A teen idol is a celebrity with a large teenage fan base. Teen idols are generally young but are not necessarily teenagers. An idol's popularity may be limited to teens, or may extend to all age groups. Many teen idols are targeted for adults for nostalgia purposes.
In Japan, there are pop stars Ayumi Hamasaki and Namie Amuro as well as Kana Nishino and music groups such as Momoiro Clover Z, Morning Musume, AKB48, and Perfume and Johnny & Associates boy bands Arashi, NEWS, KAT-TUN, and Hey! Say! JUMP among others. In Taiwan, there are the pop icon Jay Chou, music groups F4 and Lollipop F. In South Korea, there are the singers BoA and Rain and music groups BTS, Exo, TVXQ, 2PM, 2AM, Beast, Shinee, Super Junior, 2NE1, Big Bang, Wonder Girls, T-ara, Kara, Blackpink and Girls' Generation. In Vietnam, there are the singers and WanBi Tuấn Anh and Tóc Tiên.
European teen idols include German popstar Bill Kaulitz of the pop-rock band Tokio Hotel and the members of the Anglo-Irish pop boy band One Direction, and Girls Aloud, another Anglo-Irish band. In Spain, La Oreja de Van Gogh, Miguel Bose, Mecano, and Hombres G all enjoyed teen-idol status. In the Balkans, the late Macedonian singer Toše Proeski was considered a teen idol.
In Latin America, idols ranges from Mexican pop stars Timbiriche, Lynda Thomas, Magneto, Puerto Rican born Mexican Luis Miguel and the popular Puerto Rican boy band Menudo in the 1980s and 1990s, and Paty Cantú, Anahí, Belinda, and RBD in the 2000s and 2010s. Besides, former Menudo member Ricky Martin, their chief rivals Los Chicos and former member Chayanne, Venezuelan actor and singer Guillermo Davila and more, to Argentina, where telenovela, Chiquititas, ushered in a new era of teen-idols for that country, including actors Benjamin Rojas, Felipe Colombo, Luisana Lopilato, and Camila Bordonaba, who went on to form teen band Erreway, precursors to Mexican band RBD.
Often teen idols are actors or musicians. Some teen idols began their careers as child actors, such as Britney Spears, Raven-Symoné, Lindsay Lohan, Hilary Duff, and Miley Cyrus. There were teen idols before there were teen magazines, but idols have always been a permanent feature in magazines such as Seventeen, 16, Tiger Beat and Right On! in the United States, and in similar magazines elsewhere. With the advent of television, teen idols were also promoted through programs such as American Bandstand, The Ed Sullivan Show, Soul Train. Today's teen idols have spawned an entire industry of gossip magazines, television shows, YouTube, social media, and whole television channels such as E!.
Early teen idolsEdit
The first known person to have been treated as a teen idol was Franz Liszt, the Hungarian pianist who, in the 1840s, drew such a following among young women that the term "Lisztomania" soon came to describe the phenomenon. The kind of idolizing following Liszt drew in Europe would not be followed for several decades. Geraldine Farrar, American opera singer, had a large following of young women nicknamed "Gerry-flappers" in the early 20th century. Rudy Vallée, who became a major success in 1929 with hits like "Honey" and "Deep Night", may have been the first American popular singer to have been idolised by hundreds of teen-aged girls at sold-out concerts. He was also possibly the first popular singer to have a star vehicle created for him: The Vagabond Lover.
Frank Sinatra, whose early career in the 1940s is often linked to his appeal to bobby soxers, who got that name because they were forced to dance in their bobby socks so that their shoes would not damage the dance floor, is also regarded as having been amongst the first teen idols.
Although he had only three major movie roles, James Dean earned two Oscar nominations. He also had the image of a rebellious youth, something that was popular among girls and young women. His performance in Rebel Without A Cause (1955) and his untimely death in a road collision in 1955 cemented his status as an icon. Contemporary teenagers still wear white T-shirts and jeans.
