Political correctness (adjectivally: politically correct; commonly abbreviated PC) is a term used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society. In public discourse and the media, the term is generally used as a pejorative with an implication that these policies are excessive or unwarranted. Since the late 1980s, the term has been used to describe a preference for inclusive language and avoidance of language or behavior that can be seen as excluding, marginalizing, or insulting to groups of people disadvantaged or discriminated against, particularly groups defined by ethnicity, sex, or gender.
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Early usage of the term politically correct by leftists in the 1970s and 1980s was as self-critical satire; usage was ironic, rather than a name for a serious political movement. It was considered an in-joke among leftists used to satirise those who were too rigid in their adherence to political orthodoxy.
The modern pejorative usage of the term emerged from conservative criticism of the New Left in the late 20th century. This usage was popularized by a number of articles in The New York Times and other media throughout the 1990s, and was widely used in the debate surrounding Allan Bloom's 1987 book The Closing of the American Mind. The term gained further currency in response to Roger Kimball's Tenured Radicals (1990), and conservative author Dinesh D'Souza's 1991 book Illiberal Education.
Commentators on the political left in the United States contend that conservatives use the concept of political correctness to downplay and divert attention from substantively discriminatory behavior against disadvantaged groups. They also argue that the political right enforces its own forms of political correctness to suppress criticism of its favored constituencies and ideologies. In the United States, the term has played a major role in the "culture war" between liberals and conservatives.
William Safire states that the first recorded use of the term politically correct in the typical modern sense is by Toni Cade Bambara in the 1970 anthology The Black Woman. The term probably entered modern use in the United Kingdom around 1975.
Early-to-mid 20th century
In the early-to-mid 20th century, the phrase politically correct was used to describe strict adherence to a range of ideological orthodoxies within politics. In 1934, The New York Times reported that Nazi Germany was granting reporting permits "only to pure 'Aryans' whose opinions are politically correct".
As Marxist–Leninist movements gained political power, the phrase came to be associated with accusations of dogmatic application of doctrine in debates between American Communists and American Socialists. This usage referred to the Communist party line which, in the eyes of the Socialists, provided "correct" positions on all political matters. According to American educator Herbert Kohl, writing about debates in New York in the late 1940s and early 1950s,
The term "politically correct" was used disparagingly, to refer to someone whose loyalty to the CP line overrode compassion, and led to bad politics. It was used by Socialists against Communists, and was meant to separate out Socialists who believed in egalitarian moral ideas from dogmatic Communists who would advocate and defend party positions regardless of their moral substance.— "Uncommon Differences", The Lion and the Unicorn
In the 1970s, the American New Left began using the term politically correct. In the essay The Black Woman: An Anthology (1970), Toni Cade Bambara said that "a man cannot be politically correct and a [male] chauvinist, too." Thereafter, the term was often used as self-critical satire. Debra L. Shultz said that "throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the New Left, feminists, and progressives... used their term 'politically correct' ironically, as a guard against their own orthodoxy in social change efforts." PC is used in the comic book Merton of the Movement, by Bobby London, which was followed by the term ideologically sound, in the comic strips of Bart Dickon. In her essay "Toward a feminist Revolution" (1992) Ellen Willis said: "In the early eighties, when feminists used the term 'political correctness', it was used to refer sarcastically to the anti-pornography movement's efforts to define a 'feminist sexuality'."
Stuart Hall suggests one way in which the original use of the term may have developed into the modern one:
According to one version, political correctness actually began as an in-joke on the left: radical students on American campuses acting out an ironic replay of the Bad Old Days BS (Before the Sixties) when every revolutionary groupuscule had a party line about everything. They would address some glaring examples of sexist or racist behaviour by their fellow students in imitation of the tone of voice of the Red Guards or Cultural Revolution Commissar: "Not very 'politically correct', Comrade!"
1980s and 1990s
Allan Bloom's 1987 book The Closing of the American Mind heralded a debate about "political correctness" in American higher education in the 1980s and 1990s. Professor of English literary and cultural studies at CMU Jeffrey J. Williams wrote that the "assault on ... political correctness that simmered through the Reagan years, gained bestsellerdom with Bloom's Closing of the American Mind." According to Z.F. Gamson, Bloom's book "attacked the faculty for 'political correctness'". Prof. of Social Work at CSU Tony Platt says the "campaign against 'political correctness'" was launched by Bloom's book in 1987.
