Patchouli

Patchouli[note 1] (/pəˈli/; Pogostemon cablin), from Tamil paccuḷi,[1] is a species of flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, commonly called the mint or deadnettle family. The plant grows as a bushy perennial herb, with erect stems reaching up to 75 centimetres (2.5 ft) in height and bearing small, pale pink-white flowers.

Patchouli
Pogostemon cablin 001.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Pogostemon
Species:
P. cablin
Binomial name
Pogostemon cablin
(Blanco) Benth.
Synonyms

Nilam, Patchouly

It is native to the island region of Southeast Asia, including Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, and the Philippines. It is also found in many parts of North East India.[2] Noted for its fragrant essential oil, it has many commercial uses and is now extensively cultivated in tropical climates around the world, especially in Asia, Madagascar, and South America and the Caribbean. Indonesia currently produces over 90% of the global volume of patchouli oil (~1,600 metric tons).

EtymologyEdit

The word derives from the Tamil patchai (Tamil: பச்சை), meaning "green", and ellai (Tamil: இலை), meaning "leaf".[3] In Assamese it is known as xukloti. In Kannada it is known as Pachhethene.

CultivationEdit

Patchouli grows well in warm to tropical climates. It thrives in hot, humid weather but not extended periods of direct sunlight. If the plant withers due to lack of water, it tends to recover quickly after rain or watering. Although rare, the seed-producing flowers are very fragrant and blossom in late autumn. The tiny seeds may be harvested for planting, but they are very delicate and easily crushed. Cuttings and grafts from the mother plant and subsequent rooting in loamy soil are the most common methods for propagation.

Essential oilEdit

 
Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) essential oil

ExtractionEdit

Extraction of patchouli's essential oil is by steam distillation of the dried leaves and twigs,[4] requiring rupture of its cell walls by steam scalding, light fermentation, or drying. The main chemical component of patchouli oil is patchoulol, a sesquiterpene alcohol.

Leaves and twigs may be harvested several times a year. Some sources say the highest quality oil is produced from fresh, share dried biomass distilled close to where they are harvested;[5] others say that boiling the dried leaves and fermenting them for a period of time is best.[6]

ComponentsEdit

UsesEdit

The heavy, strong, woody, and earthy scent of patchouli has been used for centuries in perfumes, and more recently in incense, insect repellents, chewing tobacco, and many alternative medicines.

Pogostemon cablin, P. heyneanus and P. plectranthoides are all cultivated for their essential oil, known as patchouli oil. Although there are some sub-varieties, the most common commercial varieties are native to the islands of Sumatra and Sulawesi in Indonesia.

PerfumeEdit

Patchouli is used widely in modern perfumery[11] by individuals who create their own scents, [12] as well as in modern scented personal products, such as Bay Rum, and industrial products, too, such as paper towels, laundry detergents, and air fresheners. Two important components of its essential oil are patchoulol and norpatchoulenol.[12]

Insect repellentEdit

One study suggests that patchouli oil may serve as an all-purpose insect repellent.[13] More specifically, the patchouli plant is claimed to be a potent repellent against the Formosan subterranean termite.[14]

IncenseEdit

Patchouli is an important ingredient in East Asian incense. Both patchouli oil and incense underwent a surge in popularity in the 1960s and 1970s in the US and Europe, mainly as a result of the hippie movement of those decades.[15]

CulinaryEdit

Patchouli leaves have also been used to make an herbal tea. In some cultures, the leaves are eaten as a vegetable or used as a seasoning. There are also several herbal medicines, both in Indonesia and in China (TCM), that include dry, ground patchouli leaves as one of the key ingredients.

ToysEdit

In 1985, American toy manufacturer Mattel used patchouli oil in the plastic used to produce the action figure Stinkor in the Masters of the Universe line of toys.[16]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "patchouli". Merriam Webster Dictionary.
  2. ^ "Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth". Plants Of the World Online.
  3. ^ "Patchouli". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  4. ^ "Extraction of Patchouli Essential Oil by Steam Distillation Process". Sumatrans Patchouli Essential Oil. Archived from the original on 2 October 2016.
  5. ^ Grieve, Maude (1995) A Modern Herbal [1]. 2007
  6. ^ Leung A, Foster S Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs and cosmetics John Wiley and Sons 1996
  7. ^ Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Tajima, Katsuhiko; Toi, Nao; Sugimura, Yukio (1992). "An additional constituent occurring in the oil from a patchouli cultivar". Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 7 (6): 333–335. doi:10.1002/ffj.2730070608. ISSN 0882-5734.
  8. ^ Weyerstahl, Peter; Gansau, Christian; Marschall, Helga (1993). "Structure–odour correlation. Part XVIII.1 Partial structures of patchoulol with bicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeleton". Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 8 (6): 297–306. doi:10.1002/ffj.2730080603. ISSN 0882-5734.
  9. ^ Hybertson, Brooks M. (2007). "Solubility of the sesquiterpene alcohol patchoulol in supercritical carbon dioxide". Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data. 52 (1): 235–238. doi:10.1021/je060358w. PMC 2677825. PMID 19424449.
  10. ^ a b Nikiforov, Alexej; Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Raverdino, Vittorio; et al. (1988). "GC-FTIR and GC-MS in odour analysis of essential oils". Microchimica Acta. 95 (1–6): 193–198. Bibcode:1988AcMik...2..193N. doi:10.1007/BF01349751. S2CID 94104732.
  11. ^ Ballentine, Sandra (5 November 2010). "Vain Glorious | Sex in a Bottle". Tmagazine.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  12. ^ a b "What is Patchouli?". wisegeek.com.
  13. ^ Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn (2005). "Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites". Phytotherapy Research. 19 (4): 303–309. doi:10.1002/ptr.1637. PMID 16041723. S2CID 23425671.
  14. ^ Zhu, Betty C.-R.; Henderson, Gregg; Yu, Ying; Laine, Roger A. (2003). "Toxicity and Repellency of Patchouli Oil and Patchouli Alcohol against Formosan Subterranean TermitesCoptotermes formosanusShiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51 (16): 4585–4588. doi:10.1021/jf0301495. ISSN 0021-8561. PMID 14705881.
  15. ^ Foster, Steven; Johnson, Rebecca L. (2006). Desk Reference to Nature's Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. p. 282. ISBN 978-0-7922-3666-5.
  16. ^ Stinkor: Masters of the Universe

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Also spelled patchouly or pachouli.