Coordinates: 29°51′37″N 121°37′28″E / 29.8603°N 121.6245°E / 29.8603; 121.6245

Ningbo
宁波市
Ning-po, Nhingpo
Clockwise: South Business District, Yinzhou District Government of Ningbo, Tianfeng Pagoda, Dongqian Lake, Tianyi Pavilion Museum
Ningbo City in Zhejiang
Ningbo City in Zhejiang
Ningbo is located in China
Ningbo
Ningbo
Location in China
Coordinates (Tianyi Square): 29°52′08″N 121°33′14″E / 29.869°N 121.554°E / 29.869; 121.554
CountryChina
ProvinceZhejiang
County-level divisions11
Township divisions148
Municipal seatYinzhou District
Government
 • TypeSub-provincial city
 • BodyNingbo Municipal People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryPeng Jiaxue
 • Congress ChairmanYu Hongyi
 • MayorQiu Dongyao
 • CPPCC ChairmanXu Yuning
Area
 • Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city9,816.23 km2 (3,790.07 sq mi)
 • Urban
2,461.8 km2 (950.5 sq mi)
 • Metro
2,461.8 km2 (950.5 sq mi)
Elevation
150 m (488 ft)
Population
 (2020 census[1])[2]
 • Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city9,404,283
 • Density960/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
 • Urban
4,479,635
 • Urban density1,800/km2 (4,700/sq mi)
 • Metro
4,479,635
 • Metro density1,800/km2 (4,700/sq mi)
GDP (2020)
 • TotalCNY 1240.87 billion (US$191.68 billion)
 • per capitaCNY 131,947 (US$20,450)
 • GrowthIncrease 3.3%
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
315000
Area code(s)574
ISO 3166 codeCN-ZJ-02
Vehicle registration浙B
City treesCamphor Laurel
Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb.
City flowersCamellia
Websitewww.ningbo.gov.cn (in Chinese)
Ningbo
Ningbo (Chinese characters).svg
"Ningbo" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese宁波
Traditional Chinese寧波 / 𡩋波
WuAbout this soundNihng-bo  (locally)
Literal meaning"Tranquil Waves"

Ningbo (simplified Chinese: 宁波; traditional Chinese: 寧波; pinyin: Níngbō; Ningbonese pronunciation: [ɲìɲ.póʔ], Standard Mandarin pronunciation: [nǐŋ pwó] (About this soundlisten)), formerly romanized as Ningpo, is a major sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. It comprises 6 urban districts, 2 satellite county-level cities, and 2 rural counties including several islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Ningbo is the southern economic center[4] of the Yangtze Delta megalopolis, and is also the core city and center of the Ningbo Metropolitan Area.[5] To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively. As of the 2020 Chinese National Census, the entire administrated area of Ningbo City had a population of 9.4 million (9,404,283).[6] whom 4,479,635 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of its five urban districts. One can notice than within a few years, Cixi, Yunhao and Fenghua cities will also be conurbated, making then the Ningbo metro area reach 8,140,660 inhabitants.

Ningbo is one of the 15 sub-provincial cities in China, and is one of the 5 separate state-planning cities[7] in China (the other four are Dalian, Qingdao, Xiamen, and Shenzhen), with the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status in many economic departments, rather than being governed by Zhejiang Province. Therefore, Ningbo has the provincial-level autonomy in making economic and financial policies.[8]

In 2020, the GDP of Ningbo is CNY 1240.87 billion[9] (US$191.68 billion), and it was ranked 12th among 300 cities in China.[10] Moreover, Ningbo is among the wealthiest cities in China, it ranked 8th in terms of average yearly disposable income in the year of 2020.[11] Up till 2020, Ningbo has had global headquarters and registered offices of over 100 listed companies,[12] and many regional business headquarters. In 2021, Ningbo was ranked 7th city in China in terms of the number of listed companies.[13] Furthermore, Ningbo was among the top 10 Chinese cities in the Urban Business Environment Report released by the Chinese state media China Central Television (CCTV) in 2019.[14]

As a city with rich culture and a long history dating back to Jingtou Mountain Culture in 6300 BC and the Hemudu culture in 4800 BC, Ningbo was awarded "City of Culture in East Asia" by the governments of China, of Japan, and of Korea in 2016.[15]

Its port, the port of Ningbo–Zhoushan, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world. The port of Ningbo-Zhoushan has been world's No. 1 busiest port by cargo tonnage and world's No. 3 busiest container port since 2010.[16]

EtymologyEdit

The first character in the city's name ning ( or ) means "serene", while its second character bo () translates to "wave". The city is abbreviated "" (pinyin: Yǒng) for the eponymous "Yong Hill" (甬山), a prominent coastal hill near the city, and the Yong River that flows through Ningbo. (The abbreviation Ning is used more commonly for Nanjing.)