An October 1990 New York Times article by Richard Bernstein is credited with popularizing the term. At this time, the term was mainly being used within academia: "Across the country the term p.c., as it is commonly abbreviated, is being heard more and more in debates over what should be taught at the universities". Nexis citations in "arcnews/curnews" reveal only seventy total citations in articles to "political correctness" for 1990; but one year later, Nexis records 1,532 citations, with a steady increase to more than 7,000 citations by 1994. In May 1991, The New York Times had a follow-up article, according to which the term was increasingly being used in a wider public arena:
What has come to be called "political correctness," a term that began to gain currency at the start of the academic year last fall, has spread in recent months and has become the focus of an angry national debate, mainly on campuses, but also in the larger arenas of American life.
The previously obscure far-left term became common currency in the lexicon of the conservative social and political challenges against progressive teaching methods and curriculum changes in the secondary schools and universities of the U.S. Policies, behavior, and speech codes that the speaker or the writer regarded as being the imposition of a liberal orthodoxy, were described and criticized as "politically correct". In May 1991, at a commencement ceremony for a graduating class of the University of Michigan, then U.S. President George H. W. Bush used the term in his speech: "The notion of political correctness has ignited controversy across the land. And although the movement arises from the laudable desire to sweep away the debris of racism and sexism and hatred, it replaces old prejudice with new ones. It declares certain topics off-limits, certain expression off-limits, even certain gestures off-limits."
After 1991, its use as a pejorative phrase became widespread amongst conservatives in the US. It became a key term encapsulating conservative concerns about the left in cultural and political debates extending beyond academia. Two articles on the topic in late 1990 in Forbes and Newsweek both used the term "thought police" in their headlines, exemplifying the tone of the new usage, but it was Dinesh D'Souza's Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus (1991) which "captured the press's imagination". Similar critical terminology was used by D'Souza for a range of policies in academia around victimization, supporting multiculturalism through affirmative action, sanctions against anti-minority hate speech, and revising curricula (sometimes referred to as "canon busting"). These trends were at least in part a response to multiculturalism and the rise of identity politics, with movements such as feminism, gay rights movements and ethnic minority movements. That response received funding from conservative foundations and think tanks such as the John M. Olin Foundation, which funded several books such as D'Souza's.
Herbert Kohl, in 1992, commented that a number of neoconservatives who promoted the use of the term "politically correct" in the early 1990s were former Communist Party members, and, as a result, familiar with the Marxist use of the phrase. He argued that in doing so, they intended "to insinuate that egalitarian democratic ideas are actually authoritarian, orthodox, and Communist-influenced, when they oppose the right of people to be racist, sexist, and homophobic".
During the 1990s, conservative and right-wing politicians, think-tanks, and speakers adopted the phrase as a pejorative descriptor of their ideological enemies – especially in the context of the Culture Wars about language and the content of public-school curricula. Roger Kimball, in Tenured Radicals, endorsed Frederick Crews's view that PC is best described as "Left Eclecticism", a term defined by Kimball as "any of a wide variety of anti-establishment modes of thought from structuralism and poststructuralism, deconstruction, and Lacanian analyst to feminist, homosexual, black, and other patently political forms of criticism".
Liberal commentators have argued that the conservatives and reactionaries who used the term did so in effort to divert political discussion away from the substantive matters of resolving societal discrimination – such as racial, social class, gender, and legal inequality – against people whom conservatives do not consider part of the social mainstream. Jan Narveson wrote that "that phrase was born to live between scare-quotes: it suggests that the operative considerations in the area so called are merely political, steamrolling the genuine reasons of principle for which we ought to be acting..." Commenting in 2001, one such British journalist, Polly Toynbee, said "the phrase is an empty, right-wing smear, designed only to elevate its user", and, in 2010, "the phrase 'political correctness' was born as a coded cover for all who still want to say Paki, spastic, or queer". Another British journalist, Will Hutton, wrote in 2001:
Political correctness is one of the brilliant tools that the American Right developed in the mid–1980s, as part of its demolition of American liberalism.... What the sharpest thinkers on the American Right saw quickly was that by declaring war on the cultural manifestations of liberalism – by levelling the charge of "political correctness" against its exponents – they could discredit the whole political project.— Will Hutton, "Words Really are Important, Mr Blunkett", 2001.
