Odia calendar

The Odia calendar (Odia: ପାଞ୍ଜି Pāñji) is a lunisolar calendar followed in the state of Odisha, India. The calendar follows the sidereal solar cycle while using the lunar Purnimanta phase for the religious dates.[1] The New Year in the Odia calendar is known as Pana Sankranti. It occurs on the first day of the traditional solar month of Meṣa, hence equivalent lunar month Baisakha. The Odia calendar follows the Amli era, which began on Bhādra śukla dvādaśī from 592 CE.[2]

Odia calendar

New Year and EraEdit

As per the siderial solar cycle followed by the Odia Panjika, the first day of the year or New Year falls on Mesa Sankranti (Sun-crossing into Siderial Aries) in Mid-April. The Odia New Year festival is known as Pana Sankranti (Odia: ପଣା ସଂକ୍ରାନ୍ତି) or Maha Bishuba Sankranti (Odia: ମହା ବିଷୁବ ସଂକ୍ରାନ୍ତି).[3]

The Utkaliya era (Odia: ଉତ୍କଳୀୟ Utkaḷiya) for the Odia calendar began on 592 CE on Bhādra sukḷa dvādasi (the 12th day of the full moon fortnight of the Bhādra month). Bhādra sukla dvādasi is considered to be the birthday of the legendary king Indradyumna who set up the up the icon of Lord Jagannath (Neela Madhava) at Puri.[4][5] The epoch seems to correspond to the reign of the legendary early Somavamshis (Kesaris) as per the chronicle Madala Panji, thus implying the era was instituted by King Yayati I of the Somavamshi dynasty.[6]

Thus the Era calendar new year falls on the 12th day of the full moon fortnight or the waxing moon lunar phase of the Bhādra month in September. This day is termed as the Odia fiscal New Year and is known as the festival of Sunia (Odia: ସୁନିଆଁ suniā̃) which denotes the start of the beginning of the new fiscal calendar year for the collection of revenue, publishing of almanacs and the palm-leaf horoscopes carrying the reigning year of the Gajapati King. Post-1947, it has been reduced as a ceremonial day and is mostly used in the Panji calendars to denote the change of Odia calendar year for records and horoscopes.[7][8][9]

New Year Date
New Year Odia month Gregorian Cycle
Odia New Year
(Pana Sankranti/Maha Bishuba Sankranti)
୧ ବୈଶାଖ (ମେଷ)
1 Baisākha (Mesa)
14 April
13 April (Gregorian leap year)
Solar
Odia fiscal New Year
(Sunia)
ଭାଦ୍ର ଶୁକ୍ଳ ଦ୍ୱାଦଶୀ
Bhādra Sukḷa Dwādasi
12th day of Waxing Moon (Full moon) phase
varies, September Lunar
Odia year Vikrami year Gregorian year
୧୪୨୮ ଉତ୍କଳାବ୍ଦ/ଉତ୍କଳୀୟ ସନ
1428 Utkaḷābda/Utkaḷiya Sana
२०७८ विक्रम संवत
2078 Vikram Samvat
2021 CE

Anka yearEdit

The Anka year (Odia: ଅଙ୍କ Aṅka) system is a unique regnal year system instituted by the Eastern Ganga kings for dating their reigns. It had a number of features that mark the regnal year different from that actual duration of the year elapsed during the reign. The system still survives today and is used in the Odia panjis to mark the titular regnal year of the King of Puri, Gajapati Maharaja Dibyasingha Deb of the Eastern Gangas of Puri, whose title carries the legacy of historical ruling monarchs of Odisha.[10][11]

Features:

  • The Anka system always starts on the Odia fiscal new year called Sunia which falls on the 12th day of the bright fortnight of the month Bhadra (August-September) known as Bhādra Sukḷa Dwādasi. If the king accedes the throne for a few days before this date, then the first year of his reign would then just be a few days long.
  • Coins were minted on the date of the new year, and hence the first coins were given the Anka year 2, the number 1 was not used.
  • All years ending in 6 were skipped. As in the Anka year 5 was followed by Anka year 7, Anka year 15 was followed by Anka year 17 and so on.
  • All years ending in 0 were also skipped, except for the Anka year 10.

Hence no Anka years exist for 1, 6, 16, 20, 26, 30, 36, 40, 46, 50, 56, and so on.

