United States military deployments

The military of the United States is deployed in more than 150 countries around the world, with more than 160,000 of its active-duty personnel stationed outside the United States and its territories.[1] This list consists of deployments excepting active combat deployments, which consist of troops in Iraq,[2] Afghanistan,[3] and Syria.[4] The exact number of these troops is currently in flux due to troop withdrawals.[5][6]

Outside of active combat, US personnel are typically deployed as part of several peacekeeping missions, military attachés, or are part of embassy and consulate security. Nearly 40,000 are assigned to classified missions in locations that the US government refuses to disclose.[7]

The deployment of the US Military in foreign countries can also have prominent effects on the host economy and community. Namely, the benefits include economic improvements and decrease in human rights violations, while the risks consist of increase in crimes, especially of sexual nature, displacement of native residents, and negative environmental impacts.

The following regional tables provide detail of where personnel from the five major branches of the US military are currently deployed. These numbers do not include any military or civilian contractors or dependents. Additionally, countries in which US military are engaged in active combat operations are not included. The numbers are based on the most recent United States Department of Defense statistics as of September 30, 2020.[1]

Americas

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 United States
(excl. Alaska & Hawaii)
1,137,310 400,689 293,614 145,071 261,874 36,062
 Alaska 20,116 10,093 44 21 8,042 1,916
Guantanamo Bay 738 126 484 121 0 7
 Honduras 370 202 2 18 147 1
 Puerto Rico 163 88 29 24 22 0
 Greenland 145 0 0 0 145 0
 Canada 132 10 34 10 73 5
other 637 126 148 272 64 27
Total 1,159,611 411,334 294,355 145,537 270,367 38,018

East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Pacific Ocean

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Japan 53,732 2,511 19,886 18,676 12,640 19
 Hawaii 41,762 15,451 12,296 7,159 5,588 1,268
 South Korea 26,416 18,066 333 223 7,792 2
 Guam 6,140 183 3,801 48 2,108 0
 Australia 1,085 22 63 921 79 0
 Singapore 206 12 158 11 18 7
 Philippines 185 12 9 154 10 0
 Thailand 100 36 12 30 22 0
other 246 52 36 127 27 4
Total 129,872 36,345 36,594 27,349 28,284 1,300

Europe

US military bases in Germany in 2014
Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Germany 33,959 20,147 444 411 12,946 11
 Italy 12,249 3,929 3,605 101 4,612 2
 United Kingdom 9,287 155 285 53 8,781 13
 Spain 3,169 27 2,208 539 394 1
 Belgium 1,147 628 98 32 389 0
 Norway 733 20 13 665 35 0
 Netherlands 415 125 28 17 214 31
 Greece 380 8 336 10 26 0
 Portugal 252 2 50 18 182 0
 Poland 165 43 84 11 27 0
 Romania 124 10 91 10 13 0
other 533 86 56 255 133 3
Total 62,413 25,180 7,298 2,122 27,752 61

West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, and Indian Ocean

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Bahrain 4,004 15 3,363 332 21 273
 Kuwait 2,169 596 3 1,536 34 0
 Turkey 1,685 149 5 32 1,499 0
 Qatar 490 240 2 31 217 0
 Saudi Arabia 382 212 25 83 61 1
 Egypt 269 228 6 19 16 0
 Jordan 254 12 2 228 12 0
Diego Garcia 230 0 230 0 0 0
 United Arab Emirates 195 21 27 64 83 0
 Djibouti 176 4 1 168 3 0
other 1,033 197 72 655 109 0
Total 10,887 1,674 3,736 3,148 2,055 274

Unspecified

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
Domestic 6,064 6,064 0 0 0 0
Overseas 5,172 296 13 2,802 1,156 905
Total 11,236 6,360 13 2,802 1,156 905

Effects of Military Deployments on Host Economy and Community

The stated benefits of hosting a US military base, especially for underdeveloped countries, include learning new marketing strategies, development of modern technology found in the US, and increased security from the presence of a large-scale military. Moreover, the initial creation of the base creates brief economic growth as materials are purchased from the local markets, and construction jobs are out-sourced to the local residents.[8] One year, 2005, upwards of 80,000 locals were employed by US bases in foreign countries.[9] As long as it is not central to the US global defense, and thus the US does not have a strong incentive to stay under the presence of human rights violations, the host state may also show increased respect for human rights.[10]

The negative effects include relocation of and violence against native residents, which may also lead to destruction of local government; negative environmental impacts including the destruction of native landscape; and economic dependence created by the newly implemented marketing strategies and technology.[11] The presence of US military can also have direct effects on increase in prostitution and sex-trafficking, because of the greater demand for adult entertainment created through the surge of mainly male residents in these areas.[12] Moreover, the significant physical space taken up by the base could instead be used for schools, businesses or housing amenities which can support the local economy and increase skilled workers.[13]

