Tirhuta Panchang

Tirhuta Panchang (Devanagari: तिरहुता पंचांग, Tirhuta: 𑒞𑒱𑒩𑒯𑒳𑒞𑒰 𑒣𑓀𑒔𑒰𑓀𑒑, IPA: Tirhutā pan̄cāṅg) is a calendar followed by the Maithili community of India and Nepal. This calendar is one of the many Hindu calendars. It is a tropical solar Hindu calendar in which the year begins on the first day of Baishakh month i.e. Mesh Sankranti. Every year, this day falls on 13/14 April of the Gregorian Calendar.

Pohela Boishakh in West Bengal, Bohag Bihu in Assam, Puthandu in Tamil Nadu, and Vaisakhi in the Punjab region are observed on the same day. These festivals also mark the beginning of the New Year in their respective regions.

MonthsEdit

Names and approximate lengths of Maithili months :[1]

No. Name Sanskrit name Maithili(Tirhuta) Maithili(Devanagri) Sanskrit Days (Traditional Hindu sidereal solar calendar)
1 Baishakh वैशाख 𑒥𑒻𑒮𑒰𑒐 बैसाख वैशाख 30 / 31
2 Jeth ज्येष्ठ 𑒖𑒹𑒚 जेठ ज्येष्ठ 31 / 32
3 Asharh आषाढ़ 𑒁𑒮𑒰𑒜𑓃 असाढ़ आषाढ 31 / 32
4 Saon श्रावण 𑒮𑒰𑒍𑒢 साओन श्रावण 31 / 32
5 Bhado भाद्रपद 𑒦𑒰𑒠𑒼 भादो भाद्रपद,भाद्र,प्रोष्ठपद 31 / 32
6 Aasin आश्विन 𑒂𑒮𑒱𑒢 आसिन आश्विन 31 / 30
7 Katik कार्तिक 𑒏𑒰𑒞𑒱𑒏 कातिक कार्तिक 29 / 30
8 Agahan अग्रहायण 𑒁𑒑𑒯𑒢 अगहन अग्रहायण,मार्गशीर्ष 29 / 30
9 Poos पौष/पुष्य 𑒣𑒴𑒮 पूस पौष 29 / 30
10 Magh माघ 𑒧𑒰𑒒 माघ माघ 29 / 30
11 Fagun फाल्गुन 𑒤𑒰𑒑𑒳𑒢 फागुन फाल्गुन 29 / 30
12 Chait चैत्र 𑒔𑒻𑒞𑒱 चैति चैत्र 30 / 31

Months and their corresponding seasonEdit

𑒞𑒱𑒩𑒯𑒳𑒞𑒰 𑒣𑓀𑒔𑒰𑓀𑒑
तिरहुता पंचांग
Maithili Calendar
𑒧𑒰𑒯/माह
Month
𑒇𑒞𑒴/ऋतू
Season
बैसाख/Baishakh
April–May
𑒥𑒮𑒢𑓂𑒞, बसन्त
Spring
जेठ/Jeth
May–June
𑒑𑓂𑒩𑒲𑒭𑓂𑒧, ग्रीष्म
Summer
अषाढ़/Asharh
June–July
साओन/Saon
July–August
𑒥𑒩𑓂𑒮𑒰(𑒫𑒩𑓂𑒭𑒰), बर्सा(वर्षा)
Monsoon
भादो/Bhado
August–September
आसिन/Asin
September–October
𑒬𑒩𑒞𑓂, शरत्
Autumn
कातिक/Katik
October–November
अगहन/Agahan
November–December
𑒯𑒹𑒧𑒢𑓂𑒞, हेमन्त
Pre-winter
पूस/Pous
December–January
माघ/Magh
January–February
𑒮𑒲𑒞/𑒮𑒱𑒮𑒱𑒩(𑒬𑒱𑒬𑒱𑒩), सीत/सिसिर(शिशिर)
Winter
फागुन/Fagun
February–March
चैति/Chait
March–April
𑒥𑒮𑒢𑓂𑒞, बसन्त
Spring

