica", (July 20, 2005).
  2. ^ Rezakhani 2017, p. 181.
  3. ^ Peter Roudik, (2007), The History of the Central Asian Republics, p. 24
  4. ^ Peter B. Golden, (2011), Central Asia in World History, p 37
  5. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 3, part 1, ed. William Bayne Fisher and E. Yarshater, (Cambridge University Press, 2003), 621.
  6. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 129. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
  7. ^ V. Thomsen, Turcica, p. 4-17
  8. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-02-03. Retrieved 2020-01-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ Christopher I. Beckwith, (1993), The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power Among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs and Chinese During the Early Middle Ages, p. 209
  10. ^ a b c d e Whitfield, Susan (2004). The Silk Road: Trade, Travel, War and Faith. British Library. Serindia Publications, Inc. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-932476-13-2.
  11. ^ Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3.
  12. ^ Ch III, IV.
  13. ^ Baumer has defeated Rouran and Ephthalites
  14. ^ The war is variously dated. 560-65 (Gumilyov,1967); 555 (Stark,2008, Altturkenzeit,210); 557 (Iranica,Khosrow ii); 558-61 (Iranica.hephthalites); 557-63 (Baumer, Hist.Cent.Asia,2,174) ; 557-61 (Sinor,1990, Hist Inner Asia,301; 560-563 (UNESCO,Hist.civs.c.a.,iii,143); 562-65 (Christian, hist. russia,mongolia,c.a.,252); ca 565 (Grousset,Empire Steppes, 1970,p82); 567 (Chavannes,1903, Documents, 236+229)
  15. ^ All sources have Oxus border; 571 Treaty is Gumulyov only.
  16. ^ Göbl 1967, 254 ; Vondrovec tyre 254
  17. ^ Alram, Michael; Filigenzi, Anna; Kinberger, Michaela; Nell, Daniel; Pfisterer, Matthias; Vondrovec, Klaus. "The Countenance of the other". Pro.geo.univie.ac.at. Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  18. ^ Alram, Michael; Filigenzi, Anna; Kinberger, Michaela; Nell, Daniel; Pfisterer, Matthias; Vondrovec, Klaus. "The Countenance of the other (The Coins of the Huns and Western Turks in Central Asia and India) 2012-2013 exhibit: 13. THE TURK SHAHIS IN KABULISTAN". Pro.geo.univie.ac.at. Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  19. ^ a b c d Zhou, Xiuqin (University of Pennsylvania) (2009). "Zhaoling: The Mausoleum of Emperor Tang Taizong" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers (187): 155–156.
  20. ^ Stark, Sören. "Some Remarks on the Headgear of the Royal Türks". Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology. 4: 133. ISSN 1783-9025.
  21. ^ "New Book of Tang Vol.108". Wikisource.
  22. ^ a b Baumer, Christoph (18 April 2018). History of Central Asia, The: 4-volume set. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 243. ISBN 978-1-83860-868-2.
  23. ^ Grenet, Frantz (2004). "Maracanda/Samarkand, une métropole pré-mongole". Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales. 5/6: Fig. B.
  24. ^ a b Yatsenko, Sergey A. (2009). "Early Turks: Male Costume in the Chinese Art Second half of the 6th – first half of the 8th cc. (Images of 'Others')". Transoxiana. 14: Fig.25.
  25. ^ Yatsenko, Sergey (2013). "Some Observations on Depictions of Early Turkic Costume (The Silk Road, 11, 2013)". The Silk Road. 11: 72, image 5.7.
  26. ^ Fedorov, Michael (2011). "Early Medieval Chachian Coins with Lyre and Ram Horns Tamghas" (PDF). American Journal of Numismatics (1989-). 23: 189–208. ISSN 1053-8356. JSTOR 43619979.
  27. ^ This section from Baumer, Hist. Central Asia, vol. 2, 175–81; Christian, History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia, 248–57; Sinor, Hist Early Inner Asia, 301–05
  28. ^ Mode, Markus (2006). "Reading the Afrasiab Murals: Some Comments on Reconstructions and Details" (PDF). Rivista degli studi orientali. 78: 107–128. ISSN 0392-4866. JSTOR 41913392.
  29. ^ Xue, "A History of Turks", p. 271, 300.
  30. ^ Wang, "Political Relationship Between the Chinese, Tibetan and Arab", p. 28.
