Political history of Chicago

Politics in Chicago through most of the 20th century was dominated by the Democratic Party. Organized crime and corruption were persistent concerns in the city.


19th centuryEdit

In 1855, Chicago Mayor Levi Boone threw Chicago politics into the national spotlight with some dry proposals that would lead to the Lager Beer Riot by the wets.[1][full citation needed]

The 1860 Republican National Convention in Chicago nominated home-state candidate Abraham Lincoln. During the 1880s, 1890s, and early 20th century, Chicago also had an underground radical tradition with large and highly organized socialist, communist, anarchist and labor organizations.[2] The Republicans had their own machine operations, typified by the "blonde boss" William Lorimer, who was unseated by the U.S. Senate in 1912 because of his corrupt election methods.[3]

20th centuryEdit

The political environment in Chicago in the 1910s and 1920s let organized crime flourish to the point that many Chicago policemen earned more money from pay-offs than from the city. Before the 1930s, the Democratic Party in Chicago was divided along ethnic lines - the Irish, Polish, Italian, and other groups each controlled politics in their neighborhoods. Under the leadership of Anton Cermak, the party consolidated its ethnic bases into one large organization. With the organization behind, Cermak was able to win election as mayor of Chicago in 1931, an office he held until his assassination in 1933.

The modern era of politics was dominated by machine politics in many ways, and the Cook County Democratic Party was honed by Richard J. Daley after his election in 1955. Richard M. Daley, his son, is a former mayor of Chicago and had served for 21 years as mayor and 38 as a public servant. Daley announced on September 7, 2010 that he would not be seeking re-election.[4] Daley was succeeded by former Obama White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel.

The New Deal of the 1930s and the Great Society of the 1960s gave the Democratic Party access to new funds and programs for housing, slum clearance, urban renewal, and education, through which to dispense patronage and maintain control of the city.[5] Machine politics persisted in Chicago after the decline of similar machines in other large American cities.[6] During much of that time, the city administration found opposition mainly from a liberal "independent" faction of the Democratic Party. This included African Americans and Latinos. In the Lakeview/Uptown 46th Ward. The first Latino to announce an aldermanic bid against a Daley loyalist was Jose Cha Cha Jimenez, the Young Lords founder.[7]

A point of interest is the party leanings of the city. For much of the last century, Chicago was considered one of the largest Democratic strongholds in the United States. For example, the citizens of Chicago have not elected a Republican mayor since 1927, when William Thompson was voted into office. Brian Doherty was the only Republican council member in recent decades.[citation needed]

The police corruption that came to the light from the Summerdale Scandals of 1960, where police officers kept stolen property or sold it and kept the cash, was another black eye on the local political scene of Chicago.[8] Eight officers from the Summerdale police district on Chicago's Northwest Side were accused of operating a large-scale burglary ring. News of the scandal was splashed across the city's newspapers and was the biggest police-related scandal the city had ever seen at the time. Mayor Daley appointed a committee to make recommendations for improvements to the police system.[citation needed]

The Daley faction, with financial help from Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., helped elect John F. Kennedy to the office of President of the United States in the 1960 presidential election.[9] The electoral votes from the state of Illinois, with nearly half its population located in Chicago-dominated Cook County, were a factor in the win for Kennedy over Richard Nixon.[citation needed]

Chicago politics have also hosted some very publicized campaigns and conventions. The Democratic Party decided on Harry S. Truman as the vice-presidential candidate at the 1944 Democratic National Convention. The 1968 Democratic National Convention was the scene of mass political rallies and discontent, leading to the famous trial of the Chicago Seven. Seven defendants—Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, David Dellinger, Tom Hayden, Rennie Davis, John Froines, and Lee Weiner—were charged with conspiracy, inciting to riot, and other charges related to protests.[citation needed]

Home-town columnist Mike Royko wrote satirically that Chicago's motto (Urbs in Horto or "City in a Garden") should instead be Ubi est mea, or "Where's Mine?[10]

The shock election of six Democratic Socialists of America to the council in 2019 was regarded as the largest socialist electoral victory in modern American history.[11] Although technically non-partisan along with the rest of the council, the newly elected aldermen formed a Socialist caucus.