Glenn Loury wrote in 1994 that to address the subject of "political correctness" when power and authority within the academic community is being contested by parties on either side of that issue, is to invite scrutiny of one's arguments by would-be "friends" and "enemies". Combatants from the left and the right will try to assess whether a writer is "for them" or "against them".
Geoffrey Hughes suggested that debate over political correctness concerns whether changing language actually solves political and social problems, with critics viewing it less about solving problems than imposing censorship, intellectual intimidation and demonstrating the moral purity of those who practice it. Hughes also argues that political correctness tends to be pushed by a minority rather than an organic form of language change.
Modern debate on the term was sparked by conservative critiques of assumed liberal bias in academia and education, and conservatives have since used it as a major line of attack. University of Pennsylvania professor Alan Charles Kors and lawyer Harvey A. Silverglate connect speech codes in US universities to Frankfurt School philosopher Herbert Marcuse. They claim that speech codes create a "climate of repression", arguing that they are based on "Marcusean logic". The speech codes, "mandate a redefined notion of "freedom", based on the belief that the imposition of a moral agenda on a community is justified", a view which, "requires less emphasis on individual rights and more on assuring "historically oppressed" persons the means of achieving equal rights". Kors and Silverglate later established the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), which campaigns against infringement of rights of due process, in particular "speech codes".
Similarly, a common conservative criticism of higher education in the United States is that the political views of the faculty are much more liberal than the general population, and that this situation contributes to an atmosphere of political correctness. William Deresiewicz defines political correctness as an attempt to silence "unwelcome beliefs and ideas", arguing that it is largely the result of for-profit education, as campus faculty and staff are wary of angering students upon whose fees they depend.
Preliminary research published in 2020 indicated that students at a large U.S. public university generally felt instructors were open-minded and encouraged free expression of diverse viewpoints; nonetheless, most students worried about the consequences of voicing their political opinions, with "[a]nxieties about expressing political views and self-censorship ... more prevalent among students who identify as conservative".
As a conspiracy theory
Some conservative commentators in the West argue that "political correctness" and multiculturalism are part of a conspiracy with the ultimate goal of undermining Judeo-Christian values. This theory, which holds that political correctness originates from the critical theory of the Frankfurt School as part of a conspiracy that its proponents call "Cultural Marxism". The theory originated with Michael Minnicino's 1992 essay "New Dark Age: Frankfurt School and 'Political Correctness'", published in a Lyndon LaRouche movement journal. In 2001, conservative commentator Patrick Buchanan wrote in The Death of the West that "political correctness is cultural Marxism", and that "its trademark is intolerance".
In the US, the term has been widely used in books and journals, but in Britain, usage has been confined mainly to the popular press. Many such authors and popular-media figures, particularly on the right, have used the term to criticize what they see as bias in the media. William McGowan argues that journalists get stories wrong or ignore stories worthy of coverage, because of what McGowan perceives to be their liberal ideologies and their fear of offending minority groups. Robert Novak, in his essay "Political Correctness Has No Place in the Newsroom", used the term to blame newspapers for adopting language use policies that he thinks tend to excessively avoid the appearance of bias. He argued that political correctness in language not only destroys meaning but also demeans the people who are meant to be protected. Authors David Sloan and Emily Hoff claim that in the US, journalists shrug off concerns about political correctness in the newsroom, equating the political correctness criticisms with the old "liberal media bias" label. According to author John Wilson, left-wing forces of "political correctness" have been blamed for unrelated censorship, with Time citing campaigns against violence on network television in the US as contributing to a "mainstream culture [that] has become cautious, sanitized, scared of its own shadow" because of "the watchful eye of the p.c. police", protests and advertiser boycotts targeting TV shows are generally organized by right-wing religious groups campaigning against violence, sex, and depictions of homosexuality on television.
