Provinces of Thailand

The Provinces of Thailand are part of the government of Thailand that is divided into 76 provinces (Thai: จังหวัด, RTGSchangwat, pronounced [t͡ɕāŋ.wàt]) proper and one special administrative area (Thai: เขตปกครองส่วนท้องถิ่นรูปแบบพิเศษ), representing the capital Bangkok.[3][4][5] They are the primary local government units and are divided into amphoes (districts) and also act as juristic persons. Each province is led by a governor (ผู้ว่าราชการจังหวัด phu wa ratchakan changwat), who is appointed by the central government.

Provinces of Thailand
  • Also known as:
  • changwat (จังหวัด)
CategoryUnitary state
LocationKingdom of Thailand
Number76 Provinces
1 Special Administrative Division
Populations193,305 Samut Songkhram – 2,648,927 Nakhon Ratchasima (2019)[1]
Areas414 km2 (160 sq mi) Samut Songkhram – 22,135 km2 (8,546 sq mi) Chiang Mai[2]
Government
Subdivisions

The provinces and Administrative AreasEdit

A clickable map of Thailand exhibiting its provinces.
Chiang Rai ProvinceChiang Mai ProvinceMae Hong Son ProvincePhayao ProvinceLampang ProvincePhrae ProvinceLamphun ProvinceNan ProvinceUttaradit ProvinceBueng Kan ProvinceNong Khai ProvinceUdon Thani ProvinceNakhon Phanom ProvinceSakon Nakhon ProvinceKalasin ProvinceMukdahan ProvinceLoei ProvinceKhon Kaen ProvinceNong Bua Lamphu ProvinceTak ProvinceSukhothai ProvincePhitsanulok ProvincePhichit ProvinceUthai Thani ProvinceKamphaeng Phet ProvinceNakhon Sawan ProvincePhetchabun ProvinceChaiyaphum ProvinceMaha Sarakham ProvinceRoi Et ProvinceYasothon ProvinceAmnat Charoen ProvinceUbon Ratchathani ProvinceSisaket ProvinceSurin ProvinceBuriram ProvinceNakhon Ratchasima ProvinceLopburi ProvinceChainat ProvinceSingburi ProvinceKanchanaburi ProvinceSuphan Buri ProvinceAng Thong ProvinceSaraburi ProvinceAyutthaya ProvinceNakhon Nayok ProvincePrachin Buri ProvincePathum Thani ProvinceNakhon Pathom ProvinceRatchaburi ProvinceSa Kaew ProvinceChachoengsao ProvinceChonburi ProvinceRayong ProvinceChanthaburi ProvinceTrat ProvincePhetchaburi ProvincePrachuap Khiri Khan ProvinceChumphon ProvinceRanong ProvinceSurat Thani ProvincePhang Nga ProvincePhuket Provinceกระบี่นครศรีธรรมราชตรังPhatthalung ProvinceSatun ProvinceSongkhla ProvincePattani ProvinceYala ProvinceNarathiwat ProvinceSamut Prakan ProvinceBangkokNonthaburi ProvinceSamut Sakhon ProvinceSamut Songkhram Province 
About this image
Seal Name Name
(in Thai)
Population (2019)[1] Area (km2)[2] Population density Namesake town/city HS[6] ISO[7] FIPS
    Bangkok
(special administrative area)
กรุงเทพมหานคร 5,666,264 1,564 3,623 Bangkok BKK TH-10 TH40
    Amnat Charoen อำนาจเจริญ 378,438 3,290 115 Amnat Charoen ACR TH-37 TH77
