Thai National Anthem

The Thai National Anthem (Thai: เพลงชาติไทย, romanized: Phleng chāt Thai) is the title of Thailand's national anthem which was adopted on 10 December 1939. The melody was composed by Phra Chenduriyang (Peter Veit) and the words are by Luang Saranupraphan. Phleng chāt (Thai: เพลงชาติ), literally meaning "national anthem", is a general term for a national anthem. This term is also used to refer to this specific song.

Phleng Chat Thai
English: Thai National Anthem
เพลงชาติไทย
Lyrics of the Thai national anthem, published in the Royal Thai Government Gazette on 10 December 1939.

National anthem of  Thailand
LyricsLuang Saranupraphan, 1939
MusicPhra Chenduriyang, 1932
Adopted1932
Readopted1939 (with current lyrics)
Audio sample
"Thai National Anthem" (instrumental & vocal)
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Periodization

Historical national anthem
NameDateNotes
Sansoen Phra Narai
(Thai: สรรเสริญพระนารายณ์)
(Glorify the King Narai)
1687–1688Sri Ayutthaya (Thai: ศรีอยุธยา) Unofficial National Anthem in 1946–1949
Chom Rat Chong Charoen
(Thai: จอมราชจงเจริญ)
(Long Live the Great King)
1852–1871Siamese Rattanakosin period royal anthem and national anthem, introduced by King Mongkut (used the melody of God Save the King)
Bulan Loi Luean
(Thai: บุหลันลอยเลื่อน)
(The Floating Moon On the Sky)
1871–1888which was the royal composition of King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai (Rama II) for use as the new anthem. King Chulalongkorn later ordered Mr.Heutsen, a Dutch bandmaster who served in the Royal Siamese Army, to arrange the song in western style for performing by the military band. According to a research of Sugree Charoensuk, an associate professor from Mahidol University, the melody of this anthem may be the same tune with another anthem named Sansoen Suea Pa (Thai: เพลงสรรเสริญเสือป่า : Tiger Corps Hymn) which was used as the anthem of the Wild Tiger Corps since 1911.[1]
Sansoen Phra Barami
(Thai: สรรเสริญพระบารมี)
(Glorify His Prestige)
1888–1932
Royal anthem since 1932
Rattanakosin period national anthem
Maha Chai
(Thai: มหาชัย)
(Grand Victory)
1895
Provisional National Anthem in 1932
Other members of the royal family and colours party of the unit colour in slow march
Phleng Maha Nimit
(Thai: ตระนิมิตร / มหานิมิตร)
(Grand Vision)
1934
Phleng Chat Siam
Phleng Chat Thai
(Thai: เพลงชาติสยาม / เพลงชาติไทย)
1932–1946
1949–present
After Siamese revolution of 1932, the anthem was classified into 2 factions, Phleng Chat Thai was used as national anthem and Sansoen Phra Barami was still used as royal anthem. In 1939 the country's name was changed from Siam to Thailand and the anthem's lyrics was changed from the words Siam to Thai.

Historical background

National anthem before 1932

Before 1932, Sansoen Phra Barami (the Royal Anthem) was used as the national anthem of Siam.

National anthem after 1932

Phleng Chat Siam sheet music (cover page) in 1933

The anthem was composed a few days after the revolution of 1932 in the tune vaguely similar to the national anthem of Poland, Poland Is Not Yet Lost, and was first broadcast in July 1932. The original lyrics were by Khun Wichitmatra.