Political correctness is often satirized, for example in The PC Manifesto (1992) by Saul Jerushalmy and Rens Zbignieuw X, and Politically Correct Bedtime Stories (1994) by James Finn Garner, which presents fairy tales re-written from an exaggerated politically correct perspective. In 1994, the comedy film PCU took a look at political correctness on a college campus.
Other examples include the television program Politically Incorrect, George Carlin’s "Euphemisms" routine, and The Politically Correct Scrapbook. The popularity of the South Park cartoon program led to the creation of the term "South Park Republican" by Andrew Sullivan, and later the book South Park Conservatives by Brian C. Anderson. In its Season 19 (2015), South Park introduced the character PC Principal, who embodies the principle, to poke fun at the principle of political correctness.
Groups who oppose certain generally accepted scientific views about evolution, second-hand tobacco smoke, AIDS, global warming, race, and other politically contentious scientific matters have used the term "political correctness" to describe what they view as unwarranted rejection of their perspective on these issues by a scientific community that they believe has been corrupted by liberal politics.
Right-wing political correctness
"Political correctness" is a label typically used to describe liberal terms and actions, but not for equivalent attempts to mold language and behavior on the right. Economist Paul Krugman, writes that "the big threat to our discourse is right-wing political correctness, which – unlike the liberal version – has lots of power and money behind it. And the goal is very much the kind of thing Orwell tried to convey with his notion of "Newspeak": to make it impossible to talk, and possibly even think, about ideas that challenge the established order." Alex Nowrasteh of the Cato Institute defined the right's own version of political correctness as "patriotic correctness".
- Agenda-setting theory
- Anti-bias curriculum
- Campaign Against Political Correctness
- Cancel culture
- Cultural Bolshevism
- Distancing language
- Framing (social sciences)
- Gutmensch (German expression for "do-gooder")
- Kotobagari (Japanese political correctness)
- Linguistic relativity
- Microaggression theory
- Pensée unique
- People-first language
- Politics and the English Language (1946 essay by George Orwell)
- Reverse discrimination
- Snowflake (slang)
- Social justice warrior
- Speech code
- Trigger warnings
- For definitions, see:
- Gibson, Caitlin (13 January 2016). "How 'politically correct' went from compliment to insult". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- Kohl, Herbert (1992). "Uncommon Differences: On Political Correctness, Core Curriculum and Democracy in Education". The Lion and the Unicorn. 16 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1353/uni.0.0216. S2CID 145173687.
- Florence, Joshua (30 October 2015). "A Phrase in Flux: The History of Political Correctness". Harvard Political Review. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- Chow, Kat (14 December 2016). "'Politically Correct': The Phrase Has Gone From Wisdom To Weapon". National Public Radio (NPR). Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- Friedman, Marilyn; Narveson, Jan (1995). Political correctness : for and against. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0847679867. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- Schultz, Debra L. (1993). To Reclaim a Legacy of Diversity: Analyzing the 'Political Correctness' Debates in Higher Education (PDF). National Council for Research on Women. New York. ISBN 978-1880547137.
- Whitney, D. Charles & Wartella, Ellen (1992). "Media Coverage of the "Political Correctness" Debate". Journal of Communication. 42 (2): 83. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00780.x.
- Duignan, Peter; Gann, L.H. (1995). Political correctness. Stanford, [Calif.]: Hoover Institution – Stanford University. ISBN 978-0817937430. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
- Hughes, Geoffrey (2011). "Origins of the Phrase". Political Correctness: A History of Semantics and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. 1975 – Peter Fuller. ISBN 978-1444360295.
- Ruth Perry, (1992), "A Short History of the Term 'Politically Correct'", in Beyond PC: Toward a Politics of Understanding, by Patricia Aufderheide, 1992, ISBN 978-1555971649
- Schultz citing Perry (1992) p. 16
- Willis, Ellen. "Toward a Feminist Revolution", in No More Nice Girls: Countercultural Essays (1992) Wesleyan University Press, ISBN 081955250X, p. 19.