    Ang Thong อ่างทอง 279,654 950 294 Ang Thong ATG TH-15 TH35
    Bueng Kan บึงกาฬ 424,091 4,003 106 Bueng Kan BKN TH-38 TH81
    Buriram บุรีรัมย์ 1,595,747 10,080 159 Buriram BRM TH-31 TH28
    Chachoengsao ฉะเชิงเทรา 720,113 5,169 139 Chachoengsao CCO TH-24 TH44
    Chai Nat ชัยนาท 326,611 2,506 131 Chai Nat CNT TH-18 TH32
    Chaiyaphum ชัยภูมิ 1,137,357 12,698 91 Chaiyaphum CPM TH-36 TH26
    Chanthaburi จันทบุรี 537,698 6,415 84 Chanthaburi CTI TH-22 TH48
    Chiang Mai เชียงใหม่ 1,779,254 22,135 79 Chiang Mai CMI TH-50 TH02
    Chiang Rai เชียงราย 1,298,304 11,503 113 Chiang Rai CRI TH-57 TH03
    Chonburi ชลบุรี 1,558,301 4,508 346 Chonburi CBI TH-20 TH46
    Chumphon ชุมพร 511,304 5,998 85 Chumphon CPN TH-86 TH58
    Kalasin กาฬสินธุ์ 983,418 6,936 142 Kalasin KSN TH-46 TH23
    Kamphaeng Phet กำแพงเพชร 725,867 8,512 86 Kamphaeng Phet KPT TH-62 TH11
    Kanchanaburi กาญจนบุรี 895,525 19,385 46 Kanchanaburi KRI TH-71 TH50
    Khon Kaen ขอนแก่น 1,802,872 10,659 169 Khon Kaen KKN TH-40 TH22
    Krabi กระบี่ 476,739 5,323 90 Krabi KBI TH-81 TH63
    Lampang ลำปาง 738,316 12,488 59 Lampang LPG TH-52 TH06
    Lamphun ลำพูน 405,075 4,478 92 Lamphun LPN TH-51 TH05
    Loei เลย 642,950 10,500 61 Loei LEI TH-42 TH18
    Lopburi ลพบุรี 755,556 6,493 116 Lopburi LRI TH-16 TH34
    Mae Hong Son แม่ฮ่องสอน 284,138 12,765 23 Mae Hong Son MSN TH-58 TH01
    Maha Sarakham มหาสารคาม 962,665 5,607 172 Maha Sarakham MKM TH-44 TH24
    Mukdahan มุกดาหาร 353,174 4,126 87 Mukdahan MDH TH-49 TH78
    Nakhon Nayok นครนายก 260,751 2,141 122 Nakhon Nayok NYK TH-26 TH43
    Nakhon Pathom นครปฐม 920,030 2,142 430 Nakhon Pathom NPT TH-73 TH53
    Nakhon Phanom นครพนม 719,136 5,637 127 Nakhon Phanom NPM TH-48 TH73
    Nakhon Ratchasima นครราชสีมา 2,648,927 20,736 128 Nakhon Ratchasima NMA TH-30 TH27
    Nakhon Sawan นครสวรรค์ 1,059,887 9,526 111 Nakhon Sawan NSN TH-60 TH16
    Nakhon Si Thammarat นครศรีธรรมราช 1,561,927 9,885 158 Nakhon Si Thammarat NRT TH-80 TH64
    Nan น่าน 478,227 12,130 40 Nan NAN TH-55 TH04
    Narathiwat นราธิวาส 808,020 4,491 180 Narathiwat NWT TH-96 TH31
    Nong Bua Lamphu หนองบัวลำภู 512,780 4,099 125 Nong Bua Lam Phu NBP TH-39 TH79
    Nong Khai หนองคาย 522,311 3,275 160 Nong Khai NKI TH-43 TH17
    Nonthaburi นนทบุรี 1,265,387 637 1,986 Nonthaburi NBI TH-12 TH38
    Pathum Thani ปทุมธานี 1,163,604 1,520 766 Pathum Thani PTE TH-13 TH39
    Pattani ปัตตานี 725,104 1,977 367 Pattani PTN TH-94 TH69
    Phang Nga พังงา 268,788 5,495 49 Phang Nga PNA TH-82 TH61
    Phatthalung พัทลุง 524,865 3,861 135 Phatthalung PLG TH-93 TH66
    Phayao พะเยา 472,356 6,189 76 Phayao PYO TH-56 TH41
    Phetchabun เพชรบูรณ์ 992,451 12,340 80 Phetchabun PNB TH-67 TH14