It was once named Mingzhou (明州; Míngzhōu). The first character () is composed of two parts, representing two lakes inside the city wall: the Sun Lake (日湖) and the Moon Lake (月湖) dating back to Tang Dynasty 636 AD. Today, only the Moon Lake remains, and the old Sun Lake dried up in 19 century. In 2002, Ningbo government re-built the Sun Lake as one of the city parks.

HistoryEdit

Ningbo is one of China's oldest cities, with a history dating to the Jingtou Mountain Culture in 6300 BC and Hemudu culture in 4800 BC. Ningbo was known as a trade city on the silk road at least two thousand years ago, and then as a major port for foreign trade along with Yangzhou and Guangzhou in the Tang Dynasty, and Quanzhou and Guangzhou in the Sung dynasty.

From ancient times to the Sui Dynasty

As of 2020, the earliest relics of human activity discovered in Ningbo City are the Jingtou Mountain site discovered in Yuyao, dating back to 6300 BC, evidencing early human consumption of seafood and rice. Since then, a large number of cultivated rice, farming tools, remains of dry fence buildings, remains of domestic livestock, and primitive religious items have been unearthed from related sites of the Hemudu culture (5000-4500 BC), evidencing the existence of human settlement and culture in the eastern part of the Ningshao Plain, where modern-day Ningbo is located.

Before the Han Dynasty, the area where Ningbo City is located today was sparsely populated. In the Xia Dynasty, the location of Ningbo was called "Yin". In the Chun Qiu period, the area where Ningbo belonged was the Yue State . At that time, the Yue King Goujian built the Juzhang City in the present-day Cicheng Town and became the earliest city in Ningbo. After the middle of the Warring States period, the area of Ningbo became the jurisdiction of Chu State . In 221 BC, Qin unified the six states and Ningbo area belonged to Kuaiji Commandery , with 3 counties of Yin, Yin, and Juzhang (some studies assert there were 4 counties of Yin, Yin, Juzhang, and Yuyao). In the early years of the Western Han Dynasty, Kuaiji Commandery where Ningbo was located once belonged to the Kingdom of Jing and Wu. After the Seven Kingdoms was settled, Kuaiji Commandery was restored. In 589 AD (Sui Kai Huang nine years) Yin, Mao, Yuyao County 4 county were merged under the Wu State.

Buddhism began to influence Ningbo during the period of Three Kingdoms, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties. The earliest Buddhist temple Puji Temple was built during the Three Kingdoms period. The two major Buddhist temples, Ashoka Temple and Tiantong Temple, can be traced back to the Western Jin Dynasty. Ningbo's coastal defense also started from that period. 132 AD ( the Western Han Yang Jia first year), as a safeguard against Zeng Jing rebels, Jia mouth (now the town of Haikou) set up the first garrison to garrison. In the Spring and Autumn Period before this, Juzhang Port has become an important military port.

Tang and Song dynastyEdit

 
Tianfeng Tower, originally built during the Tang Dynasty, is the symbol of old Ningbo.
 
A rock garden inside Tianyi Chamber

Since the Tang dynasty Ningbo has been an important commercial port. Arab traders lived in Ningbo during the Song dynasty when it was known as Mingzhou,[17] as the ocean-going trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time.[18][19] Another name for Mingzhou/Ningbo was Siming. It was a well known center of ocean-going commerce with the foreign world.[20] These merchants did not intermingle with native Chinese, instead practicing their own customs and religion and inhabiting ghettos. They did not try to proselytize Islam to the Chinese.[21] Jews also lived in Ningbo, as evidenced by the fact that, after a major flood destroyed Torah scrolls in Kaifeng in 1642, a replacement was sent to the Kaifeng Jews by the Ningbo Jewish community.[22]