Effects of Military Deployments on the United States

In addition to impacts on the host country, there are also many impacts of military deployments on military families. In the United States, about 1.4 million children have a parent in the military.[14] In many studies of military deployments, it is proven that there are negative impacts on not only the soldier, but also the military spouse and children. Military deployments are associated with higher suicide rates, behavioral problems in children, and a higher risk of divorce.[15] In a study of 1,507 children aged 11–17 with a deployed parent, it was found that these children had more emotional difficulties than children in national samples.[16]

Veteran families may experience conflict from actions or feelings of withdrawal, numbing, and irritability that are caused by post-traumatic stress disorder. Generally, these families also struggle with role ambiguity from the parent or partner that was deployed, due to anxiety and/or post-traumatic stress disorder.[17]

Impact on Childhood Development

Notably, the number of spouses/partners and children of deployed military personnel far outnumber the actual number of service members. These families must navigate long or extended deployment separations, relocations, destruction of familial routines or role changes, and the threat posed against their loved one. This combined with contextual factors, such as living arrangements during deployment, stress levels of the parent who remains home, and frequency of contact with the deployed parent can positively or adversely impact the family members, and lead to increased rate of mental health issues, work/academic issues, internal familial conflict, or maltreatment. These stressors pose a significant threat to the development of the children, depending on how old they are when they occur. For instance, young children may not fully understand the implications and threats posed on their loved one during deployment, but their definite absence in an indefinite amount of time can be highly stressful.

Children under five experience the most significant physical, emotional, and cognitive advancements because this occurs during this first five years of life, and they also make up the largest group of children with deployed service members (i.e., parents). Children above three with a deployed parent, are more likely to display behavior problems, such as need for attention, clinginess, temper tantrums, questions regarding deployed parents, defiance, appetite changes, and sleep problems or nightmares.

Elementary school-aged children may also be hindered by their limited coping/problem-solving skills regarding their parent's absence. Middle school-aged children may be more heavily impacted due to pubertal transitions and elicited questions or increased responsibilities to help out at home. Within this age group, significant levels of anxiety, both separation anxiety and physical symptoms, were found, and a study of five- to twelve-year-olds showed that one-third was in high-risk range for “psychosocial morbidity”, according to the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Acute stress reaction/adjustments, mood, and behavioral disorders are also common.[14]

See also

References

  1. "Number of Military and DoD Appropriated Fund (APF) Civilian Personnel Permanently Assigned By Duty Location and Service/Component (as of September 30, 2020)". Defense Manpower Data Center. November 6, 2020.
  2. "United States formally announces troop reduction in Iraq". Al Jazeera. September 9, 2020.
  3. "US troops in Afghanistan: Allies and Republicans alarmed at withdrawal plan". BBC News. 18 November 2020.
  4. Bo Williams, Katie (November 2, 2020). "Outgoing Syria Envoy Admits Hiding US Troop Numbers; Praises Trump's Mideast Record". Defense One.
  5. Brannen, Kate; Goodman, Ryan (October 7, 2020). "We're suing the Pentagon to find out where U.S. troops are deployed". The Washington Post.
  6. "'Endless Wars,' Here's Where About 200000 Troops Remain". The New York Times. October 21, 2019.
  7. "America's Forever wars". The New York Times. 23 October 2017.
  8. "(PDF) U.S. Military Deployment and Host-Nation Economic Growth". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  9. Johnson, Chalmers A.; Chalmers, Johnson (2007). Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic. Scribe Publications. ISBN 978-1-921215-76-6.
  10. "Shibboleth Authentication Request". login.ezproxy1.library.arizona.edu. doi:10.1177/0022002716632300. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  11. "Shibboleth Authentication Request". login.ezproxy3.library.arizona.edu. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1425.2010.01262_5.x. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  12. Allen, Michael A; Flynn, Michael E (2013). "Putting our best boots forward: US military deployments and host-country crime". Conflict Management and Peace Science. 30 (3): 263–285. ISSN 0738-8942.
  13. author., Vines, David, Base nation : how U.S. military bases abroad harm America and the world, ISBN 978-1-4945-6541-1, OCLC 956554400, retrieved 2021-03-05
  14. Alfano, Candice A.; Lau, Simon; Balderas, Jessica; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C. (February 2016). "The impact of military deployment on children: Placing developmental risk in context". Clinical Psychology Review. 43: 17–29. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.11.003. ISSN 0272-7358.
  15. Schell, Terry L.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Friedman, Esther M.; Trail, Thomas E.; Beckman, Robin L.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Hengstebeck, Natalie; Troxel, Wendy M.; Ayer, Lynsay; Vaughan, Christine Anne (2016-04-15). "How Military Families Respond Before, During and After Deployment: Findings from the RAND Deployment Life Study". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. Creech, Suzannah K.; Hadley, Wendy; Borsari, Brian (December 2014). "The Impact of Military Deployment and Reintegration on Children and Parenting: A Systematic Review". Professional psychology, research and practice. 45 (6): 452–464. doi:10.1037/a0035055. ISSN 0735-7028. PMC 4383395. PMID 25844014.
  17. McFarlane, Alexander (July 2009). "Military deployment: the impact on children and family adjustment and the need for care". Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 22 via Lippincott Research.
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