Phleng Chat Siam (Khun Wichitmatra lyrics, 1932–34)

Khun Wichitmatra lyrics
Romanisation
Phonetic transcription (IPA)
English translation

แผ่นดินสยามนามประเทืองว่าเมืองทอง
ไทยเข้าครองตั้งประเทศเขตต์แดนสง่า
สืบเผ่าไทยดึกดำบรรพ์โบราณลงมา
รวมรักษาสามัคคีทวีไทย

บางสมัยศัตรูจู่โจมตี
ไทยพลีชีพร่วมรวมรุกไล่
เข้าลุยเลือดหมายมุ่งผดุงผะไท
สยามสมัยบุราณรอดตลอดมา

อันดินสยามคือว่าเนื้อของเชื้อไทย
น้ำรินไหลคือว่าเลือดของเชื้อข้า
เอกราษฎร์คือเจดีย์ที่เราบูชา[note 1]
เราจะสามัคคีร่วมมีใจ

รักษาชาติประเทศเอกราชจงดี[note 2]
ใครย่ำยีเราจะไม่ละให้
เอาเลือดล้างให้สิ้นแผ่นดินของไทย
สถาปนาสยามให้เทอดไทยไชโย

Phǣndin sayām nām prathư̄ang wā mư̄ang thǭng
Thai khao khrǭng tang prathēt khēt dǣn sangā
Sư̄p phao thai dưkdamban bōrān long mā
Rūam raksā sāmakkī tawī thai

Bāng samai sattrū čhū čhōmtī
Thai phlī chīp rūam rūam ruk lai
Kao lui lư̄at māi mung phadung phatai
Sayām samai burān rǭt talǭt mā

An din sayām khư̄ wā nư̄a khǭng chư̄a thai
Nam rin lai khư̄ wā lư̄at khǭng chư̄a khā
Ēkkarāt khư̄ čhēdī thī rao būchā
Rao čha sāmakkī ruam mī čhai

Raksā chāt prathet ekkarāt čhong dī
Khrai yamyī rao čha mai la hai
Ao lư̄at lāng hai sin phǣndin khǭng thai
Sathāpanā sayām hai thư̄at thai chaiyō

[pʰɛ̀ːn.dīn sà.jǎːm nāːm prà.tʰɯ̄ːəŋ wâː mɯ̄ːəŋ tʰɔ̄ːŋ]
[tʰāj kʰâw kʰrɔ̄ːŋ tâŋ prà.tʰêːt̚ kʰèːt̚ dɛ̄ːn sà.ŋàː]
[sɯ̀ːp̚ pʰàw tʰāj dɯ̀k̚.dām.bān bōː.rāːn lōŋ māː]
[rūːəm rák̚.sǎː sǎː.mák̚.kīː tʰá.wīː tʰāj]

[bāːŋ sà.mǎj sat̚.trūː tɕùː tɕōːm.tīː]
[tʰāj pʰlīː tɕʰîːp̚ rûːəm rūːəm rúk̚ lâj]
[kʰâw lūj lɯ̂ːət̚ mǎːj mûŋ pʰà.dūŋ pʰà.tʰāj]
[sà.jǎm sà.mǎj bù.rāːn rɔ̂ːt̚ tà.lɔ̀ːt̚ māː]

[ʔān. dīn sà.jǎːm kʰɯ̄ː wâː nɯ́ːə kʰɔ̌ːŋ tɕʰɯ́ːə tʰāj]
[náːm rīn lǎj kʰɯ̄ː wâː nɯ́ːə kʰɔ̌ːŋ tɕʰɯ́ːə kʰâː]
[ʔèk̚.kà.râːt̚ kʰɯ̄ː tɕēː.dīː tʰîː rāw būː.tɕʰāː]
[rāw tɕàʔ sǎː.mák.kʰīː rûːəm mīː tɕāj]

[rák.sǎː tɕʰâːt̚ prà.tʰêːt̚ ʔèk̚.kà.râːt̚ tɕōŋ dīː]
[kʰrāj jâm.jīː rāw tɕà mâj láʔ hâj]
[ʔāw lɯ̂ət̚ láːŋ hâj sîn pʰɛ̀ːndīn kʰɔ̌ːŋ tʰāj]
[sà.tʰǎː.pà.nāː sà.jǎːm hâj tʰɤ̂ːt̚ tʰāj tɕāj.jōː]

Siamese land is renowned as the land of gold.
The Thais have conquered this beautiful land.
The Thai people have served it ever since the Ancient times.
United, we have defended it

In some eras, our foes have attacked us.
But the Thais sacrificed their lives to save their motherland.
With blood, we fought for our sovereignty
And hitherto we have kept Siam alive.