- Hall, Stuart (1994). "Some 'Politically Incorrect' Pathways Through PC" (PDF). S. Dunant (ed.) The War of the Words: The Political Correctness Debate. pp. 164–84.
- Bernstein, Richard (28 October 1990). "Ideas & Trends: The Rising Hegemony of the Politically Correct". The New York Times.
- McFadden, Robert D. (5 May 1991). "Political Correctness: New Bias Test?". The New York Times.
- Berman, edited by Paul (1992). Debating P.C. : the controversy over political correctness on college campuses. p. Introduction. ISBN 978-0307801784.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Heteren, Annette Gomis van (1997). Political correctness in context : the PC controversy in America. Almería: Universidad de Almería, Servicio de Publicaciones. p. 148. ISBN 978-8482400839.
- Smith, Dorothy E. (1999). Writing the social : critique, theory, and investigations (Repr. ed.). Toronto (Ont.): University of Toronto Press. p. 175. ISBN 978-0802081353. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- Schwartz, Howard S. (1997). "Psychodynamics of Political Correctness". Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 33 (2): 133–49. doi:10.1177/0021886397332003. S2CID 144305581. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Bellow, Allan Bloom; foreword by Saul (1988). The closing of the American mind (1st Touchstone ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0671657154.
- Robinson, Sally (2000). Marked men white masculinity in crisis. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 17, 55–86. ISBN 978-0231500364.
- Wilson, John. 1995. The Myth of Political Correctness: The Conservative Attack on High Education. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. p. 26.
- Kimball, Roger (1990). Tenured radicals : how politics has corrupted our higher education (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Row – Originally The University of Michigan. ISBN 978-0060161903.
- D'Souza, Dinesh (1991). Illiberal education : the politics of race and sex on campus. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0684863849. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- Messer-Davidow, Ellen (1995). "Manufacturing the Attack on Liberalized Higher Education: The Humanities and Society in the 1990s". Cite journal requires
- Mink, Eric (6 October 2016). "Trump's Political-Correctness Con Job". Huffington Post. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- "Conservative Correctness" chapter, in Wilson, John. 1995. The Myth of Political Correctness: The Conservative Attack on Higher Education. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. p. 57.
- "Don Williams comments – Dixie Chicks Were Right". mach2.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- Krugman, Paul (26 May 2012). "The New Political Correctness". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- Kaufman, Scott Barry (20 November 2016). "The Personality of Political Correctness; The idea of political correctness is central to the culture wars of American politics". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Safire, William (2008). Safire's political dictionary (Rev. ed.). New York [u.a.]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195343342.
- Bleifuss, Joel (February 2007). "A Politically Correct Lexicon". In These Times.
- Kamiya, Gary (22 January 1995). "Civilization & Its Discontents". San Francisco Chronicle Magazine. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Williams, Jeffrey (2013). PC Wars: Politics and Theory in the Academy. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-1136656231. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Gamson, Z.F. (1997). "The Stratification of the Academy". Academic Labor – Duke University Press. 51 (51): 67–73. doi:10.2307/466647. JSTOR 466647.
- Platt, Tony. "Desegregating Multiculturalism: Problems in the Theory and Pedagogy of Diversity Education" (PDF). Pedagogies for Social Change. 29 (4 (90)). Retrieved 28 October 2015 – via Social Justice.
- Valdes, Francisco; Culp, Jerome McCristal; Harris, Angela P., eds. (2002). Crossroads, directions, and a new critical race theory. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. pp. 59, 65. ISBN 978-1566399302.
- Browne, Anthony (2006). "The Retreat of Reason: Political Correctness and the Corruption of Public Debate in Modern Britain Archived 3 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine". Civitas. ISBN 1903386500.
- Cho, Sumi (1997). "Essential Politics". Harvard Law Review. 433.
- D'Souza 1991
- Berman 1992
- Schultz 1993
- Messer Davidow 1993, 1994
- Scatamburlo 1998
- U.S. President George H. W. Bush, at the University of Michigan (4 May 1991), Remarks at the University of Michigan Commencement Ceremony in Ann Arbor, 4 May 1991. George Bush Presidential Library.