Chicago has a long history of political corruption,[12] dating to the incorporation of the city in 1833.[13] It has been a de facto monolithic entity of the Democratic Party from the mid 20th century onward.[14][15] Research released by the University of Illinois at Chicago reports that Chicago and Cook County's judicial district recorded 45 public corruption convictions for 2013, and 1642 convictions since 1976, when the Department of Justice began compiling statistics. This prompted many media outlets to declare Chicago the "corruption capital of America".[16] Gradel and Simpson's Corrupt Illinois (2015) provides the data behind Chicago's corrupt political culture.[17][18] They found that a tabulation of federal public corruption convictions make Chicago "undoubtedly the most corrupt city in our nation",[19] with the cost of corruption "at least" $500 million per year.[20]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Richard Carl Lindberg, To Serve and Collect: Chicago Politics and Police Corruption from the Lager Beer Riot to the Summerdale Scandal: 1855–1960 (1991) ch. 1
  2. ^ Schneirov, Richard (April 1, 1998). Labor and Urban Politics. University of Illinois Press. pp. 173–174. ISBN 0-252-06676-6.
  3. ^ Joel Arthur Tarr, A Study In Boss Politics: William Lorimer of Chicago (1971),
  4. ^ "Sun times article covering Daley Jr. withdrawal from 2011.website=Suntimes.com". Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  5. ^ "Politics". Encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  6. ^ Montejano, David, ed. (January 1, 1998). Chicano Politics and Society in the Late Twentieth Century. University of Texas Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN 0-292-75215-6.
  7. ^ "Promotwo - Sun Times Market". Suntimes.com. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  8. ^ "Policing". southside.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  9. ^ "November 4, 1960: The Night Richard J. Daley Bought NBC for JFK. Video of Chicago's greatest political rally". Richsamuels.com. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  10. ^ Joravsky, Ben. "The Radical Rokyo". Chicagoreader.com. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  11. ^ Uetricht, Micah (2019-04-03). "America's socialist surge is going strong in Chicago | Micah Uetricht". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-11-05.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-26. Retrieved 1970-01-01. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ Thomas J. Gradel and Dick Simpson, Corrupt Illinois: Patronage, Cronyism, and Criminality (University of Illinois Press, 2015), pp. 11-12, 211.
  14. ^ "Illinois: The Most Democratic State". Nbcchicago.com. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  15. ^ "Chicago Democrats Make Appeal To Republican Candidates". Npr.org. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  16. ^ "Chicago Named "Corruption Capital of America"". Nbcchicago.com. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  17. ^ Simpson, Thomas J. Gradel and Dick. "UI Press - Thomas J. Gradel and Dick Simpson - Corrupt Illinois: Patronage, Cronyism, and Criminality". Press.uillinois.edu. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  18. ^ "A 'must read' tells how corrupt Chicago and Illinois are". Chicago.suntimes.com. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  19. ^ Thomas J. Gradel and Dick Simpson, Corrupt Illinois: Patronage, Cronyism, and Criminality (University of Illinois Press, 2015), for the characterization of Chicago, p. xii; for the Table of Federal Public Corruption Convictions," p. 5.
  20. ^ Thomas J. Gradel and Dick Simpson, Corrupt Illinois: Patronage, Cronyism, and Criminality (University of Illinois Press, 2015), p. 195.

Further readingEdit


  • Cohen, Adam, and Elizabeth Taylor. American Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley - His Battle for Chicago and the Nation. Boston: Back Bay Books, 2001. ISBN 0-316-83489-0
  • David K., Fremon. Chicago politics: ward by ward. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1988
  • Gradel, Thomas J. and Dick Simpson, Corrupt Illinois: Patronage, Cronyism, and Criminality (University of Illinois Press, 2015) ISBN 978-0252078552
  • Green, Paul M.. The Mayors: The Chicago Political Tradition. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8093-2612-4
  • Kimble Jr., Lionel. A New Deal for Bronzeville: Housing, Employment, and Civil Rights in Black Chicago, 1935-1955 (Southern Illinois University Press, 2015). xiv, 200 pp.
  • Lindberg, Richard Carl. To Serve and Collect: Chicago Politics and Police Corruption from the Lager Beer Riot to the Summerdale Scandal : 1855-1960. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1991. ISBN 0-275-93415-2
  • Sautter, R. Craig, Edward M. Burke. Inside the Wigwam: Chicago Presidential Conventions, 1860-1996. Chicago: Loyola Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8294-0911-4
  • Simpson, Vernon. Chicago's Politics & Society: a Selected Bibliography. DeKalb: Center for Government Studies, DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University, 1972.
  • Wendt, Lloyd, Herman Kogan, and Bette Jore. Big Bill of Chicago. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2005 ISBN 0-8101-2319-3