This Siamese land is the bulwark of the Thai race
Our blood runs through this nation's veins.
Independence is like a pagoda we honor[note 1]
We will rise and stand as one.

To protect our motherland and sovereignty so dear.[note 2]
There will be no mercy for those who dishonor it.
We shall massacre them until their last.
To glorify our great Siamese land, Hurrah!

First national anthem competition (1934)

In 1934, Thai government launched competitions for the official national anthem, for both melody and lyrics. Changwang Tua Phathayakoson (จางวางทั่ว พัทยโกศล) composed a tune in a traditional style called Phleng Maha Nimit, but Phra Chenduriyang's melody was selected because it sounded more modern.

Second national anthem competition

After that, in the competition for the lyrics with Phra Chenduriyang's music, the original words by Khun Wichitmatra took first prize. They were in use until 1939, with a minor edit and an additional version written by second prize winner Chan Khamvilai (ฉันท์ ขำวิไล) adopted in 1934.[2][3][4]

Phleng Chat Siam (Chan Khamvilai lyrics, 1934–39)

Chan Khamvilai lyrics
Romanisation
Phonetic transcription (IPA)
English translation

เหล่าเราทั้งหลายขอน้อมกายถวายชีวิต
รักษาสิทธิ์อิสสระณแดนสยาม
ที่พ่อแม่สู้ยอมม้วยด้วยพยายาม
ปราบเสี้ยนหนามให้พินาศสืบชาติมา

แม้ถึงภัยไทยด้อยจนย่อยยับ[note 3]
ยังกู้กลับคงคืนได้ชื่นหน้า
ควรแก่นามงามสุดอยุธยา
นั้นมิใช่ว่าจะขัดสนหมดคนดี

เหล่าเราทั้งหลายเลือดและเนื้อเชื้อชาติไทย
มิให้ใครเข้าเหยียบย่ำขยำขยี้
ประคับประคองป้องสิทธิ์อิสสระเสรี
เมื่อภัยมีช่วยกันจนวันตาย

จะสิ้นชีพไว้ชื่อให้ลือลั่น
ว่าไทยมั่นรักชาติไม่ขาดสาย
มีไมตรีดียิ่งทั้งหญิงทั้งชาย
สยามมิวายผู้มุ่งหมายเชิดชัยไชโย

Lao rao thang lāi khǭ nǭm kāi thawāi chīwit
Raksā sit itsara na dǣn sayām
Thī phǭ mǣ sū yǭm mūai dūai phayayām
Prāp sīan nām hai phināt sư̄p chāt mā

Mǣ thưng phai thai dǭi chon yǭi yap
Yang kū klap khong khưn dai chưn nā
Khuan kæ nām ngām sut ayutthayā
Nan mi chai wā čha khat son mot khon dī

Lao rao thang lāi lư̄at læ nư̄a chư̄a chāt thai
Mi hai khrai khao yīap yam khayam khayī
Prakhap prakhǭng pǭng sit itsara sērī
Mư̄a phai mī chūai kan čhon wan tāi

Čha sin chīp wai chư̄ hai lư̄ lan
Wā thai man rak chāt mai khāt sāi
Mī maitrī dī ying thang ying chāi
Sayām mi wāi phū mung māi chœ̄t chai chaiyō

[làw rāw tʰáŋ lǎːj kʰɔ̌ː nɔ́ːm kāːj tʰà.wǎj tɕʰīː.wít̚]
[râk̚.sǎː sìt̚ ʔìt̚.sà.ràʔ náʔ dɛ̄ːn sà.jǎːm]
[tʰîː pʰɔ̂ː mɛ̂ː sûː jɔ̄ːm múəj dûəj pʰá.jāː.jāːm]
[pràːp̚ sîːən.nǎːm hâj phí.nâːt̚ sɯ̀ːp̚ tɕʰâːt̚ māː]