Baisakh-Jeth-AsarhEdit

These three months are the summer season in Mithila, out of these 3, Jeth & Asarh are very hot. Baisakh is the month of Litchi. Jeth and Asarh are the months of Mango.[2]

Saon-BhadoEdit

Mithila receives heavy rainfall during these two months, often resulting in flooding. Farmers wait for saon's first rain so they can sow paddy in their fields. The holy month of Saon is devoted to Lord Shiva. Devotees visit Baidnath Dham in Deoghar to offer gangajal.[3]

Asin-KatikEdit

These two months have moderate weather. Both these months are festive season for Mithila. Navaratra falls in Asin, Diwali & Chhath Falls in Katik. Moreover, Katik is the harvesting month for farmers.[4]

Agahan-Poos-MaghEdit

Agahan, Poos and Magh are the winter seasons in Mithila. Out of these 3, Pous & Magh are the extreme winter periods, temperature sometimes falls to 5 °C. Makar Sankranti falls in the month of Pous, and vasant Panchami in Magh.

Fagun-ChaitEdit

After winter, Fagun & Chait are the moderate months. Fagun & Chait again are the harvesting months. Holi falls in Fagun and Chhath falls in Chait. Chaith is the last month of Maithili Calendar.[5]

Days in Maithili calendarEdit

Like, most of the calendars of the world, Maithili calendar also has 7 days in a week, each of 24-hour length. Ravdin or Sunday is supposed to be the first day of the week.[6]

  • Ravdin / Sunday : रविदिन / 𑒩𑒫𑒱𑒠𑒱𑒢
  • Somdin / Monday : सोमदिन / 𑒮𑒼𑒧𑒠𑒱𑒢
  • Mangaldin / Tuesday : मंगलदिन / 𑒧𑓀𑒑𑒪𑒠𑒱𑒢
  • Budhdin / Wednesday: बुधदिन / 𑒥𑒳𑒡𑒠𑒱𑒢
  • Brihaspatidin / Thursday : बृहस्पतीदिन / 𑒥𑒵𑒯𑒮𑓂𑒣𑒞𑒲𑒠𑒱𑒢
  • Shukradin / Friday: शुक्रदिन / 𑒬𑒳𑒏𑓂𑒩𑒠𑒱𑒢
  • Shanidin / Saturday : शनीदिन / 𑒬𑒢𑒲𑒠𑒱𑒢

SignificanceEdit

The Maithili calendar is the calendar of Mithila which originated in Mithila region. The Maithili calendar is of great importance for Maithil people in India as well as in Nepal. All auspicious dates (e.g. marriage, Mundan, Upanayana sanskar) as well as the dates of Maithili festivals (e.g. Dipawali(Diwali/Tihar), Chhath, Durga Puja, Janaki Navami) are set based on the Maithili calendar. It has deep roots in the Hindu religion and Mithila's culture.

Related calendarsEdit

The Maithili calendar is related to the Hindu solar calendar, which is itself based on the Surya Siddhanta. The Hindu solar calendar also starts in mid-April, and the first day of the calendar is celebrated as the traditional New Year in the Indian states of Assam, West Bengal,[7]Kerala, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu,[8] and Tripura. Bangladesh, Nepal, Thailand and Sri Lanka also celebrate new year around the same time (13–15 April). This day is also known as Mesha Shankranti.[9]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Maithili Calendar, published from Darbhanga
  2. ^ Climate of North Bihar
  3. ^ Climate of North Bihar
  4. ^ Climate of North Bihar
  5. ^ Climate of North Bihar
  6. ^ Maithili Calendar published from Darbhanga
  7. ^ Bengali calendar
  8. ^ Puthandu
  9. ^ "Calendar".

External linksEdit