Selected by Walt Disney in 1955 for his new show The Mickey Mouse Club, Annette Funicello became popular among viewers by the end of the first season. Elvis Presley made his debut in the mid-1950s and became a sensation. Deemed too dangerous to be filmed except from the waist up because of his sexually suggestive dance moves, he became popular among teenagers. The success of young rock stars like Presley, film stars like Marlon Brando, Paul Newman, James Dean, Tab Hunter, and Sal Mineo in the 1950s, as well as the wider emergence of youth subcultures, led promoters to the deliberate creation of teen idols such as singers Frankie Avalon, Fabian Forte, Bobby Rydell, Annette, Frankie Lymon, and Connie Stevens. Even crooners like Frank Sinatra were still considered idols and rather handsome. Actors Edd Byrnes and Troy Donahue and other artists deliberately cultivated a (safer) idol image, like Canadian musician Paul Anka.
Anka initially modelled himself on a particular generic type, the teen idol [who] carried on the process ... of changing the image of male youth ... from wild to mild, by providing a cleaner, more wholesome image of masculinity than that of the previous era's rebellious rockabilly heroes [and (working-class) so-called juvenile delinquents, like those in West Side Story]....— 
Post-war teens were able to buy relatively inexpensive phonographs — including portable models that could be carried to friends' houses — and the new 45-rpm singles. Rock music played on 45s became the soundtrack to the 1960s as people bought what they heard on the radio. The great majority of the music being marketed to 1950s teens was being written by adults, but 1960s teens were increasingly appreciating and emulating artists closer to their own age, to teen fashion, and to lyrics which addressed their own concerns. Their parents worried about their attraction to artists (and DJs) who were edgy and rebellious. Faces on magazines fed fans; fans buy records, see films, watch TV and buy fashions.
Marketing of the teen idol generally focuses on the image.... The teen idol is structured to appeal to the pre-teen and young teen female pop audience member and children in general.... [They] are commodified in forms and images that are relatively non-threatening to this young audience and to the ancillary market of parents... The teen idol never appears to be autonomous and therefore never appears to be threatening as an adult; he remains, as long as he is popular, perpetually childlike and dependent.— 
Some marketers turned to film and TV for fresh, attractive, 'safe' faces. Tommy Sands's debut in a television film about the phenomenon, The Idol, made a teen idol out of Sands himself. Ricky Nelson, a performer of rockabilly music, also became a teen idol through his parents' television series, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet. With many parents disapproving of Elvis Presley, Nelson became a safe alternative. However, he found himself outclassed by the Beatles when they arrived in the U.S. in 1964.
The Beatles soon became the most successful and influential band in modern musical history, staying at the top of Billboard charts for a grand total of 58 weeks between 1964 and 1970. Adolescent hysteria was so loud that the band had trouble performing at concerts. The level of stardom they achieved in the U.S.—dubbed Beatlemania—was never before seen in that country, not even during the heyday of Elvis Presley.
Some young TV stars were being hustled into studios to make recordings; for example, ex-Mousketeer Annette Funicello became one of the first big female idols as well as the Lennon Sisters whom had cut out dolls and were always on the covers of the gossip magazines; another, Johnny Crawford of The Rifleman, had five Top-40 hits. In 1963, Luke Halpin made a big splash as a teen idol in the television program Flipper. After Bye Bye Birdie was released in 1963, Bobby Rydell became an instant teen idol.
In the 1960s as situation comedies and dramas on television using child actors became more popular, actors Paul Petersen, Patty Petersen, and Shelley Fabares from The Donna Reed Show, Dwayne Hickman from The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis, Sally Field of Gidget, Jon Provost of Lassie, Jay North from Dennis the Menace, and Keith and Kevin Schultz known as the "Schultz Twins" on The Monroes all became younger preteen idols and grew into being teen idols.
Herman's Hermits, the Rolling Stones, and the Beach Boys were teen idols, especially during the earlier part of their careers, although they quickly grew out of that status. The Rolling Stones did it through a more rebellious image, the Beatles did it through their more developed (or "grown up") music. Similarly, Neil Sedaka had two distinct eras of his career, with about a decade in between: one as a teen idol in the 1960s, and a later career in adult contemporary music. Roy Orbison was known for his songs "Oh, Pretty Woman," "Only the Lonely," and "Crying." From the family band the Cowsills, Susan Cowsill, John Cowsill and Barry Cowsill became teen idols. Many of the teen idols of the era were the sons of older, established stars; Dino, Desi & Billy were active as teen idols during the mid-sixties. The group included Dean Paul Martin (son of singer Dean Martin), and Billy Hinsche (a mutual friend whose parents were not famous). Gary Lewis, son of comedian Jerry Lewis, fronted the Playboys during this era.