  31. ^ 1. Chuyue (處月, later as Shatuo 沙陀) 2. Chumi (處蜜) 3. Gusu (姑蘇) 4. Geluolu (葛邏祿) 5. Beishi (卑失)
  32. ^ In Zizhi Tongjian 199, Gusu (姑蘇) is mistakenly rendered as Shisu (始蘇) in section Wu-Shen 648 CE
  33. ^ According to Erkoç (2019), Beishi (卑失) in Jiu Tangshu 110 Qibi Heli is possibly clerical error for Nushibi (弩失畢) txt: "永徽中,西突厥阿史那賀魯以處月、處蜜、姑蘇、歌邏祿、卑失五姓叛", tr. "In the middle of the Yonghui era (653 CE), Ashina Helu of the Western Turks took Chuyue, Chumi, Gusu, Karluks, and Beishi -five clans- and rebelled"; a similar list is included in Jiu Tangshu 215b Helu txt. "統處月、處蜜、姑蘇、歌邏祿、弩失畢五姓之眾" tr. "[Helu] governed the mass, [consisting] of the Chuyue, Chumi, Gusu, Geluolu, and Nushibi -five clans-"
  34. ^ Erkoç, H. I. (2019) "The Importance of Chinese and Tibetan Resources in Determining the Göktürk Tribes" in General Turkish History Sources: Ordu Workshop Proceedings Ordu. p. 107-109. (in Turkish)
  35. ^ Xue, "A History of Turks", p. 271, 273, 275, 300–301.
  36. ^ Wang, "Political Relationship Between the Chinese, Tibetan and Arab", p. 29.
  37. ^ 1. Chumukun (处木昆) 2. Huluju (胡禄居) 3. Shesheti (摄舍提) 4. Tuqishi-[Heluoshi] (突骑施-[贺罗施]) 5. Shunishi (鼠尼施).
  38. ^ 1. A-Xijie (阿悉结) 2. Geshu (哥舒) 3. Basegan (拔塞干).
  39. ^ Dobrovits, Mihály (2014–2015). "On the Titulature of Western Turkic Chieftains". Archivum Eurasiae Archivi Aevii. Wiesbaden: Otto-Harassowitz Verlag. 21: 79–80.
  40. ^ likely of Iranian origin, from čyaura- "to go out, hunt". See Bailey, H.W. "Khotanese Texts, VII" in Golden, Peter B. (1992). "An Introduction to the History of the Turkic People." Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden.
  41. ^ collected together in one place" from root irk- "to collect or assemble (things Acc.)"; compare Anatolian irkin ~ irkim "a hoard, a buried treasure". See Clauson, Gerard. (1972) An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-13th Century Turkish. Oxford University Press. In English. p. 221, 225
  42. ^ Xue, "A History of Turks", p. 272, 314.
  43. ^ Wang, "Political Relationship Between the Chinese, Tibetan and Arab", p. 30–31.
  44. ^ Arzhantseva, Irina; Inevatkina, Olga (2006). "Afrasiab Wall-Paintings Revisited: New Discoveries Twenty-Five Years Old". Rivista degli studi orientali. 78: 197. ISSN 0392-4866. JSTOR 41913397.
  45. ^ Whitfield, Susan (2004). The Silk Road: Trade, Travel, War and Faith. British Library. Serindia Publications, Inc. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-932476-13-2.
  46. ^ Mode, Markus (2006). "Reading the Afrasiab Murals: Some Comments on Reconstructions and Details" (PDF). Rivista degli studi orientali. 78: 112. ISSN 0392-4866. JSTOR 41913392.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g Yatsenko, Sergey A. (2004). "The Costume of Foreign Embassies and Inhabitants of Samarkand on Wall Painting of the 7th c. in the "Hall of Ambassadors" from Afrasiab as a Historical Source". Transoxiana. 8.
  48. ^ Babayar, Gaybulla (2013). "The Imperial Titles on the Coins of the Western Turkic Qaghanate". History of Central Asia in Modern Medieval Studies. Tashkent: Yangi Nashr: 331.
  49. ^ Yatsenko, Sergey A. (2009). "Early Turks: Male Costume in the Chinese Art Second half of the 6th – first half of the 8th cc. (Images of 'Others')". Transoxiana. 14: Fig.16.
  50. ^ Grünwedel, Albert (1912). Altbuddhistische Kultstätten Chinesisch Turkistan. p. 180.
  51. ^ Yatsenko, Sergey (2013). "Some Observations on Depictions of Early Turkic Costume (The Silk Road, 11, 2013)". The Silk Road. 11: 72, image 7.3.
  52. ^ Le Coq, Albert von; Waldschmidt, Ernst. Die buddhistische spätantike in Mittelasien, VI. Berlin, D. Reimer [etc.] pp. 80–81.
  53. ^ a b c d Denison Ross, E. (1930). The Tonyukuk Inscription. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 6(1), 37-43.

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