[mɛ́ː tʰɯ̌ŋ pʰāj tʰāj dɔ̂ːj tɕōn jɔ̂ːj jáp̚]
[jāŋ kûː klàp̚ kʰōŋ kʰɯ̄ːn dâj tɕɯ̂ːn nâː]
[kʰūːən kɛ̀ː nāːm ŋāːm sùt̚ ʔà.jút̚.tʰá.jaː]
[nán míʔ tɕʰáj wâː tɕàʔ kʰàt̚ sǒn mòt̚ kʰōn.dīː]

[làw rāw tʰáŋ lǎːj lɯ̂ːət̚ lɛ́ nɯ́ːə tɕʰɯ́ːə tɕhâːt̚ tʰāj]
[míʔ hâj kʰrāj kʰâw jìːəp̚ jâm kʰà.jǎm kʰà.jǐː]
[prà.kʰáp̚ prà.kʰɔ̄ːŋ pɔ̂ːŋ sìt ʔìt.sà.ràʔ sêːriː]
[mɯ̂ːə pʰāj mīː tɕʰûəj kān tɕōn wān tāːj]

[tɕàʔ sîn tɕʰîːp̚ wáj tɕʰɯ̂ː hâj lɯ̄ː lân]
[wâː tʰāj mǎn rák̚ tɕʰâːt̚ mâj kʰàt̚ sǎːj]
[mīː māj.trīː dīː jîng tʰáŋ jîŋ tʰáŋ tɕʰāːj]
[sà.jǎːm míʔ wāːj phûː mûŋ mǎːj tɕʰɤ̂ːt̚ tɕʰāj tɕʰāj.jōː]

Let us all sacrifice our lives
To maintain the rights to freedom the land of Siam
That the ancestors tried to fight until their death
Eliminate the enemies of Thailand to perish

Even though the Thai disaster is inferior
But still able to restore the independence back
It is an honor to the beautiful Ayutthaya
That is not an end to good people.

All of us, we are of Thai blood
Doesn't allow anyone to oppress us
Protect rights and freedom
When disaster helped each other until the day of death

If we die, the name will be spread
That Thailand is firmly in love with the nation
Have great friendship for both men and women
The glory of Siam will never be lost, Hurrah!

Thai Cultural Revolution

In 1939, when the name of the country was changed from Siam to Thailand, a competition was launched to create new lyrics, with those by Luang Saranupraphan winning. Thai Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram ordered the anthem to be played every day at 08:00 and 18:00 (8 AM and 6 PM), and ordered the populace to stand up to show respect for the nation. Nowadays, the morning and evening anthems correspond to the hoisting and lowering of the national flags in public areas (e.g. schools, workplaces, public buildings), respectively; hence, the anthem is broadcast by both radio and television channels twice per day.

Current lyrics

Thai
Romanisation
Phonetic transcription (IPA)
English translation

ประเทศไทยรวมเลือดเนื้อชาติเชื้อไทย
เป็นประชารัฐ ไผทของไทยทุกส่วน
อยู่ดำรงคงไว้ได้ทั้งมวล
ด้วยไทยล้วนหมาย รักสามัคคี
ไทยนี้รักสงบ แต่ถึงรบไม่ขลาด
เอกราชจะไม่ให้ใครข่มขี่
สละเลือดทุกหยาดเป็นชาติพลี
เถลิงประเทศชาติไทยทวี มีชัย ชโย

Prathēt thai rūam lư̄at nư̄a chāt chư̄a thai
Pen prachā rat, phathai khǭng thai thuk sūan
Yū damrong khǭng wai dāi thang mūan
Dūai thai lūan māi, rak samakkhī
Thai nī rak sangop, tǣ thư̄ng rop mai khlāt
Ēkkarāt cha mai hai khrai khom khī
Sala lư̄at thuk yāt pen chāt phalī
Thalœ̄ng prathēt chāt thai thawī, mī chai, chayō![5]