All of the Monkees became instant teen idols in the late 1960s after their TV show became an overnight success, especially for Micky Dolenz and Davy Jones. The British-born Monkee Davy Jones was regularly featured in teen fan magazines. In 2008, Yahoo Music named Jones the number one teen idol of all time, and in 2009 he was ranked second in a list compiled by Fox News.
After Davy Jones came Bobby Sherman and David Cassidy, who held the title of Teen Idols from the late 1960s until the mid-1970s. Both Sherman and Cassidy were actors on television and chart topping musicians in the pop-rock category at the time; with David Cassidy in particular enjoying immense international fame and success. Sherman was on hit TV shows Shindig! and Here Come the Brides among many others. Musical series such as Cassidy's The Partridge Family, the animated series The Archie Show, and (to a lesser extent) The Brady Bunch integrated television and teen-pop music to significant success during this time frame. The Brady Bunch's Barry Williams and Christopher Knight, as was tennis pro/actor Vincent Van Patten all were constantly in the fan magazines at the time. Popular actors such as John Molder Brown, Leonard Whiting, Ray Lovelock (Raymond Lovelock), Leif Garrett, Mark Hamill, Mark Lester, Jan-Michael Vincent and Jack Wild were the talk of the teenagers in the 1970s as well. Musical group the Hudson Brothers were on many teen magazine covers for a number of years as teen idols. They had two shows on TV during the 1970s and recorded many albums.
One of the features of many teen idols is that their fans (and, in some cases, the musicians themselves) tended to develop a hate for the music once they became adults, and it is not much listened to by adults, except for nostalgia: the legacy of bubblegum pop. Teen idol performers in this category would include Shaun Cassidy, Leif Garrett, the Osmond Brothers (particularly Donny Osmond and their teen idol sister Marie Osmond), Andy Gibb, Tony DeFranco of the Canadian band the DeFranco Family, and the Bay City Rollers (UK). Even modern classic hits and oldies outlets, which cover this time period, rarely play cuts from the teen idols of the era. A notable exception is Michael Jackson of the Jackson Five, who began his career as a teen idol along with his brothers, but whose individual career eventually evolved far beyond the limitations of that description and into superstardom.
The Jackson Five were the first African-American music group to become national teen idols, appearing along with famous white idols in magazines such as 16 and Tiger Beat. In addition, the charismatic appeal, showmanship and flurry of fans towards lead Michael Jackson made him a teen idol and heartthrob amongst teens; his success as a soloist continued into the 1980s.
In 1985, actress Alyssa Milano from Who's the Boss? became a major teen idol and was dubbed "The Teen Queen of the 1980s". In the mid-1980s there was a group of young actors called the Brat Pack; the whole group collectively and separately became teen idols. They were Emilio Estevez, Anthony Michael Hall, Rob Lowe, Andrew McCarthy, Demi Moore, Judd Nelson, Molly Ringwald, and Ally Sheedy. They starred in many coming of age films together in some fashion and became very popular without being musicians. Molly Ringwald entered the limelight with the films Sixteen Candles and The Breakfast Club.
Actors Corey Feldman and Corey Haim also became teen idols during the later part of the 1980s with films The Goonies and together The Lost Boys, Dream a Little Dream and License to Drive among other films. They were dubbed "the two Coreys". Before Corey Haim's death in 2010, they did a reality TV show for two seasons (2007–08) on A&E named The Two Coreys after their 1980s moniker.
Australian singer-actor Rick Springfield was regarded as the teen idol in the 1980s with such hits as "Jessie's Girl" and "Don't Talk to Strangers". The Grammy Award-winning musician Springfield was known for playing Dr. Noah Drake on the daytime drama General Hospital. He originated the character from 1981 to 1983. He left acting after his music career took off.
At the end of the 1980s, actor Kirk Cameron became a major teen idol teenage heartthrob. Cameron was best known for his role as Mike Seaver on the television situation comedy Growing Pains from 1985 to 1992. Also Scott Baio and Willie Aames of Charles in Charge fame found themselves regulars in teen magazines.