Ming dynastyEdit

The city of Ningbo was known in Europe for a long time under the name of Liampó. This is the usual spelling used e.g. in the standard Portuguese history, João de Barros's Décadas da Ásia, although Barros explained that Liampó was a Portuguese "corruption" of the more correct Nimpó.[23][24] The spelling Liampó is also attested in the Peregrination (Peregrinação) by Fernão Mendes Pinto, a (so-called) autobiography written in Portuguese during the 16th century. For the mid-16th-century Portuguese, the nearby promontory, which they called the cape of Liampó, after the nearby "illustrious city" was the easternmost known point of the mainland Asia.[23] The Portuguese began trading in Ningbo around 1522. By 1542, the Portuguese had a sizable community in Ningbo (or, more likely, on nearby small islands such as Shuangyu). Portuguese activities from their Ningbo base included pillaging and attacking multiple Chinese port cities around Ningbo for plunder and spoil. They also enslaved people during their raids.[25] The Portuguese were ousted from the Ningbo area in 1548.

Qing dynastyEdit

Ningbo was one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened by the Treaty of Nanjing (signed in 1842) at the end of the First Opium War between Britain and China. During the war, British forces briefly took possession of the walled city of Ningbo after storming the fortified town of Zhenhai at the mouth of the Yong River on October 10, 1841. The British subsequently repulsed a Chinese attempt to retake the city in the Battle of Ningpo on March 10, 1842. In 1861, the forces of the Taiping Rebellion took the city relatively unopposed as the defending garrison fled; they held the town for six months.[26] In March 1885, during the Sino-French War, Admiral Courbet's naval squadron blockaded several Chinese warships in Zhenhai Bay and exchanged fire with the shore defenses.

Ningbo was also once famed for traditional Chinese furniture production. During the Qing dynasty, western encyclopedias described Ningbo as a center of craftsmanship and industry.[27][28]

During the late Qing dynasty, in the 1800s, the Ningbo authorities contracted Cantonese pirates to exterminate and massacre Portuguese pirates who had raided Cantonese shipping around Ningbo. The massacre was "successful", with 40 Portuguese dead and only 2 Chinese dead, being dubbed "The Ningpo Massacre" by an English correspondent, who noted that the Portuguese pirates had behaved savagely towards the Chinese, and that the Portuguese authorities at Macau should have reined in the pirates.

 
Map of Ningbo (19th century)[17]

During late Qing era, Western missionaries set up a Presbyterian Church in Ningbo. Li Veng-eing was a Reverend of the Ningpo Church.[29] The Ningpo College was managed by Rev. Robert F. Fitch. The four trustees were natives of Ningbo, three of them had Taotai rank.[30] Rev. George Evans Moule, B. A. was appointed a missionary to China by the Church of England Missionary Society, and arrived at Ningpo with Mrs. Moule in February 1858. He then began a mission station at Hang-chow, between which and Ningpo his time had been chiefly divided. He wrote Christian publications in the Ningbo dialect.[31]

Republican eraEdit

During World War II in 1940, Japan bombed Ningbo with ceramic bombs full of fleas carrying the bubonic plague.[32] According to Daniel Barenblatt, Prince Tsuneyoshi Takeda received, with Prince Mikasa, a special screening by Shiro Ishii of a film showing imperial planes loading germ bombs for bubonic dissemination over Ningbo in 1940.[33]

"It has been said of the Ningbo fishermen that, 'no people in the world apparently made so great an advance in the art of fishing; and for centuries past no people have made so little further progress.'"[34]

Between 80% to 90% of Ningbo's population fled the city during the Japanese invasion.[35]

On April 18, 1942, two of the Doolittle Raid planes crashed near the coast of Ningbo.

GeographyEdit

 
Ningpo (labeled YIN-HSIEN (NINGPO) 鄞縣) (1952)
 
Map including Ningbo (labeled as YIN-HSIEN (NINGPO))
 
The Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus was built between 1872 and 1876, was closed by the government in 1963, and was reopened and renamed in 1980. It was recognized as a national heritage site in 2006.

Ningbo ranges in latitude from 28° 51' to 30° 33' N and in longitude from 120° 55' to 122° 16' E, bounded on the east by the East China Sea and Zhoushan Archipelago, on the north by Hangzhou Bay, across which it faces Jiaxing and Shanghai, on the west by Shaoxing, and on the south by Taizhou. Its land area is 9,816 square kilometers (3,790 sq mi), while oceanic territory amounts to 9,758 km2 (3,768 sq mi); there is a total 1,562 km (971 mi) of coastline including 788 km (490 mi) of mainland coastline and 774 km (481 mi) of island coastline, together accounting for one-third of the entire provincial coastline. There are 531 islands accounting for 524 km2 (202 sq mi) under the city's administration.