- Meaghan, Morris (2013). New Keywords a Revised Vocabulary of Culture and Society. Hoboken: Wiley. ISBN 978-1118725412. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015.
- edited; Aufderheide, with an introduction by Patricia (1992). Beyond PC : toward a politics of understanding. Saint Paul, Minn.: Graywolf Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-1555971649.
- In The New York Times newspaper article "The Rising Hegemony of the Politically Correct", the reporter Richard Bernstein said that:
The term "politically correct", with its suggestion of Stalinist orthodoxy, is spoken more with irony and disapproval than with reverence. But, across the country the term "P.C.", as it is commonly abbreviated, is being heard more and more in debates over what should be taught at the universities.Bernstein also reported about a meeting of the Western Humanities Conference in Berkeley, California, on the subject of "Political Correctness" and Cultural Studies that examined "what effect the pressure to conform to currently fashionable ideas is having on scholarship". Western Humanities Conference Archived 15 December 2012 at Archive.today— The Rising Hegemony of the Politically Correct, NYT (28 October 1990) Bernstein, Richard (28 October 1990). "Ideas & Trends: The Rising Hegemony of the Politically Correct". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- For commentary see:
- Lauter, Paul (1993). "'Political Correctness' and the Attack on American Colleges". Cite journal requires
- Stimpson, Catharine R. (29 May 1991). "New 'Politically Correct' Metaphors Insult History and Our Campuses". Cite journal requires
- James, Axtell (1998). The Pleasures of Academe: A Celebration & Defense of Higher Education.
- Scatamburlo, Valerie L. (1998). Soldiers of Misfortune: The New Right's Culture War and the Politics of Political Correctness.
- Glassner, Barry (5 January 2010). The Culture of Fear: Why Americans Are Afraid of the Wrong Things: Crime, Drugs, Minorities, Teen Moms, Killer Kids, Mutant Microbes, Plane Crashes, Road Rage, & So Much More.
- Lauter, Paul (1993). "'Political Correctness' and the Attack on American Colleges". Cite journal requires
- Tomlinson, Sally (2008). Race and education : policy and politics in Britain ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Maidenhead [u.a]: Open University Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0335223077.
- Dekker, Teun J. (2013). Paying Our High Public Officials: Evaluating the Political Justifications of Top Wages in the Public Sector. Research in Public Administration and Public Policy. Routledge. p. 119. ISBN 978-1135131265.
- For Polly Toynbee see:
- Toynbee, Polly. "Religion Must be Removed from all Functions of State", The Guardian, 12 December 2001 – Accessed 6 February 2007.
- Toynbee, Polly (28 April 2009). "This Bold Equality Push is just what We Needed. In 1997". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- Regarding Will Hutton see:
- Hutton, Will (2015). How Good We Can Be: Ending the Mercenary Society and Building a Great Country. Hachette UK. p. 80. ISBN 978-1408705322.
- Albrow, Martin (1997). The global age state and society beyond modernity (1st ed.). Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. p. 215. ISBN 978-0804728706.
- "The Economist: Will Hutton, p. 81". The Economist. Economist Newspaper Limited. 2002.
- Gyuris, Ferenc (2014). The Political Discourse of Spatial Disparities Geographical Inequalities Between Science and Propaganda. Cham: Springer International Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-3319015088.
- Hutton, Will. "Words really are important, Mr Blunkett" The Observer, Sunday 16 December 2001 – Accessed 6 February 2007.
- Loury, G. C. (1 October 1994). "Self-Censorship in Public Discourse: A Theory of "Political Correctness" and Related Phenomena" (PDF). Rationality and Society. 6 (4): 428–61. doi:10.1177/1043463194006004002. S2CID 143057168. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Hughes, Geoffrey. An encyclopedia of swearing: The social history of oaths, profanity, foul language, and ethnic slurs in the English-speaking world. Routledge, 2015, pp.348-349
- Kors, A. C.; Silverglate, H (November 1998). "Codes of silence – who's silencing free speech on campus – and why". Reason Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 August 2004. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- Leo, John (Winter 2007). "Free Inquiry? Not on Campus". City Journal. Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
- Hess, Frederick M.; Maranto, Robert; Redding, Richard E. (2009). The politically correct university : problems, scope, and reforms. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press. ISBN 978-0844743172.
