Ray Romano

Raymond Albert Romano[2] (born December 21, 1957)[3] is an American stand-up comedian, actor and screenwriter. He is best known for his role on the CBS sitcom Everybody Loves Raymond, for which he received an Emmy Award, and as the voice of Manny in the Ice Age film series. He created and starred in the TNT comedy-drama Men of a Certain Age (2009–2011). From 2012 to 2015, Romano had a recurring role as Hank Rizzoli, a love interest of Sarah Braverman in the NBC series Parenthood. More recently, he co-starred in the romantic comedy The Big Sick (2017) and portrayed mob lawyer Bill Bufalino in Martin Scorsese's epic crime film The Irishman (2019). Since 2017, Romano has portrayed Rick Moreweather in the Epix comedy-drama series Get Shorty.

Ray Romano
Ray Romano 2014.jpg
Romano at the Voice Awards, August 2014
Birth nameRaymond Albert Romano
Born (1957-12-21) December 21, 1957 (age 63)
New York City, U.S.
MediumStand-up, television, film
Years active1989–present
GenresObservational comedy, blue comedy, slapstick
Spouse
Anna Scarpulla
(m. 1987)
Children4
Websiterayromano.com

Early life

Romano was born in Queens, New York City,[3] the second son of Luciana "Lucie" (née Fortini),[2] a piano teacher, and Albert Romano (1925 – 2010), a real estate agent and engineer.[4][5] He is of Italian descent.[6] He grew up in the Forest Hills neighborhood of Queens.[7] He has an older brother, Richard (born 1956), a sergeant with the NYPD,[2] and a younger brother, Robert (born c. 1966), a second grade teacher in New York City.[8]

Romano attended elementary and middle school at Our Lady Queen of Martyrs in Forest Hills. After transferring from Archbishop Molloy High School, Romano graduated from Hillcrest High School in 1975.[2][9] He was in the same high school class as Fran Drescher.[3] Before getting into show business, Romano briefly attended Queens College, in Flushing, New York, where he studied accounting.[10]

Career

His early comedy career started when he competed in the Johnnie Walker Comedy Search in 1989 directed by Saturday Night Live short film producer Neal Marshad and appeared on The Comedy Channel. His career included many outlets, such as Comedy Central, where he had been a recurring guest voice on the show Dr. Katz, Professional Therapist. He also was a contestant on Star Search in the stand-up comedy category. He originally was cast to play Joe (originally named Rick) on the American television sitcom NewsRadio, but was fired and replaced by Joe Rogan. He then appeared on Late Show with David Letterman doing his stand up routine which formed his ties with CBS. Shortly thereafter, he became the star of his own show, Everybody Loves Raymond on CBS, that featured a cast and format more suitable to Romano's brand of humor. His work on the series earned him six Primetime Emmy Award nominations as Outstanding Lead actor in a Comedy Series, a category he won in 2002. He also shared two Emmy Awards as an executive producer when his show won as Outstanding Comedy Series in 2003 and 2005.[11]

Romano performed the opening monologue at the 1998 White House Correspondents' Association dinner.[citation needed]

Romano and his comedian friend Kevin James starred in the salesman comedy Grilled as two Average Joes of the same profession who are both desperate to land a big sale.

Romano was featured on a 2000 episode of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, on which he won $125,000 for the NYPD's D.A.R.E. unit.[citation needed] The following year, he and one of his brothers appeared on a New York Police Department recruiting poster.[citation needed]

In 2004, Romano became the highest-paid television actor in history for his role of Raymond on CBS's Everybody Loves Raymond.[citation needed] The show broke another record by having the highest revenue, at $3.9 billion.[citation needed]

On December 13, 2003, Romano was a guest star, sending a birthday card to Bob Barker for Barkers 80th birthday on the 27th "Million Dollar Spectacular" special of the CBS game show The Price Is Right.[citation needed]

Romano was the subject of the documentary film 95 Miles to Go. The film documents Romano's road trip for a series of rides across the south of the United States. The film was released in theaters on April 7, 2010, by ThinkFilm.[12] In August 2006 Romano was interviewed in front of a live audience at UCLA by fellow stand-up veteran David Steinberg, for an episode of Sit Down Comedy with David Steinberg. The program first aired on the TV Land network in March 2007.