Timeline of actual Regnal year and Anka year (shown till regnal year 30)
Regnal year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Anka year 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 27 28 29 31 32 33 34 35 37
Regnal & Anka year of Gajapati king of Puri
(titular reign since 7 July 1970)
Gregorian year Regnal year Odia year Anka year
2021 CE 50 ୧୪୨୮ ଉତ୍କଳାବ୍ଦ
1428 Utkaḷābda
୬୩ ଅଙ୍କ
63

PanjiEdit

Madala Panji (Odia: ମାଦଳ ପାଞ୍ଜି) is a chronicle of the Jagannath Temple, Puri in Odisha. It describes the historical events of Odisha related to Jagannath and the Jagannath Temple. The Madala Panji dates from the 12th century and was traditionally written on a year-to-year basis on Vijayadashami Day by the Karanas community. The tradition of keeping this chronicle began with Eastern Ganga king Anantavarman Chodaganga (1077–1150).

The modern Odia calendar begins with the scientific reforms initiated by the astronomer Pathani Samanta. His findings which included astronomical observations with the help of traditional instruments were recorded in his treatise Siddhanta Darpana written on palm-leaf manuscript in 1869 and eventually published in 1899. These observations were instrumental in the preparation of almanacs in Odisha especially by the astrologers of the Jagannath temple at Puri.[12] The prominent Panjis of this tradition include:

  • Khadiratna Panjika
  • Samanta Panjika
  • Biraja Panjika

Other notable Odia Panji calendars include Kohinoor Panji, Biraja Panji(Nanda), Radharaman Panji(based on Puri tradition Panjis), Bhagyadeepa Panji, Bhagyajyoti Panji, Bhagyachakra Panji.[13]

MonthsEdit

Odia (Lunar)
ମାସ māsa
Days Vikrami (Lunar)
मासाः māsāḥa
Odia (Solar)
ରାଶି rāsi
Vikrami (Solar)
राशी rāśi
Zodiac Sign Gregorian
ବୈଶାଖ
Baisākha
31 वैशाखः
Vaiśākhaḥ
ମେଷ
Mesa
मेष
Meṣa
Aries   April–May
ଜ୍ୟେଷ୍ଠ
Jyesṭha
31 ज्येष्ठः
Jyeṣṭhaḥ
ବୃଷ
Brusa
वृषभ
Vṛṣabha
Taurus   May–June
ଆଷାଢ଼
Āsāḍha
32 आषाढः
Āṣāḍhaḥ
ମିଥୁନ
Mithuna
मिथुन
Mithuna
Gemini   June–July
ଶ୍ରାବଣ
Srābaṇa
31 श्रावणः
Śrāvaṇaḥ
କର୍କଟ
Karkaṭa
कर्क
Karka
Cancer   July–August
ଭାଦ୍ରବ/ଭାଦ୍ର
Bhādraba/Bhādra
31 भाद्रपदः
Bhādrapadaḥ
ସିଂହ
Singha
सिंह
Siṃha
Leo   August–September
ଆଶ୍ୱିନ
Āswina
31 आश्विनः
Āśvinaḥ
କନ୍ୟା
Kanyā
कन्या
Kanyā
Virgo   September–October
କାର୍ତ୍ତିକ
Kārtika
30 कार्तिकः
Kārtikaḥ
ତୁଳା
Tuḷā
तुला
Tulā
Libra   October–November
ମାର୍ଗଶିର
Mārgasira
29 मार्गशीर्षः
Mārgaśīrṣaḥ
ବିଛା
Bichā
वृश्चिक
Vṛścika
Scorpio   November–December
ପୌଷ
Pausa
29 पौषः
Pauṣaḥ
ଧନୁ
Dhanu
धनुष
Dhanusa
Sagittarius   December–January
ମାଘ
Māgha
30 माघः
Māghaḥ
ମକର
Makara
मकर
Makara
Capricorn   January–February
ଫାଲ୍‌ଗୁନ/ଫଗୁଣ
Phālguna/Phaguṇa
30 फाल्गुनः
Phālgunaḥ
କୁମ୍ଭ
Kumbha
कुम्भ
Kumbha
Aquarius   February–March
ଚୈତ୍ର
Caitra
30 चैत्रः
Caitraḥ
ମୀନ
Mina
मीन
Mīna
Pisces   March–April

DaysEdit

The Odia calendar incorporates the seven-day week.