In popular music, the late 1980s was the boom of teenagers dominating the music charts. Debbie Gibson became the youngest person to write, perform and produce a number-one single, "Foolish Beat", and also had many hits from her first two albums. Tiffany, another teen icon, became a pop sensation at 15 years old thanks to an aggressive marketing strategy. She promoted her debut album in shopping malls of the US. She is also the youngest person to have a debut album hit number one and have multiple number one singles from that album ("I Think We're Alone Now" and "Could've Been"). Having become a household name, she had then-unknown band New Kids on the Block as an opening act for her shows. However, the sudden popularity of the New Kids caused their roles to be reversed. Gibson and Tiffany's careers had stalled by the early 1990s; so had NKOTB by the mid-nineties. The other boy band from Boston, New Edition, was popular with the teen set by the end of the 1980s.
One of the most popular female singers of the 1980s, with teen idol status was Madonna. With songs "Like a Prayer", "Who's That Girl" and "Like a Virgin" in the '80s top lists throughout the decade. She became a teen idol through her acclaimed music, groundbreaking videos, celebrity tabloid image, feminist punk spirit, public acceptance of the marginalised LGBTQ+ community, unique fashion at the time and her very loyal fanbase.
This section may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience.(December 2019)
The manufacturing of teen idols has been marketed more aggressively and with greater sophistication since the 1980s. Many of the major teen idols in the 1990s were bands and musical acts. The rise of MTV in the 1980s and the success of the boy bands and girl groups during the 1990s and 2000s continued to fuel the phenomenon. Besides a combination of good, clean-cut looks and a ubiquitous marketing campaign, such bands typically include a variety of personality types (e.g. "the shy one", "the smart one", etc.) These idols were often found on the covers and pages of teen magazines during the 1990s as teen idols as well. Classic examples of boy bands include Menudo, New Kids on the Block, Take That, Backstreet Boys, and NSYNC, all becoming the best selling pop groups of the decade. Hanson was initially marketed as such a band, but eventually outgrew this label to become a successful indie band. Christina Aguilera, Jennifer Lopez, Mandy Moore, Jessica Simpson, and Britney Spears, along with female bands such as the Spice Girls, TLC, and Destiny's Child, also became very popular at the end of the decade. Even though the Spice Girls split in 2000, they remain fairly popular in England.
The Backstreet Boys entered the scene in 1997 with "Everybody (Backstreet's Back)," a confusingly named hit produced by Max Martin. NSYNC followed in 1999, and the market proved it could accommodate both. However, the most talented member of NSYNC, Justin Timberlake, left the group for a solo career. The group soon disbanded. Opting against joining a girl band, Britney Spears released the music video "...Baby One More Time" in 1998 on MTV, which pushed her into the public consciousness. Her first album, which also bears the name of that song, made its debut at the top of Billboard's charts.
After the movie Clueless (1995), Alicia Silverstone found herself a teen idol. The 1997 film Titanic made Leonardo DiCaprio a teen idol; during "Leo-Mania" his face appeared on many teen magazines. Fraternal twin sisters and actresses Ashley Olsen and Mary-Kate Olsen were major tween idols and as they grew up they later became teen idols during the 1990s.
The 2000s would be a decade of transition due to increasing amount of media platforms coming from TV and the internet, though Hollywood would still be a spring board for many names in the early years of the decade. Actors such as Josh Hartnett, Heath Ledger and Ashton Kutcher would dominate the teen idol scene for the early 2000s. Hartnett become the most prominent face of the young Hollywood actors entering the 2000s. He appeared on dozens of major magazine covers and was the subject of a Vanity Fair cover story remarking on his meteoric rise to fame. The intense attention he received during this time period caused him to turn down high-profile roles, including a reported $100 million offer to play Superman, before leaving Hollywood completely.
