Tugulu Group

The Tugulu Group (simplified Chinese: 吐谷鲁群; traditional Chinese: 吐谷魯群; pinyin: Tǔgǔlǔ Qún) is a geological Group in Xinjiang, China whose strata date back to the Early Cretaceous. Dinosaur skeletal remains and footprints are among the fossils that have been recovered from the formation.[1][2][3][4]

Tugulu Group
Stratigraphic range: Early Cretaceous
Sub-unitsQingshuihe, Hutubihe, Shengjinkou & Lianmuqin Formations
UnderliesDonggou & Kumutake Formations
OverliesKalaza Formation
Thickness150–1,640 m (490–5,380 ft)
Country China
ExtentJunggar Basin

Vertebrate paleofaunaEdit


Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Asiatosaurus[5] A. mongoliensis[5]
Kelmayisaurus[5][6] K. petrolicus[5] "Maxilla and dentary."[7]
Xinjiangovenator X. parvus "Tibia [and] phalanges."[8] Formerly thought to be a representative of Phaedrolosaurus ilikensis.[5]
Phaedrolosaurus P. ilikensis "tooth"[9]
Psittacosaurus[5] P. xinjiangensis[5] An early ceratopsian
Tugulusaurus[5] T. faciles[5] "Hindlimb, rib, [and a] vertebral centrum."[10]
Xiyunykus X. pengi "Partial skeleton"[11]
Wuerhosaurus[5] W. homheni[5] "Partial skeleton."[12] A stegosaur
Unnamed ornithomimosaur[13] "manus claw and various closely associated caudal vertebrae" The first ornithomimosaur known from the Junggar Basin.


Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Abundance Notes Images
Dsungaripterus D. weii[14] A dsungaripterid
Dsungaripterus(top) and Noripterus (bottom)
Noripterus N. complicidens[15] A dsungaripterid
Lonchognathosaurus L. acutirostris[15] Possible junior synonym of Dsungaripterus weii.[16]


Name Species Location Stratigraphic position Abundance Notes Images
Edentosuchus E. tienshanensis[17] A crocodyliform


Name Species Location Stratigraphic position Abundance Notes Images
Bogdaichthys[18] B. fukangensis A siyuichthyid[19]
B. serratus
Dsungarichthys[18] D. bilineatus A siyuichthyid
Manasichthys[18] M. elongatus A siyuichthyid
M. tuguluensis
Neobaleiichthys[18] N. chikuensis
Siyuichthys[18] S. ornatus A siyuichthyid
S. pulchellus
S. pulcher
Uighuroniscus[18] U. sinkiangensis
Wukangia[18] W. houyanshanensis A siyuichthyid


  1. ^ Weishampel, David B; et al. (2004). "Dinosaur distribution (Early Cretaceous, Asia)." In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 563-570. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.
  2. ^ Lucas, Spencer G, Chinese Fossil vertebrates, Pp. 158-159, New York, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-08483-8.
  3. ^ Lucas, S.G. (2001). Chinese Fossil Vertebrates. Columbia University Press. p. 158. ISBN 9780231084833. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
  4. ^ Xing, Lida; Lockley, Martin G.; Persons, W. Scott; Klein, Hendrik; Romilio, Anthony; Wang, Donghao; Wang, Miaoyan (2021-02-28). "Stegosaur Track Assemblage from Xinjiang, China, Featuring the Smallest Known Stegosaur Record". PALAIOS. 36 (2): 68–76. Bibcode:2021Palai..36...68X. doi:10.2110/palo.2020.036. ISSN 0883-1351. S2CID 233129489.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "48.5 Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu, People's Republic of China; 1. Tugulu Group," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 567.
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-22. Retrieved 2011-05-01.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Table 4.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 73.
  8. ^ "Table 4.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 78.
  9. ^ Z.-M. Dong. (1973). [Dinosaurs from Wuerho]. Memoirs of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Academic Sinica 11:45-52. [Chinese]
  10. ^ "Table 4.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 77.
  11. ^ Xu, Xing; Choiniere, Jonah; Tan, Qingwei; Benson, Roger B.J; Clark, James; Sullivan, Corwin; Zhao, Qi; Han, Fenglu; Ma, Qingyu; He, Yiming; Wang, Shuo; Xing, Hai; Tan, Lin (2018). "Two Early Cretaceous Fossils Document Transitional Stages in Alvarezsaurian Dinosaur Evolution". Current Biology. 28 (17): 2853–2860.e3. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2018.07.057. PMID 30146153.
  12. ^ "Table 16.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 345.
  13. ^ Xing, Lida; Scott Persons IV, W.; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Wang, Donghao; Niu, Kecheng (2020-12-29). "The first record of an ornithomimosaur from the Cretaceous Tugulu Group of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China". Cretaceous Research: 104740. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2020.104740. ISSN 0195-6671.
  14. ^ "Re: The timing of stegosaur extinction". dml.cmnh.org. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
  15. ^ a b Barrett, P.M., Butler, R.J., Edwards, N.P., & Milner, A.R. Pterosaur distribution in time and space: an atlas. p61-107. in Flugsaurier: Pterosaur papers in honour of Peter Wellnhofer. 2008. Hone, D.W.E., and Buffetaut, E. (eds). Zitteliana B, 28. 264pp.[1]
  16. ^ Andres, B.; Clark, J. M.; Xing, X. (2010). "A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur from the Upper Jurassic of Xinjiang, China, and the phylogenetic relationships of basal pterosaurs" (PDF). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 30 (1): 163–187. doi:10.1080/02724630903409220. S2CID 53688256.
  17. ^ http://www.paleoglot.org/files/Li_85a.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Averianov, A.; Skutschas, P. (2000). "A eutherian mammal from the Early Cretaceous of Russia and biostratigraphy of the Asian Early Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages". Lethaia. 33 (4): 330–340. doi:10.1080/002411600750053899.
  19. ^ Arratia, G. (2013). "Morphology, taxonomy, and phylogeny of Triassic pholidophorid fishes (Actinopterygii, Teleostei)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 33 (sup1): 1–138. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.835642. S2CID 86605978.


  • Weishampel, David B.; Peter Dodson, and Halszka Osmólska (eds.). 2004. The Dinosauria, 2nd edition, 1–880. Berkeley: University of California Press. Accessed 2019-02-21. ISBN 0-520-24209-2