    Phetchaburi เพชรบุรี 485,191 6,172 77 Phetchaburi PBI TH-76 TH56
    Phichit พิจิตร 536,311 4,319 124 Phichit PCT TH-66 TH13
    Phitsanulok พิษณุโลก 865,247 10,589 82 Phitsanulok PLK TH-65 TH12
    Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya พระนครศรีอยุธยา 820,188 2,548 322 Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya AYA TH-14 TH36
    Phrae แพร่ 441,726 6,483 68 Phrae PRE TH-54 TH07
    Phuket ภูเก็ต 416,582 547 762 Phuket PKT TH-83 TH62
    Prachinburi ปราจีนบุรี 494,680 5,026 99 Prachinburi PRI TH-25 TH74
    Prachuap Khiri Khan ประจวบคีรีขันธ์ 554,116 6,414 88 Prachuap Khiri Khan PKN TH-77 TH57
    Ranong ระนอง 193,370 3,230 60 Ranong RNG TH-85 TH59
    Ratchaburi ราชบุรี 873,101 5,189 168 Ratchaburi RBR TH-70 TH52
    Rayong ระยอง 734,753 3,666 201 Rayong RYG TH-21 TH47
    Roi Et ร้อยเอ็ด 1,305,211 7,873 166 Roi Et RET TH-45 TH25
    Sa Kaeo สระแก้ว 566,303 6,831 83 Sa Kaeo SKW TH-27 TH80
    Sakon Nakhon สกลนคร 1,153,390 9,580 121 Sakon Nakhon SNK TH-47 TH20
    Samut Prakan สมุทรปราการ 1,344,875 947 1,420 Samut Prakan SPK TH-11 TH42
    Samut Sakhon สมุทรสาคร 584,703 866 675 Samut Sakhon SKN TH-74 TH55
    Samut Songkhram สมุทรสงคราม 193,305 414 467 Samut Songkhram SKM TH-75 TH54
    Saraburi สระบุรี 645,911 3,499 185 Saraburi SRI TH-19 TH37
    Satun สตูล 323,586 3,019 107 Satun STN TH-91 TH67
    Sing Buri สิงห์บุรี 208,446 817 255 Sing Buri SBR TH-17 TH33
    Sisaket ศรีสะเกษ 1,472,859 8,936 165 Sisaket SSK TH-33 TH30
    Songkhla สงขลา 1,435,968 7,741 186 Songkhla SKA TH-90 TH68
    Sukhothai สุโขทัย 595,072 6,671 89 Sukhothai (Sukhothai Thani) STI TH-64 TH09
    Suphan Buri สุพรรณบุรี 846,334 5,410 156 Suphan Buri SPB TH-72 TH51
    Surat Thani สุราษฎร์ธานี 1,068,010 13,079 81 Surat Thani SNI TH-84 TH60
    Surin สุรินทร์ 1,396,831 8,854 157 Surin SRN TH-32 TH29
    Tak ตาก 665,620 17,303 39 Tak TAK TH-63 TH08
    Trang ตรัง 643,164 4,726 136 Trang TRG TH-92 TH65
    Trat ตราด 229,958 2,866 78 Trat TRT TH-23 TH49
    Ubon Ratchathani อุบลราชธานี 1,878,146 15,626 120 Ubon Ratchathani UBN TH-34 TH75
    Udon Thani อุดรธานี 1,586,646 11,072 143 Udon Thani UDN TH-41 TH76
    Uthai Thani อุทัยธานี 328,618 6,647 50 Uthai Thani UTI TH-61 TH15
    Uttaradit อุตรดิตถ์ 453,103 7,906 58 Uttaradit UTD TH-53 TH10
    Yala ยะลา 536,330 4,476 119 Yala YLA TH-95 TH70
  Yasothon ยโสธร 537,299 4,131 130 Yasothon YST TH-35 TH72
  • The total population of Thailand is 66,558,935 on 31 December 2019.[1]
  • The total land area of Thailand is 517,646 km2 in 2013.[2]
  • HS - Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System.
  • FIPS-code is on 31 December 2014 replaced with ISO 3166.