The Walt Disney Company and its numerous outlets (e.g. Disney Channel, Radio Disney and Walt Disney Pictures) successfully developed a new generation of teen idols in the early 2000s, starting with the careers of actresses and singers Hilary Duff and Lindsay Lohan, initially targeting youth and female teen audiences. While still teenagers, Duff became famous for her starring titular character in the Disney Channel teen sitcom Lizzie McGuire and her multi-Platinum second studio album Metamorphosis (2003), with which she became one of the youngest artists to reach the top of the Billboard 200, and Lohan became famous for her starring roles in many successful teen movies, including Freaky Friday (2003), Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen (2004), Mean Girls (2004) and Herbie: Fully Loaded (2005), and her debut studio album Speak (2004). The success of this marketing led to further development of the genre, including new teen idols such as Raven-Symoné, Dylan and Cole Sprouse, Zac Efron, Aly & AJ, Jesse McCartney, Vanessa Hudgens, Ashley Tisdale, Corbin Bleu, Miley Cyrus, Selena Gomez, Demi Lovato and the Jonas Brothers. Disney has also used another one of its own TV channels, Freeform, to develop shows and stars popular among teen girls. Mean Girls, a well-known comedy written by Tina Fey, also saw the performances of Rachel McAdams and Amanda Seyfried (in her first role).
Miley Cyrus claimed her fame by playing a fictionalized version of herself on the television show Hannah Montana (2006-2011). Her 2009 singles "The Climb" and "Party in the U.S.A" were both hits. However, as she began metamorphosizing into something more mature, her popularity fell as parents considered her new materials inappropriate for their children.
Selena Gomez made her debut by starring in the Disney situational comedy Wizards of Waverly Place (2007-2012) and released her first album Kiss & Tell in 2009. She became an icon for (adolescent) girls and women, yet details of her personal life put her under public scrutiny.
Viacom-owned Nickelodeon, a competitor to Disney Channel, has also developed its own slate of stars for its television shows, including Drake Bell, Josh Peck, Emma Roberts, Miranda Cosgrove, Jennette McCurdy, Nathan Kress, Jamie Lynn Spears (sister of Britney Spears), Ariana Grande, Victoria Justice, Elizabeth Gillies, and groups the Naked Brothers Band and Big Time Rush, many of whom have not only starred in TV shows, but recorded songs as well. Many of the modern-day teen idols are females marketed as "role models" to teen and tween girls, a departure from the traditional role of the male teen idol marketed as the idolized teen "heartthrob". Actress Mischa Barton became a teen idol through acting. Entertainment Weekly named Marissa Cooper “It Girl" of 2003.
In 2002, Canadian singer Avril Lavigne dominated the music scene and eventually became a worldwide teen idol. Listed at #4 on Yahoo!'s Top 25 Teen Idols of all-time. During the popularity of her sister Jessica Simpson's MTV reality television series Newlyweds: Nick and Jessica, 7th Heaven actress Ashlee Simpson developed a music career through her own MTV spin-off reality series The Ashlee Simpson Show in 2004, and soon became a teen idol.
American musician Taylor Swift entered the scene at age 16 by co-writing the song "Tim McCraw" with Liz Rose in 2005, after which she became a well-known and successful artist as well as a teen idol.
Before reaching the age of 20, Ariana Grande had already been popular among secondary schoolchildren by starring in the teen comedy show Victorious (2010-2013). She left acting for singing, and although her singing career got off to a rocky start, she did capture the attention of producer and songwriter Max Martin, who had worked with many successful artists before.
In Japan, more and more Japanese idol groups have appeared. In Japanese culture, persons called "idols" are media personalities in their teens and early twenties who are considered particularly attractive or cute and who will, for a period ranging from several months to a few years, regularly appear in the mass media, e.g. as singers for pop groups, bit-part actors, TV personalities, models in photo spreads published in magazines, advertisements, etc. One of the most successful groups is Momoiro Clover Z. Their performances incorporate elements of ballet, gymnastics, and action movies. During 2014, about 486,000 people attended their live concerts, which was the highest record of all female musicians in Japan. Momoiro Clover Z has been ranked as one of the most popular female idol groups from 2013 to 2017.
In the late 2010s, many young actors developed large following amongst teenagers and millennials after portraying famous contemporary literary characters. The most notable among these were Timothée Chalamet (Elio Perlman) and Nick Robinson (Simon Spier). These actors were referred to by the media and general public as "White Boys of the Month," with the term since becoming a popular meme. Noah Centineo became popular among teenagers and young adults following the release of To All the Boys I've Loved Before, having amassed over 15 million Instagram followers within eight weeks of the film's release; he was dubbed an "internet boyfriend" by the media.