Day (Odia) Celestial object Equivalent Day (English) Day (Sanskrit)
ରବିବାର
Rabibāra
Surya Sun Sunday रविवासर
Ravivāsara
ସୋମବାର
Somabāra
Chandra Moon Monday सोमवासर
Somavāsara
ମଙ୍ଗଳବାର
Maṅgaḷabāra
Mangala Mars Tuesday मङ्गलवासर
Maṅgalavāsara
ବୁଧବାର
Budhabāra
Budha Mercury Wednesday बुधवासर
Budhavāsara
ଗୁରୁବାର
Gurubāra
Brihaspati Jupiter Thursday बृहस्पतिवासर
Brhaspativāsara
ଶୁକ୍ରବାର
Sukrabāra
Shukra Venus Friday शुक्रवासर
Śukravāsara
ଶନିବାର
Sanibāra
Shani Saturn Saturday शनिवासर
Śanivāsara

SeasonsEdit

Odia Rutu
ଋତୁ
Season Sanskrit Ritu
ऋतुः r̥tuḥ
Odia months Gregorian
ଗ୍ରୀଷ୍ମ
Grisma
Summer ग्रीष्म:
Grīṣmaḥ
Baiśākha–Jyeṣṭha April–June
ବର୍ଷା
Barsā
Monsoon वर्षाः
Varṣāḥ
Āṣāṛha–Śrābaṇa June–August
ଶରତ
Sarata
Autumn शरद्
Śarad
Bhādraba–Āświna August–October
ହେମନ୍ତ
Hemanta
Pre-Winter हेमन्तः
Hemantaḥ
Kārttika–Mārgaśira October–December
ଶୀତ
Sita
Winter शिशिर:
Śiśiraḥ
Pauṣa–Māgha December–February
ବସନ୍ତ
Basanta
Spring वसन्तः
Basantaḥ
Phālguna–Chaitra February–April

TimeEdit

Time Gregorian Units Equivalent
ଦିନ
dina
Day ୧୨ ଘଣ୍ଟା
12 ghaṇṭā
12 hours
ରାତି
rāti
Night ୧୨ ଘଣ୍ଟା
12 ghaṇṭā
12 hours
ଦିବସ
dibasa
Solar day ୨୪ ଘଣ୍ଟା
24 ghaṇṭā
24 hours
୧ ସପ୍ତାହ
1 saptaha
1 week ୭ ଦିନ
7 dina
7 days
୧ ପକ୍ଷ
1 pakhya
1 fortnight ୧୫ ଦିନ
15 dina
15 days
୧ ବର୍ଷ
1 barsa
1 year ୩୬୫ ଦିନ
365 dina
365 days
୧ ବର୍ଷ
1 barsa
1 year ୧୨ ମାସ
12 māsa
12 months
Lunar week
Paksha ପକ୍ଷ (pakhya) Period Lunar phase Days
ଶୁକ୍ଳପକ୍ଷ
śukḷapakhya
From ଅମାବାସ୍ୟା (Amābāsyā) to ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣିମା (Pūrṇṇima)
New moon to Full moon
Waxing moon 15 days
କୃଷ୍ଣପକ୍ଷ
krushṇapakhya
From ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣିମା (Pūrṇṇima) to ଅମାବାସ୍ୟା (Amābāsyā)
Full moon to New moon
Waning moon 15 days
Lunar Day
ତିଥି (tithi)
Bright fortnight
ଶୁକ୍ଳପକ୍ଷ (śukḷapakhya)
Lunar phase Dark fortnight
କୃଷ୍ଣପକ୍ଷ (krushṇapakhya)
Lunar phase
1 ପ୍ରତିପଦ
pratipada
Waxing Crescent ପ୍ରତିପଦ
pratipada
Waning Gibbous
2 ଦ୍ୱିତୀୟା
dwitīyā
ଦ୍ୱିତୀୟା
dwitīyā
3 ତୃତୀୟା
tr̥̄tīyā
ତୃତୀୟା
tr̥̄tīyā
4 ଚତୁର୍ଥୀ
caturthī
ଚତୁର୍ଥୀ
caturthī
5 ପଞ୍ଚମୀ
pañcamī
ପଞ୍ଚମୀ
pañcamī
6 ଷଷ୍ଠୀ
ṣaṣṭhī
ଷଷ୍ଠୀ
ṣaṣṭhī
7 ସପ୍ତମୀ
saptamī
First Quarter ସପ୍ତମୀ
saptamī
Last Quarter
8 ଅଷ୍ଟମୀ
aṣṭamī
ଅଷ୍ଟମୀ
aṣṭamī
9 ନବମୀ
nabamī
Waning Crescent ନବମୀ
nabamī
Waxing Gibbous
10 ଦଶମୀ
daśamī
ଦଶମୀ
daśamī
11 ଏକାଦଶୀ
ekādaśī
ଏକାଦଶୀ
ekādaśī
12 ଦ୍ୱାଦଶୀ
dwādaśī
ଦ୍ୱାଦଶୀ
dwādaśī
13 ତ୍ରୟୋଦଶୀ
trayodaśī
ତ୍ରୟୋଦଶୀ
trayodaśī
14 ଚତୁର୍ଦ୍ଦଶୀ
caturddaśī
ଚତୁର୍ଦ୍ଦଶୀ
caturddaśī
15 ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣିମା
pūrṇṇima
Full Moon ଅମାବାସ୍ୟା
amābāsyā
New Moon