GovernanceEdit

Thailand's national government organisation is divided into three types: central government (ministries, bureaus and departments), provincial government (provinces and districts) and local government (Bangkok, Pattaya, provincial administrative organisations, etc.).

A province, as part of the provincial government, is administered by a governor (ผู้ว่าราชการจังหวัด) who is appointed by the Minister of Interior. Bangkok, as part of the local government, is administered by a corporation called Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The corporation is led by the Governor of Bangkok (ผู้ว่าราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร) who is directly elected by the citizens of Bangkok.

The provinces are named by their original main city, which is not necessarily still the most populous city within the province today. Also, in several provinces the administration has been moved into a new building outside the city.

HistoryEdit

Before 1892Edit

Many provinces date back to semi-independent local chiefdoms or kingdoms, which made up the Ayutthaya Kingdom. The provinces were created around a capital city (mueang), and included surrounding villages or satellite towns. The provinces were administered either by a governor, who was appointed by the king or by a local ruling family, who were descendants of the old kings and princes of that area and had been given this privilege by the central king. De facto the king did not have much choice but to choose someone from the local nobility or an economically strong man, as against these local power groups the administration would have become impossible. The governor was not paid by the king, but instead financed himself and his administration by imposing local taxes himself. Every province was required to send an annual tribute to Bangkok.

The provinces were divided into four different classes. The first-class were the border provinces. The second-class were those that once had their own princely house. Third-class were provinces that were created by splitting them from other provinces. Fourth-class were provinces near the capital. Additionally tributary states like the principalities of Lan Na, the Laotian kingdoms of Vientiane and Luang Prabang, Cambodia, or the Malay sultanate Kedah were also part of the country, but with more autonomy than the provinces. In this Mandala system the semi-independent countries sometimes were tributary to more than one country.

New provinces were created when the population of an area outgrew the administration, but also for political reasons. If a governor became too dominant in a region former satellite cities were elevated to provincial status, as was the case with Maha Sarakham Province.

Reforms of the provincial administration started in the 1870s under increased pressure from the colonial states of the United Kingdom and France. Agents were sent, especially to border areas, to impose more control on the provinces or tributary states.

Administrative reform of 1892Edit

 
Map of Siam in 1900

At the end of the 19th century King Chulalongkorn reformed the central government. In 1892 the ministry, which previously had many overlapping responsibilities, was reorganized with clear missions as in Western administrations. Prince Damrong Rajanubhab became minister of the Ministry of the North (Mahatthai), originally responsible for the northern administration. When the Ministry of the South (Kalahom) was dissolved in 1894, Prince Damrong became Minister of the Interior, responsible for the provincial administration of the whole country.

Starting in 1893 the already existing commissionaireships in some parts of the country were renamed "superintendent commissioner" (khaluang Thesaphiban), and their area of responsibility was called a monthon. In strategically important areas the monthon were created first, while in other areas the provinces kept their independence a bit longer. Several smaller provinces were reduced in status to a amphoe (district) or even lower to a tambon (sub-district) and included in a neighboring province, sometimes for administrative reasons, but sometimes to remove an uncooperative governor.

In some regions rebellions broke out against the new administrative system, usually induced by the local nobility fearing their loss of power. The most notable was the Holy Man Rebellion in 1902 in Isan. It was initially a messianic doomsday sect, but it also attacked government representatives in the northeast. The provincial town Khemarat was even burned by the rebels. After a few months the rebellion was beaten back.[8]

After 1916, the word changwat became common to use for the provinces, partly to distinguish them from the provincial capital city (mueang or amphoe mueang), but also to stress the new administrative structure of the provinces.[9]

 
Cities and Monthons in 1900[10]

When Prince Damrong resigned in 1915, the whole country was divided into 19 monthon (including the area around Bangkok, which was under the responsibility of another ministry until 1922), with 72 provinces.