Although the future members of the boy band One Direction did not do well on the U.K. X-Factor, guest judge Nicole Scherzinger suggested they form a group. The result was much fame and fortune for the band, which busted into the scene in 2012. However, the group disbanded in 2016, and members have since 2017 been pursuing solo projects.
Similarly, in 2016 the Cuban-born American singer Camila Cabello left the teen band Fifth Harmony, which went on indefinite hiatus in 2018, in order to pursue a solo career. She makes use of her Latin American heritage in her rhythms. At age 18, American musician Billie Eilish won four Grammy Awards in 2020 and was commissioned to perform the theme song for the upcoming James Bond movie, No Time to Die (2021). She wrote the song with her brother, Finneas, becoming the youngest artist to do so. She has tens of millions of followers on social media, especially Generation Z. She is well known for her lyrics concerning depression and anxiety.
American artist Olivia Rodrigo had previously worked as a child actress on the Disney comedy series Bizaardvark (2016–19) and continues to star in the ongoing show High School Musical: The Musical: The Series (2019–present). In January 2021, she released her first single, "Drivers License," which went on to become one of the most streamed songs on Spotify at the time and spent eight weeks on top of the Billboard Hot 100 chart. She sings with profanities in an emotionally charged manner of the struggles of an adolescent and commands a large following on social media networks, including TiKTok, where she has many teen-aged supporters. She claims to have been influenced by Taylor Swift and Lorde. Some sources consider Rodrigo to be a representative of Generation Z.
Impact and influenceEdit
In the West, the Beatles, Bob Dylan, and the Rolling Stones were extremely popular among the Baby Boomers. Parents, by contrast, saw their influence greatly diminished. In the United Kingdom, for instance, a combination of the Lady Chatterley trial (1959) and the first long-play of the Beatles, Please Please Me (1963) triggered a change public perception of human mating, a cause subsequently taken up by young people seeking sexual liberation.[a]
During the 1960s and 1970s, the music industry made a fortune selling rock records to people between the ages of fourteen and twenty-five. This era was home to many youthful stars—people like Brian Jones of the Rolling Stones or Jimi Hendrix—who had lifestyles that all but guaranteed early deaths.[b] The death of a (former) teen idol can have a serious impact on fans, leading to outbursts of emotions. This was certainly the case when people like Davy Jones or Michael Jackson died. Moreover, even as their fans age, the audience of idols does not necessarily shrink, as the fans who became parents can introduce their children to their music. People tend to be nostalgic about music from their youth.
The charm and charisma manifested by American actor James Dean onscreen proved strongly appealing to the audience, and his persona of youthful rebellion provided a template for succeeding generations of youth to model themselves on. Various artists, including Leonardo DiCaprio, Buddy Holly, and David Bowie, cited Dean as an influence. American singer-songwriter Taylor Swift referenced him in "Style" (2014). Meanwhile, wearing white T-shirts and jeans remains iconic among young people today.
The K-pop band Girls' Generation has generally been considered as a cultural icon of not just South Korea, but also a part of the Korean Wave, the rising popularity of Korean culture on the international stage. As of 2019, another K-pop band, BTS, was reportedly worth more than US$4.65 billion, or 0.3 percent of the GDP of their home country. They attracted one in every 13 foreign visitors to Korea and were cited as one of the key acts in boosting global music sales to US$19 billion in 2018.
- "Teen Idol". All Music Guide. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Essay: Teen Idol". All Music Guide. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
- Bogdanov, Vladimir; Chris Woodstra; Stephen Thomas Erlewine (2002). All music guide to rock: the definitive guide to rock, pop, and soul. Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 1309–10. ISBN 0-87930-653-X.
- "TIME Asia: The Empress of Pop". Benny Labamba. 25 March 2002. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- "Wanbi Tuấn Anh muốn vượt qua chính mình". Báo điện tử Dân Trí (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 23 May 2021.