FestivalsEdit

Pan-Indian and Odia regional festivals observed as per Odia calendar:

Months Festivals
Baisākha Pana Sankranti (Maha Bishuba Sankranti)
Jyesṭha Buddha Purnima, Akshaya Tritiya, Savitri Brata, Sitalsasthi
Āsāḍha Raja Parba, Ratha Jatra
Srābaṇa Raksha Bandhan (Gamha Purnima)
Bhādraba Krishna Janmashtami, Ganesh Chaturthi, Nuakhai, Sunia
Āswina Vishwakarma Puja, Mahalaya, Durga Puja, Dusehra, Kumara Purnima
Kārttika Kali Puja, Dipabali, Jagaddhatri Puja, Boita Bandana, Bali Jatra
Mārgasira Prathamastami, Manabasa Gurubara
Pausa Dhanu jatra, Samba Dashami, Pousha Purnima
Māgha Makar Sankranti, Vasant Panchami
Phālguna Maha Shivaratri
Chaitra Holi(Dol Purnima), Odisha Day (Utkala Dibasa)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ S. Balachandra Rao (2000), Indian Astronomy: An Introduction, Universities Press, p. 44, ISBN 9788173712050
  2. ^ VK Mishra (2010), The Calendars of India, p. 55, 81, arXiv:1007.0062
  3. ^ Crump, William D. (2014), Encyclopedia of New Year's Holidays Worldwide, MacFarland, page 114
  4. ^ Sankar Balakrishna Dikshit (1896). Bharatiya Jyotish Sastra Part 2. India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  5. ^ Girish Chandra Tarkalankar (1894). Chronological tables from 1764 to 1900. Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  6. ^ Kailash Chandra Dash 2010, p. 165.
  7. ^ "Sunia". puriwaves. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  8. ^ Subhash Sahu (2009), Sunia (The Odia Calendar) (PDF), retrieved 5 December 2020
  9. ^ Roland Hardenberg (July 2000), The Anka Ceremony of the King of Puri (India), Journal of Social Sciences, retrieved 5 December 2020
  10. ^ Pankaj Tandon (2012), Tentative Attributions of some Gold Fanams of the Eastern Gangas, BU, retrieved 25 January 2021
  11. ^ Pankaj Tandon (2018), Coins of the Eastern Gangas ruler Anantavarman Chodaganga, BU, retrieved 25 January 2021
  12. ^ Naik, P. C.; Satpathy, L. (1998). "Samanta Chandra Sekhar : The great naked eye astronomer". Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India. 26: 33–49. Bibcode:1998BASI...26...33N.
  13. ^ "Odia calendar". Retrieved 17 November 2020.

BibliographyEdit

  • Kailash Chandra Dash (2010). "A traditional account on Yayati Keshari: Its formation and historical authenticity". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 71 (2010–2011): 165–178. JSTOR 44147485.

External linksEdit