Romano returned to television with a new dramedy for TNT in 2008, Men of a Certain Age, which he co-created with former Everybody Loves Raymond writer Mike Royce. It co-starred Scott Bakula and Andre Braugher.

Romano made an appearance in the seventh season of NBC series The Office as Merv Bronte, a nervous job applicant interviewing for the job left vacant by Michael Scott.

Romano made an appearance in the third-season premiere of ABC sitcom The Middle as Nicky, a friend of Mike, who ruined his and Frankie's honeymoon. Romano was the second actor from Everybody Loves Raymond to be reunited with Patricia Heaton on The Middle. Doris Roberts guest-starred in three episodes.

He joined the cast of Parenthood beginning with its fourth season premiere.[13][14] He became a semi-regular, playing photographer Hank Rizzoli, who hired and later had a romantic relationship with Sarah Braverman and developed a friendship with her nephew who has Asperger syndrome. The role was specifically created for him after he expressed his love for the series and met with creator Jason Katims on the set of Friday Night Lights.[15]

In 2002, Romano voiced the woolly mammoth Manfred (Manny) in the film Ice Age, and its sequels Ice Age: The Meltdown in 2006, Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs in 2009, Ice Age: Continental Drift in 2012, and Ice Age: Collision Course in 2016.

Currently, Romano is a leading man on the Epix comedy series Get Shorty.

In 2019, Romano starred in the Netflix comedy film Paddleton and portrayed mob lawyer Bill Bufalino in Martin Scorsese's The Irishman.[16]

Competitions

 
Romano at the 2010 World Series of Poker main event

Romano competed in the World Series of Poker in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2013 and 2015.

In early 2010, Romano starred in the second season of The Golf Channel's original series The Haney Project in which Tiger Woods' former coach Hank Haney attempts to improve the golf games of different celebrities and athletes. Romano's goal was to finish the show being able to break 80.[17] Romano took time off from the show to be with his father, Albert Romano, who died in March 2010. Romano is also a regular competitor in the AT&T Pebble Beach National Pro-Am, where he finished fifth in 2012 with his partner, Australian professional Steven Bowditch. It was the first time Romano had qualified for the final round after failing to do so on 11 successive occasions. He also competes annually in the American Century Championship, a celebrity golf tournament owned by NBC and held at Lake Tahoe[18][19] each July.

Personal life

Romano married his wife, Anna Scarpulla, in 1987. They met while working at a bank together.[10] Romano's character's daughter on Everybody Loves Raymond was named after his real-life daughter, Alexandra "Ally" Romano. Also, in the series pilot, Ray and Debra's twin boys were named Gregory and Matthew, after Romano's real-life twin sons, but Romano felt it was inconvenient to have all his television children have the same names as his real children, and changed the twins' names to Geoffrey and Michael onscreen. He also said his brother was not pleased with Ray Barone's television brother.[20]

Romano's family has made various appearances in the show. Romano's daughter made several appearances on Everybody Loves Raymond as Molly, the best friend of his on-screen daughter, Ally, and the daughter of Ray Barone's nemesis, Peggy the Cookie Lady. Romano's father, Albert Romano, has made various appearances as Albert, one of Frank Barone's lodge buddies in various episodes such as "Debra at the Lodge", and "Boys' Therapy". Romano's brother, Richard Romano, appeared in the episodes "Golf For It", "Just a Formality" and "The Toaster". Romano's wife, Anna, appeared as one of the moms in the background at Geoffrey and Michael's school in season 6's episode titled "The Angry Family."[citation needed]

In February 2012, Romano revealed that his wife, Anna, had successfully battled stage one breast cancer in 2010. Romano told People magazine that "the reason we're going public is to share our experience, yeah, but to have an effect. Our goal is to help people."[21]

Romano was close friends with Doris Roberts, who played his character's mother on Everybody Loves Raymond. At the time of her death, Romano said he was inspired by her desire to continue learning throughout her life. She also served as a mentor, helping him to feel more comfortable on set.[22]