- Trung Nghĩa (21 February 2007). "Tóc Tiên: nụ cười như nắng mai" [Tóc Tiên: the smile as bright as sunshine]. Tuổi Trẻ Online (in Vietnamese). Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- Nguyễn, Khoa Tóc Tiên (7 August 2009). "Nhiều người xui chúng tôi bỏ nhau" ["People told us to break up"]. Ngôi Sao (Interview) (in Vietnamese). Interviewed by Quân Ngọc. VnExpress. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- Deutsche Welle German Pop Sensation Tokio Hotel Wins MTV Video Music Award. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
- "Ross On Radio: One Direction Avoids The Story Of Many Teen Idols' Lives". Billboard. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- "Pictures of Menudo in General Pictures, Page 1". Teen Idols 4 You. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- New York Times (23 April 1922) p. 20
- Rosenthal and Warrack (1979), p. 161
- Greene, Andy (11 May 2021). "The Top 25 Teen Idol Breakout Moments". The Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 19 October 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
- "James Dean - Top 10 Teen Idols". Time Magazine. 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- "Annette Funicello - Top 10 Teen Idols". Time Magazine. 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- Jim Leach, Jeannette Sloniowski, Candid eyes: essays on Canadian documentaries. University of Toronto Press, 2003, pp.50–60. [Emphasis mine]
- P. David Marshall, Celebrity and power: fame in contemporary culture. U of Minnesota Press, 1997 p.168ff. ISBN 0-8166-2725-8
- Ricky Nelson interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969)
- "The Beatles - Top 10 Teen Idols". Time Magazine. 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- "Herman's Hermits – Magazine Articles". Hermanshermits.com. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- O'Connor, Rob (1 December 2008). "The Top 25 Teen Idols Of All-Time". New.music.yahoo.com. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- "Then & Now: 10 Best Teen Idols of All Time". Fox News. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- Cross, Alan (22 November 2017). "With David Cassidy gone, let's look back at the teen idol era". Global News. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- Mansour, David (2011). From Abba to Zoom: A Pop Culture Encyclopedia of the Late 20th Century. p. 241. ISBN 9780740793073.
- "Teen Magazines, 1973". Stuck in the 70s. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- "The Jacksons: A History". The Jacksons.com. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- "Molly Ringwald - Top 10 Teen Idols". Time Magazine. 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- Shaw, Gabbi. "The dreamiest teen idol from the year you were born". Insider. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- "Teen Pop". All Music Guide. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
- "MTV Teen Idol". Iomusic News. Archived from the original on 16 January 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
- "Britney Spears - Top 10 Teen Idols". Time Magazine. 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- "The eight best teen films to watch before Booksmart". New Zealand Herald. 24 July 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- Winston, Sherri (5 May 1998). "Leomania / Like Sinatra, Elvis And The Beatles Before Him, The Young Star Of Titanic Is Turning The World Of Teen-age Girls Upside Down". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- Copel, Lib (2 June 2004). "Power of Two". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- He, Richard S. (9 January 2020). "Selena Gomez's Road to 'Rare': How Pop's Quietest Singer Began to Raise Her Voice". Billboard. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- Greene, Andy (22 May 2014). "How Ariana Grande and Max Martin Made 'Problem' the Song of the Summer". Music News. The Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- "The Top 25 Teen Idols of All Time". yahoo.com. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- Thanki, Juli (24 September 2015). "Taylor Swift: Teen idol to 'biggest pop artist in the world'". Entertainment. The Tennessean. USA Today Network. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
- Yahr, Emily (16 June 2016). "Taylor Swift's first song came out 10 years ago. Here's what she was like as a teen songwriter". Arts and Entertainment. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
- NPR Staff (2 November 2012). "Taylor Swift: 'My Confidence Is Easy To Shake'". NPR. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- "Momoiro Clover Z dazzles audiences with shiny messages of hope". The Asahi Shimbun. 29 August 2012.
- "AKB48よりももクロが上 コンサート動員力2014". Nihon Keizai Shimbun (in Japanese). 4 December 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
- "ももクロ、初のAKB超え タレントパワーランキング". Nihon Keizai Shimbun (in Japanese). 24 June 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- タレントパワーランキング トップ100. Nikkei Entertainment (in Japanese). Nikkei BP (June 2013): 48–49. 4 May 2013. - the largest public opinion survey in Japan (see ja:タレントパワーランキング)
- タレントパワーランキング トップ100. Nikkei Entertainment (in Japanese). Nikkei BP (June 2014). 2 May 2014.
- タレントパワーランキング トップ100. Nikkei Entertainment (in Japanese). Nikkei BP (June 2015). 2 May 2015.
- タレントパワーランキング トップ100. Nikkei Entertainment (in Japanese). Nikkei BP (June 2016). 4 May 2016.