In December 1915 King Vajiravudh announced the creation of regions (phak), each administered by a viceroy (upparat), to cover several monthon. Until 1922 four regions were established, however in 1925 they were dissolved again. At the same time several monthon were merged, in an attempt to streamline administration and reduce costs.

Since 1932Edit

The monthons were dissolved when Thailand transformed from an absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy in 1932, making the provinces the top level administrative division again. Several smaller provinces were also abolished at that time. During World War II, several provinces around Bangkok were merged. These changes were undone after the war. Also the occupied area from French Indochina was organized into four provinces: Phra Tabong, Phibunsongkhram, Nakhon Champasak and Lan Chang. The current province of Sukhothai was at first known as Sawankhalok. It was renamed Sukhothai in 1939 (which is why the railway system goes to Sawankhalok city and not Sukhothai city). The province, Kalasin, was reestablished in 1947 after having been dissolved in 1932.

In 1972 Phra Nakhon and Thonburi Provinces were merged to form the special administrative area of Bangkok, which combines the tasks of the provinces with that of a municipality, including having an elected governor.

Starting in the second half of the 20th century some provinces were newly created by splitting them off from bigger provinces. In 1975, Yasothon Province was split off from Ubon Ratchathani. In 1977, Phayao province was created from districts formerly part of Chiang Rai. In 1982, Mukdahan was split off from Nakhon Phanom. In 1993 three provinces were created: Sa Kaeo (split from Prachinburi), Nong Bua Lamphu Province (split from Udon Thani), and Amnat Charoen (split from Ubon Ratchathani). The newest province is Bueng Kan, which was split off from Nong Khai effective 23 March 2011.

Former provinces and administrative areasEdit

Former provinces merged into other provincesEdit

Province Capital Merged in Fate
Kabin Buri Kabin Buri 1926[11] Merged into Prachinburi Province
Sukhothai (beforce 1932) Sukhothai Thani 1932[12] Merged into Sawankhalok Province. However, The province's name and location of capital was changed back to Sukhothai in 1938.
Lom Sak Lom Sak Merged into Phetchabun Province
Thanyaburi Thanyaburi Merged into Pathum Thani Province
Kalasin Kalasin Merged into Maha Sarakham Province, Splited out again in 1947
Lang Suan Lang Suan Merged into Chumphon Province
Takua Pa Takua Pa Merged into Phang Nga Province
Sai Buri Sai Buri Merged into Pattani Province (except Bacho District which was merged into Narathiwat Province)
Phra Pradaeng Phra Pradaeng Merged into Samut Prakan Province (except Rat Burana District which was merged into Thonburi Province)
Min Buri Min Buri Merged into Phra Nakhon Province (Nong Chok District was merged into Chachoengsao Province first then reallocated back in 1933)
Samut Prakan (before 1943) Samut Prakan 1943[13] Merged into Phra Nakhon Province (except Ko Sichang District which was merged into Chonburi Province), The part of Phra Nakhon was splited out again in 1946
Nakhon Nayok Nakhon Nayok Merged into Prachinburi Province (except Ban Na District which was merged into Saraburi Province), Splited out again in 1946
Samut Sakhon Samut Sakhon Merged into Thonburi Province, Splited out again in 1946
Nonthaburi Nonthaburi Merged into Phra Nakhon Province (except Bang Kruai District, Bang Yai District, Bang Bua Thong District which was merged into Thonburi Province), Splited out again in 1946
Phra Nakhon Phra Nakhon 1971[14] Merged to form the current Bangkok
Thonburi Thonburi