Ningbo's city proper is sandwiched between the ocean and low-lying mountains to the southwest, with coastal plain and valleys in between. Important peninsulas include the Chuanshan Peninsula (穿山半岛), located in Beilun District and containing mainland Zhejiang's easternmost point, and the Xiangshan Peninsula (象山半岛) in Xiangshan County. The Siming Mountains (四明山) run north from Mount Tiantai and within Ningbo City, traverse Yuyao City, Haishu District, and Fenghua District, reaching a height of 979 m (3,212 ft).

Tidal flat ecosystems occur adjacent to the city, however, a large areas have been reclaimed for agricultural purposes.[36]

ClimateEdit

Ningbo has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinctive seasons, characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and dry winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual temperature is 17.15 °C (62.9 °F), with monthly daily averages ranging from 5.3 °C (41.5 °F) in January to 28.8 °C (83.8 °F) in July. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −8.8 °C (16 °F) on 12 January 1955 to 42.1 °C (108 °F) on 8 August 2013.[37] The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,430 mm (56 in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June, when average relative humidity also peaks. From August to October, Ningbo experiences the effects of typhoons, and is affected by an average 1.8 storms annually, though the city is not often struck directly by these systems. A 2012 OECD study lists Ningbo among the top 20 cities worldwide most at risk of flooding due to anthropogenic climate change.[38]

Climate data for Ningbo (Yinzhou District, 1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.4
(75.9)
28.9
(84.0)
34.0
(93.2)
34.3
(93.7)
36.3
(97.3)
38.0
(100.4)
39.0
(102.2)
39.5
(103.1)
38.8
(101.8)
34.5
(94.1)
29.5
(85.1)
25.0
(77.0)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F) 9.3
(48.7)
11.0
(51.8)
14.8
(58.6)
20.7
(69.3)
25.6
(78.1)
28.7
(83.7)
33.5
(92.3)
32.6
(90.7)
28.3
(82.9)
23.6
(74.5)
18.2
(64.8)
12.2
(54.0)
21.5
(70.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
6.9
(44.4)
10.4
(50.7)
15.8
(60.4)
20.9
(69.6)
24.5
(76.1)
28.8
(83.8)
28.3
(82.9)
24.4
(75.9)
19.3
(66.7)
13.6
(56.5)
7.6
(45.7)
17.2
(62.9)
Average low °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
3.8
(38.8)
7.0
(44.6)
12.1
(53.8)
17.3
(63.1)
21.5
(70.7)
25.5
(77.9)
25.3
(77.5)
21.5
(70.7)
16.0
(60.8)
10.2
(50.4)
4.1
(39.4)
13.9
(57.0)
Record low °C (°F) −7.9
(17.8)
−6.2
(20.8)
−3.7
(25.3)
0.7
(33.3)
7.4
(45.3)
12.7
(54.9)
18.2
(64.8)
18.4
(65.1)
11.0
(51.8)
1.4
(34.5)
−3.0
(26.6)
−8.5
(16.7)
−8.5
(16.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 73.2
(2.88)
77.6
(3.06)
133.9
(5.27)
105.6
(4.16)
114.6
(4.51)
198.1
(7.80)
178.3
(7.02)
166.7
(6.56)
170.8
(6.72)
83.1
(3.27)
75.0
(2.95)
54.7
(2.15)
1,431.6
(56.35)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.6 12.3 16.9 15.3 14.7 16.4 13.1 14.5 14.1 10.3 8.9 8.5 157.6
Average relative humidity (%) 77 77 77 75 76 81 77 79 80 77 76 74 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 123.7 108.4 121.7 142.4 156.7 147.8 243.8 238.0 171.5 166.5 143.4 146.1 1,910
Percent possible sunshine 38 35 33 37 37 35 57 58 46 47 45 46 43
Average ultraviolet index 4 5 7 9 10 11 11 11 9 7 4 3 8
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration,[39] China Weather (precipitation days 1971–2000) [40]
Source 2: Ningbo Climate Studies (sunshine)[41] Weather Atlas (uv)[42]

Administrative structure and divisionsEdit

Local officers of Ningbo

  • The Secretary of Party in Ningbo is Peng Jiaxue, who is first-in-charge of the city.
  • The Mayor of Ningbo is Qiu Dongyao, who is second-in command of the city, and the Vice Secretary of Party in Ningbo.