Filmography

Film

Year Title Role Notes
1990 Caesar's Salad Policeman Short film
2002 Ice Age Manfred "Manny" (voice)
2004 Welcome to Mooseport Handy Harrison
Eulogy Skip Collins
95 Miles to Go Himself
2006 Ice Age: The Meltdown Manny (voice)
Grilled Maurice
2008 The Last Word Abel
The Grand Fred Marsh
2009 Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs Manny (voice)
Funny People Himself Cameo
2012 Ice Age: Continental Drift Manny (voice)
2014 Rob the Mob Jerry Cardozo
2016 Ice Age: Collision Course Manny (voice)
2017 The Big Sick Terry Gardner
2019 Paddleton Andy Freeman Also executive producer
Bad Education Big Bob Spicer
The Irishman Bill Bufalino
TBA   Untitled Ray Romano film Leo Russo Filming; also writer and director
Key
  Denotes films that have not yet been released

Television

Year Title Role Notes
1995–1997 Dr. Katz, Professional Therapist Ray (voice) 7 episodes
1996–2005 Everybody Loves Raymond Raymond Barone Lead role (210 episodes); also writer and executive producer
1997 Cosby Episode: "Lucas Raymondicus"
1998–2005 The King of Queens 4 episodes
1998 The Nanny Episode: "The Reunion Show"
1999 Becker Episode: "Drive, They Said"
1999–2003 Saturday Night Live Himself (host) 2 episodes
2002 All That Himself Guest appearance with Nelly Furtado
2002 Sesame Street Himself Episode 3,983
2005 The Simpsons Ray Magini Voice role
Episode: "Don't Fear the Roofer"
2007 'Til Death Guest at Italian Restaurant Episode: "The Italian Affair"
2007 The Knights of Prosperity Himself 3 episodes
2008 Hannah Montana Himself Episode: "We're All on This Date Together"
2009–2011 Men of a Certain Age Joe Tranelli Lead role (22 episodes); also writer, creator, and executive producer
2011 The Office Merv Bronte Episode: "Search Committee"
2011 The Middle Nicky Kohlbrenner Episode: "Forced Family Fun" (parts 1 and 2)
2011 Ice Age: A Mammoth Christmas Manfred "Manny" (voice) TV special
2014 Maron Himself Episode: "Marc's New Friend"
2012–2015 Parenthood Hank Rizzoli Recurring role (seasons 4–6), 44 episodes
2015 David Letterman: A Life on Television Himself (host) TV special
2016 Ice Age: The Great Egg-Scapade Manny (voice) TV special
2016 Vinyl Zak Yankovich Main role (10 episodes)
2016 Kevin Can Wait Vic Episode: "Beat the Parents"
2017–present Get Shorty Rick Moreweather Main role (27 episodes)
2019 Crashing Himself Episode: "The Secret"
2020 One Day at a Time Brian Episode: "Checking Boxes"
2021 Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? Himself 2 episodes
2021 Made for Love Herbert Green Main role

Video games

Year Title Role
2007 Ice Age 2: The Meltdown Manfred "Manny"
2009 Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs
2013 Ice Age Village

Writing credits

Everybody Loves Raymond

In addition to his roles as star and producer of Everybody Loves Raymond, Romano also co-wrote the following episodes:

Season one
  • "Why Are We Here?" (with Tom Paris)
Season two
Season three
Season four
Season five
Season six
  • "Jealous Robert" (with Tom Caltabiano)
  • "Talk to Your Daughter" (with Tucker Cawley)
  • "The First Time" (with Tom Caltabiano and Mike Royce)
Season seven
Season nine

Men of a Certain Age

Season one
  • "Pilot" (with Mike Royce)
  • "Let It Go" (with Mike Royce)
  • "Back in the Shit" (teleplay) with Mike Royce
Season two
  • "If I Could, I Surely Would" (with Mike Royce)

Discography

  • Live at Carnegie Hall (2001, Columbia) - CD

Bibliography

  • Everything and a Kite (non-fiction) (1999)
  • Raymie, Dickie and the Bean (children's) (2005)
  • Everybody Loves Raymond: Our Family Album (2004)