- Deresiewicz, William On Political Correctness, The American Scholar, 06/03/17, accessed 24/03/19
- Larson, Jennifer, Mark McNeilly, and Timothy J. Ryan. "Free Expression and Constructive Dialogue at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill." Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina (5 February 2020).
- Friedersdorf, Conor (16 February 2020). "Evidence That Conservative Students Really Do Self-Censor". The Atlantic. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
- For Cultural Marxism, see:
- Richardson, John E. (2015). "'Cultural-Marxism' and the British National Party: a transnational discourse". In Copsey, Nigel; Richardson, John E. (eds.). Cultures of Post-War British Fascism. ISBN 9781317539360.
- Jamin, Jérôme (2014). "Cultural Marxism and the Radical Right". In Shekhovtsov, A.; Jackson, P. (eds.). The Post-War Anglo-American Far Right: A Special Relationship of Hate. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 84–103. doi:10.1057/9781137396211.0009. ISBN 978-1137396198.
- Jay, Martin (2010), "Dialectic of Counter-Enlightenment: The Frankfurt School as Scapegoat of the Lunatic Fringe". Salmagundi (Fall 2010–Winter 2011, 168–69): 30–40.
- Buchanan, Patrick. The Death of the West, p. 89.
- Lea, John (2010). Political Correctness and Higher Education: British and American Perspectives. Routledge. ISBN 978-1135895884. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- McGowan, William (2003). Coloring the news : how political correctness has corrupted American journalism ([New postscript]. ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1893554603.
- Gorham, Joan (1996). Mass Media. Dushkin Publishing Group, Indiana University. ISBN 9780697316110. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Novak, Robert (March 1995). "Political Correctness Has No Place in the Newsroom". USA Today. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Sloan, David; Mackay, Jenn (2007). Media Bias. McFarland & Company. p. 112. ISBN 978-0786455058.
- Sloan, David; Hoff, Emily (1998). Contemporary media issues. Northport: Vision Press, Indiana University. p. 63. ISBN 978-1885219107. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Wilson, John. 1995. The Myth of Political Correctness: The Conservative Attack on High Education. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. p. 7 ISBN 978-0822317135.
- "TidBits: The PC Manifesto". Fiction.net. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
- "Book – Buy Now". Capc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 30 May 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
- Anderson, Brian C. (Autumn 2003). "We're Not Losing the Culture Wars Anymore". City Journal. Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
- For South Park's usage see:
- Caffrey, Dan. "PC Principal rides the line between hero and villain on the season finale of South Park". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Bell, Crystal. "'South Park' Perfectly Showed How To Do A Caitlyn Jenner Joke Right". mtv.com. MTV. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- For Colbert's usage see:
- Steinberg, Dan (27 March 2014). "Colbert Report on Redskins' new foundation". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- D'addario, Daniel. "Stephen Colbert jokes about #CancelColbert: "The system worked!"". Salon. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- Bethell, Tom (2005). The Politically Incorrect Guide to Science. Washington, D.C: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 978-0895260314.
- Adams, Joshua (12 June 2017). "Time for equal media treatment of 'political correctness'". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
- Nowrasteh, Alex (7 December 2016). "The right has its own version of political correctness. It's just as stifling". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Political correctness|
- Bernstein, David E. (2003). You Can't Say That! The Growing Threat to Civil Liberties from Antidiscrimination Laws. Cato Institute, 180 pages. ISBN 1930865538.
- Hentoff, Nat (1992). Free Speech for Me – But Not for Thee. Harper Collins. ISBN 006019006X.
- Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur M. (1998). The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society. W.W. Norton, revised edition. ISBN 0393318540.
- Debra L. Schultz (1993). To Reclaim a Legacy of Diversity: Analyzing the "Political Correctness" Debates in Higher Education. New York: National Council for Research on Women. ISBN 978-1880547137.
- John Wilson (1995). The Myth of Political Correctness: The Conservative Attack on High Education. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-1713-5.
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