[prà.tʰêːt̚ tʰāj rūːə̯m lɯ̂ːə̯t̚ nɯ́ːə̯ tɕʰâːt̚ tɕʰɯ́ːə̯ tʰāj]
[pēn prà.tɕʰāː rát̚ | pʰà.tʰāj kʰɔ̌ŋ tʰāj tʰúk̚ sùːə̯n]
[jùː dām.rōŋ kʰɔ̌ŋ wáj dâːj tʰáŋ mūːə̯n]
[dûːə̯j tʰāj lúːə̯n mǎːj | rák̚ sǎ.mák̚.kʰīː]
[tʰāj níː rák̚ sà.ŋòp̚ | tɛ̀ː tʰɯ̌ŋ róp̚ mâj kʰlàːt̚]
[ʔèːk̚.kà.râːt̚ tɕàʔ mâj hâj kʰrāj kʰòm kʰîː]
[sà.làʔ lɯ̂ːə̯t̚ tʰúk̚ jàːt̚ pēn tɕʰâːt̚ pʰá.līː]
[tʰà.lɤ̌ːŋ prà.tʰêːt̚ tɕʰâːt̚ tʰāj tʰá.wīː | mīː tɕʰāj | tɕʰá.jōː ‖]

Thailand unites the flesh and blood of Thais.
The land of Thailand belongs to the Thais.
Long has been our independence,
Because Thais have been united forever.
The Thais are peaceful and loving, but are not cowards in war.
Our sovereignty will never be threatened,
We will sacrifice every drop of our blood for our nation.
We are ready to die for freedom, security, and prosperity!

Sheet music of Phleng Chat in 1934, in use with the longer lyrics until 1939.

See also

Notes

  1. The original unofficial lyrics by Khun Wichitmatra contain the lineเอกราษฎร์คือกระดูกที่เราบูชา ("Independence is like the bones we honor") This was edited prior to the official broadcast on 20 August 1934.
  2. The original unofficial lyrics by Khun Wichitmatra contain the line ยึดอำนาจกุมสิทธิ์อิสสระเสรี ("To take power and hold the rights of independence and freedom") This was edited prior to the official broadcast on 20 August 1934.
  3. This part of the lyric, as officially published in the Royal Thai Government Gazette, volume 51, section 0 ง, dated 26 August 1934, was printed as "แม้ถึงไทยไทยด้อยจนย่อยยับ". This differs from the original handwritten lyrics by Chan Khamvilai, "แม้ถึงภัยไทยด้อยจนย่อยยับ", leading to a confused meaning. Because of this, the article uses the original lyric as written by Chan Khamvilai instead of the version published in the gazette (See Jeamteerasakul, Somsak. ความเป็นมาของเพลงชาติไทยปัจจุบัน. pp. 45-46)

References

  1. Charoensook, Sugree (2016-11-07). "128 ปี เพลงสรรเสริญพระบารมี : สรรเสริญพระบารมีพระมหากษัตริย์ทุกพระองค์ โดยสุกรี เจริญสุข". Matichon Online. Retrieved 2019-10-12.
  2. Jeamteerasakul, Somsak (December 2004). "ความเป็นมาของเพลงชาติไทยปัจจุบัน". Thammasat University Journal (in Thai). 27 (1). Archived from the original on 2019-10-17. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
  3. "เพลงชาติ". www.banfun.com (in Thai). Archived from the original on 2007-10-11.
  4. History of Thai National anthem from Rakbankerd.com (in Thai)
  5. https://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/romanization/thai.pdf The transliteration system used here is a slightly modified version of ALA-LC (which itself is based on RTGS 1939); the differences being that č and ‘ are absent in the transliteration provided below.
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