Awards and nominations

Association Year Category Nominated Work Results Ref
America Film Institute Awards 2002 Actor of the Year — Male – TV Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
American Comedy Awards 1999 Funniest Male Performer in a TV Series (Leading Role) Network, Cable or Syndication Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2000 Funniest Male Performer in a TV Series (Leading Role) Network, Cable or Syndication Everybody Loves Raymond Won
2001 Funniest Male Performer in a TV Series (Leading Role) Network, Cable or Syndication Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
The BAM Awards 2017 Best Cast The Big Sick Nominated
Behind the Voice Actors Awards 2013 Best Vocal Ensemble in a Feature Film Ice Age: Continental Drift Nominated
CableACE Awards 1995 Animated Programming Special or Series (as Producer) Dr. Katz, Professional Therapist Won
Denver Film Critics Society 2018 Best Supporting Actor The Big Sick Nominated
Gold Derby Awards 2005 Comedy Lead Actor Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated [23]
Comedy Episode of the Year (for Writing episode "Finale") Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2020 Ensemble Cast The Irishman Nominated [24]
Golden Globes 2000 Best Performance by an Actor in a Television Series — Comedy or Musical Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated [25]
2001 Best Performance by an Actor in a Television Series — Comedy or Musical Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
Grammy Awards 2002 Best Spoken Comedy Album Live At Carnegie Hall Nominated [26]
2006 Best Spoken Word Album for Children Raymie, Dickie, and the Bean: Why I Love and Hate My Brothers Nominated
IGN Summer Movie Awards 2009 Favorite Cameo Funny People Nominated
Indiana Film Journalists Association 2019 Best Actor Paddleton Nominated
Kid's Choice Awards 2003 Favorite Voice from an Animated Movie Ice Age Nominated
2010 Favorite Voice from an Animated Movie Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs Nominated
North Texas Film Critics Association 2017 Best Supporting Actor The Big Sick Nominated
Online Film & Television Association 2000 Best Actor in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated [27]
Best Ensemble in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2001 Best Actor in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated [28]
Best Ensemble in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2002 Best Ensemble in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated [29]
2003 Best Ensemble in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated [30]
2014 Best Guest Actor in a Drama Series Parenthood Nominated [31]
2020 Best Ensemble The Irishman Nominated [32]
People's Choice Awards 2002 Favorite Male Television Performer (tied with Kelsey Grammer) Everybody Loves Raymond Won
2003 Favorite Male Television Performer Everybody Loves Raymond Won
2004 Favorite Male Television Performer Everybody Loves Raymond Won
2006 Favorite Male Television Star Everybody Loves Raymond Won
Primetime Emmy Awards 1999 Outstanding Comedy Series (as Producer) Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated [33]
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2000 Outstanding Comedy Series (as Producer) Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2001 Outstanding Comedy Series (as Producer) Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2002 Outstanding Comedy Series (as Producer) Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Won
2003 Outstanding Comedy Series (as Producer) Everybody Loves Raymond Won
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2004 Outstanding Comedy Series (as Producer) Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2005 Outstanding Comedy Series (as Producer) Everybody Loves Raymond Won
Outstanding Writing for a Comedy Series (as Writer) Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
Outstanding Variety, Music or Comedy Special (as Producer) Everybody Loves Raymond: The Last Laugh Nominated
Producers Guild Awards 2003 Outstanding Producer of Episodic Television, Comedy Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2004 Outstanding Producer of Episodic Television, Comedy Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
San Diego Film Critics Society Awards 2017 Best Comedic Performance The Big Sick Nominated
Satellite Awards 2002 Best Actor in a Series, Comedy or Musical Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
Screen Actors Guild Awards 1999 Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated [34]
2000 Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2002 Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2003 Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Won
2004 Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2005 Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2006 Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2018 Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture The Big Sick Nominated
2020 Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture The Irishman Nominated
TCA Awards 1999 Individual Achievement in Comedy Everybody Loves Raymond Won
2000 Individual Achievement in Comedy Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2001 Individual Achievement in Comedy Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2002 Individual Achievement in Comedy Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2005 Individual Achievement in Comedy Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
TV Guide Awards 2000 Favorite Actor in a Comedy Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
2001 Actor of the Year in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Won
Viewers for Quality Television Awards 1997 Best Actor in a Quality Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
1998 Best Actor in a Quality Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated
1999 Best Actor in a Quality Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Won
2000 Best Actor in a Quality Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Won
Writers Guild Awards 2011 New Series (for Writing) Men of a Certain Age Nominated