- タレントパワーランキング トップ100. Nikkei Entertainment (in Japanese). Nikkei BP (June 2017). 4 May 2017.
- Bergado, Gabr. "Twitter's White Boy of the Month Meme Is a Match Made in Heaven Between Celebrity and Internet Culture". Teen Vogue. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Ilagen, Elyse. "Every 'White Boy of The Month' This Year: A 2018 Round Up". W Magazine. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
- Marine, Brooke. "Noah Centineo, AKA Peter Kavinsky, on Being the Internet's Newest Boyfriend". W Magazine. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
- "Noah Centineo Is the Internet Boyfriend We've Been Waiting For". E! News. 7 September 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
- Grady, Constance (28 September 2018). "Noah Centineo and the rise of the wholesome internet boyfriend, explained". Vox. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
- Pareles, Jon (16 December 2019). "Camila Cabello and Harry Styles, Teen-Pop Alumni, Think Bigger". Arts. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 February 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
- Unterberger, Andrew (25 May 2017). "Every One Direction Solo Single, Ranked". Billboard.
- Ryan, Patrick (27 January 2020). "Who is Billie Eilish? Everything to know about the teen who won big at the 2020 Grammys". Music. USA Today. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
- Smyth, David (21 May 2021). "Olivia Rodrigo Sour album review: the biggest new star in the world is the perfect teller of teen tales". Culture. The Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
- Garvey, Marianne (18 January 2021). "Olivia Rodrigo's 'Drivers License' breaks new record". Entertainment. CNN. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
- Kornhaber, Spencer (May 2021). "Pop's Buzziest New Songwriter Knows Exactly What to Say". Culture. The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
- Wood, Mikael (20 May 2021). "Review: Olivia Rodrigo delivers flawless Gen Z pop on her debut album". Music. The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
- John, Sarah (22 May 2021). "New Olivia Rodrigo album 'Sour' stakes her claim to being the voice of Gen Z: Raw and real". Culture & Lifestyle. NBC News. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
- Owram, Doug (1997), Born at the Right Time, Toronto: University Of Toronto Press, p. xiv, ISBN 0-8020-8086-3
- Suri, Jeremi (February 2009). "The Rise and Fall of an International Counterculture, 1960-1975". American Historical Review. 114 (1): 45–68. doi:10.1086/ahr.114.1.45. JSTOR 30223643.
- Hobsbawn, Eric (1996). "Chapter Eleven: Cultural Revolution". The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century 1914-1991. Abacus. ISBN 9780349106717.
- Goldberg, Stephanie (1 March 2012). "Why we grieve teen idols: A tribute to Davy Jones". Entertainment. CNN. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- Robert Tanitch (30 October 2014). The Unknown James Dean. Pavilion Books. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-84994-249-2.
- Claudia Springer (17 May 2013). James Dean Transfigured: The Many Faces of Rebel Iconography. University of Texas Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-292-75288-7.
- Wayne Robins (31 March 2016). A Brief History of Rock, Off the Record. Routledge. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-135-92345-7.
- "Leonardo DiCaprio On 'Once Upon A Time In Hollywood' And Looking For Positives In Disruption That Has Turned The Movie Business On Its Ear – The Deadline Q&A". deadline.com.
- John Howlett (1 November 2016). James Dean: Rebel Life. Plexus Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-85965-867-6.
- Marc Spitz (October 2010). Bowie: A Biography. Crown/Archetype. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-307-71699-6.
- Kornhaber, Spencer (13 February 2015). "Reading Taylor Swift's Lips". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Ho, Stewart (19 July 2012). "SNSD Becomes First Korean Celebrity on Official Stamps". CJ E&M. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014.
- M, Kristy. "K-Pop Expands the Hallyu Wave". The Seoul Times. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- "K-pop group Girls' Generation beats Miley, Lady Gaga at first YouTube awards". CNN. 4 November 2013. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- "Girls' Generation Make Cover of Nikkei Business". The Chosun Ilbo. 2 October 2010. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- BTS가 창출한 80만 관광객…"5조 원 넘는 경제 효과". SBS News (in Korean). 9 June 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- France-Presse, Agence (18 December 2018). "The BTS billions: K-pop superstars 'worth more than US$3.6 billion a year' to South Korea's economy". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 18 December 2018.