Lost territoriesEdit

Province Capital Period Fate Today part of
Prachankiriket[15] Prachankiriket 1855–1904 Pursat and Kampot,   French Indochina Pursat and Koh Kong,   Cambodia
Lan Chang (formerly Chaiburi) Sama Buri until 1904
1941–1946
Luang Prabang,   French Indochina Sainyabuli and Luang Prabang,   Laos
Phra Tabong Battambang until 1907
1941–1946
Battambang,   French Indochina Battambang and Pailin,   Cambodia
Phibunsongkhram Sisophon 1941–1946 Battambang, Siem Reap, Kompong Thom and Stung Treng,   French Indochina Banteay Meanchey, Oddar Meanchey and Siem Reap,   Cambodia
Nakhon Champassak Champasak until-1904
1941–1946
Kompong Thom, Stung Treng and Bassac,   French Indochina Preah Vihear and Stung Treng,   Cambodia
Champasak,   Laos
Syburi Alor Setar until-1909
1943–1945
Kedah,   British Malaya Kedah,   Malaysia
Palit Kangar until-1909
1943–1945
Perlis,   British Malaya Perlis,   Malaysia
Kalantan Kota Bharu until-1909
1943–1945
Kelantan,   British Malaya Kelantan,   Malaysia
Trangkanu Kuala Terengganu until-1909
1943–1945
Terengganu,   British Malaya Terengganu,   Malaysia
Saharat Thai Doem Chiang Tung 1943–1945 Karenni State and Shan State,   British Burma Kayah State and Shan State   Myanmar

Map of Siam in 1871 showing provinces.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c รายงานสถิติจำนวนประชากรและบ้านประจำปี พ.ศ.2562 [Statistics, population and house statistics for the year 2019]. Registration Office Department of the Interior, Ministry of the Interior. stat.bora.dopa.go.th (in Thai). 31 December 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  2. ^ a b c "ตารางที่ 2 พี้นที่ป่าไม้ แยกรายจังหวัด พ.ศ.2562" [Table 2 Forest area Separate province year 2019]. Royal Forest Department (in Thai). 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2021, information, Forest statistics Year 2019, Thailand boundary from Department of Provincial Administration in 2013CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  3. ^ "Administrative information". Department of Provincial Affairs (DOPA). Provincial Affairs Bureau. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  4. ^ "ประกาศสำนักทะเบียนกลาง เรื่อง จำนวนราษฎรทั่วราชอาณาจักร ตามหลักฐานการทะเบียนราษฎร ณ วันที่ 31 ธันวาคม 2558" [Announcement of the Central Registry. The number of people throughout the Kingdom. The evidence of registration as of 31 December 2015]. Department of Provincial Administration (DOPA). Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  5. ^ "The World Factbook: Thailand". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  6. ^ "What is the Harmonized System (HS)?". World Customs Organization.
  7. ^ "ISO 3166-2:TH".
  8. ^ Tej Bunnag (1969). The Provincial Administration of Siam from 1892 to 1915. p. 273ff.
  9. ^ ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง ทรงพระกรุณาโปรดเกล้า ฯ ให้เปลี่ยนคำว่าเมืองเรียกว่าจังหวัด (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 33 (ก): 51–53. 1916-05-28.
  10. ^ Timtsunami8 (2020-08-31), of Siam in 1900.png English: An updated version of the map Check |url= value (help), retrieved 2021-06-21
  11. ^ http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2468/A/430.PDF
  12. ^ http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2474/A/576.PDF
  13. ^ http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2485/A/077/2447.PDF
  14. ^ http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2514/A/144/816.PDF
  15. ^ "ร.๔ พระราชทานชื่อเมือง ประจวบคีรีขันธ์ กับ ปัจจันตคีรีเขตร ให้คู่กัน! แต่วันนี้อีกเมืองหายไปไหน!! "". 27 June 2018.

Further readingEdit

  • Tej Bunnag (1977). The Provincial Administration of Siam, 1892–1915: the Ministry of the Interior under Prince Damrong Rajanubhab. Kuala Lumpur; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-580343-4.

External linksEdit