References

  1. ^ Newhart, Bob (2006). I Shouldn't Even Be Doing This!. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 1-4013-0246-7.
  2. ^ a b c d Marzlock, Ron (August 22, 2019). "Ray Romano grew up on Nansen St. in Forest Hills". Queens Chronicle. New York City. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  3. ^ a b c "Ray Romano Biography". TV Guide. Archived from the original on September 9, 2015.
  4. ^ "Ray Romano Biography (1957–)". filmreference.com. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
  5. ^ "Albert Romano Obituary". Tributes.com. March 12, 2010. Archived from the original on May 23, 2020. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
  6. ^ "Ray Romano: Standup to Sitcom". Pioneers of Television. PBS. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  7. ^ Strickland, Carol. "Can Sitcom Make It With L.I. Setting?", The New York Times, December 1, 1996. Retrieved November 12, 2007. "For Everybody Loves Raymond, the route to Hollywood Hills began in Forest Hills, where Ray Romano, standup comedian and the star of the show, grew up."
  8. ^ Critchell, Samantha (May 1, 2005). "Ray Romano and his brothers see the humor in sibling rivalry – and they put it on paper". Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 15, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2013 – via Online Athens. Robert, who, at 39, is still Bean to everyone, worked in public relations before becoming a second-grade teacher in New York City.
  9. ^ "Yahoo Movies – Ray Romano". Retrieved August 23, 2006.
  10. ^ a b Gliatto, Tom (October 14, 1996). "Home Truths". People. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
  11. ^ "Ray Romano Primetime Emmy Awards and Nominations". Television Academy. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  12. ^ gavin6942 (October 16, 2004). "95 Miles to Go". IMDb. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
  13. ^ Rice, Lynette (June 19, 2012). "'Parenthood' scoop: Ray Romano to guest star". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
  14. ^ Mitovich, Matt Webb (June 20, 2013). "Parenthood: Ray Romano Books Season 5 Encore". TVLine. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
  15. ^ Fernandez, Maria Elena (January 2, 2013). "Ray Romano is happy to be playing on Team Max on 'Parenthood'". Today.com. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  16. ^ Nordine, Michael (February 21, 2018). "The Duplass Brothers Shot a Secret Movie With Ray Romano as Part of a Four-Picture Deal With Netflix". Indiewire. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  17. ^ "Comedian Ray Romano to star in next season of Haney Project". Archived from the original on September 27, 2009.
  18. ^ Saracevic, Al (July 16, 2016). "Pairings at the celebrity Tahoe event that we'd like to see". San Francisco Chronicle.
  19. ^ Hartley, Georgette (July 17, 2012). "Hollywood, National Football League, National Basketball Association, NHL superstars compete like golf pros for American Century Championship title". Lake Tahoe Blog.
  20. ^ Heldenfels, Rich (October 2, 2013). "Mailbag: 'Unforgettable' to return for third season in summer 2014". Akron Beacon Journal. Archived from the original on October 15, 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
  21. ^ Messer, Lesley (February 8, 2012). "Ray Romano: My Wife Beat Breast Cancer". People. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
  22. ^ ""She Made Me": Ray Romano Credits Late Doris Roberts for Turning Him Into the Actor He is Today". closerweekly.com. April 27, 2016. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
  23. ^ Derby, Gold (March 7, 2016). "2005 GOLDDERBY TV AWARDS". GoldDerby. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  24. ^ Wloszczyna, Daniel Montgomery,Chris Beachum,Marcus James Dixon,Joyce Eng,Zach Laws,Susan; Montgomery, Daniel; Beachum, Chris; Dixon, Marcus James; Eng, Joyce; Laws, Zach; Wloszczyna, Susan (February 4, 2020). "2020 Gold Derby Film Awards: 'Parasite' wins 6 including Best Picture, Joaquin Phoenix and Lupita Nyong'o take lead prizes". GoldDerby. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  25. ^ "Ray Romano". www.goldenglobes.com. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  26. ^ "Ray Romano". GRAMMY.com. November 23, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  27. ^ "4th Annual TV Awards (1999-2000) - Online Film & Television Association". Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  28. ^ "5th Annual TV Awards (2000-01) - Online Film & Television Association". Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  29. ^ "6th Annual TV Awards (2001-02) - Online Film & Television Association". Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  30. ^ "7th Annual TV Awards (2002-03) - Online Film & Television Association". Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  31. ^ "18th Annual TV Awards (2013-14) - Online Film & Television Association". Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  32. ^ "24th Annual Film Awards (2019) - Online Film & Television Association". Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  33. ^ "Ray Romano". Television Academy. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  34. ^ "Search | Screen Actors Guild Awards". www.sagawards.org. Retrieved June 30, 2021.

External links