Administrative divisions of Ningbo

The sub-provincial city of Ningbo is as whole an urban group with one central group, one northern group, and one southern group.

It has direct jurisdiction over the following:

  • Six districts (central group): Haishu District, Yinzhou District, Jiangbei District, Beilun District, Zhenhai District, Fenghua District
  • Two county-level cities (northern group): Yuyao, Cixi
  • Two counties (southern group): Xiangshan, Ninghai
Map
Subdivision Simplified Chinese Pinyin Population (2020[43]) Area (km2) Density
6 Central Urban Districts
Haishu District 海曙区 Hǎishǔ Qū 1,041,285 595.03 1,748.29
Yinzhou District 鄞州区 Yínzhōu Qū 1,609,555 799.09 2,014.23
Jiangbei District 江北区 Jiangbei Qū 488,885 208.14 2,348.83
Beilun District 北仑区 Běilún Qū 829,448 597.76 1,387.59
Zhenhai District 镇海区 Zhènhǎi Qū 510,462 244.28 2,089.66
Fenghua District 奉化区 Fènghuà Qū 577,505 1,267.60 455.59
2 Southern Counties
Xiangshan County 象山县 Xiàngshān Xiàn 567,665 1,382.18 410.70
Ninghai County 宁海县 Nínghǎi Xiàn 695,958 1,843.26 377.57
2 Northern County-Level Cities
Yuyao 余姚市 Yúyáo Shì 1,254,032 1,500.80 835.58
Cixi 慈溪市 Cíxī Shì 1,829,488 1,360.63 1,344.59
Sum 9,404,283 9,816.23 958.03

EconomyEdit

Ningbo is an important port city located 220 kilometers (140 mi) south of Shanghai. The city's export industry dates back to the 7th century. Today, Ningbo is a major exporter of electrical products, textiles, food, and industrial tools. The city's private sector is especially well-developed, contributing 80 percent of total GDP in 2013.[44]

Historically, Ningbo was somewhat geographically isolated from other major cities. In 2007 the Hangzhou Bay Bridge was built, cutting highway transit time between Ningbo and Shanghai from four hours to two and a half. The city now serves as the economic center for the southern Yangtze River Delta and has been ranked among the most competitive cities in China.[44]

In 2009, Ningbo's economic activity reached US$60.8 billion, down 10.4% from 2008. The exports totaled US$38.65 billion, down 16.6% from the previous year. In addition, Ningbo imported US$22.16 billion of goods, up 3.1% from the previous year.[45]

Ningbo's economy grew 9.26% in 2013 to 712.89 billion yuan (US$115.12 billion).[44] In 2009, the city's per capita output was US$10,833, about three times the national average.[46]

Ningbo is famous for the Si Lan Nong Xiang flower, which is used for dying cloth. In 2008, Ningbo's cloth exports were responsible for 3% of its economic growth.

Foreign investmentEdit

With several important development zones established in or around Ningbo, the city has received considerable foreign investment.[47] Over 60 domestic and foreign-invested financial institutions have established operations in the city, which has also attracted more than 10,000 foreigners. The municipal government offers preferential policies designed to encourage investment in international trade, new strategic industries, manufacturing, information services, and creative industries.[44]

Economic and technological development zonesEdit

Ningbo Economic & Technological Development ZoneEdit

Located in the north-east of Ningbo, behind Beilun Port, NETD is 27 km (17 mi) away from the city center. With more than 20 years of great effort, NETD has already formed the general framework for large scale construction and development, and established the perfect investment environment. It is situated close to the Ningbo Port and Ningbo Lishe International Airport. Major Investors include Exxon Mobile, Dupont and Dow Chemical.[48]

Ningbo Daxie Development ZoneEdit

The Ningbo Daxie Development Zone was approved in 1993 and covers an area of 5.92 km2 (2.29 sq mi). Over more than ten years of development and construction, industrial and logistical foundations have been established in the zone for the transshipment of energy, liquid chemicals and containers.[48]

Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development ZoneEdit

Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in 1999 and was upgraded to a national level zone in January 2007. It is 10 km (6.2 mi) from Ningbo International Airport and 18 km (11 mi) away from Ningbo Port. The zone serves as the important technical innovation base of Yangtze River Delta. Industries encouraged include chemicals production and processing, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals, raw material processing, Research and Development.[49]

Ningbo Free Trade ZoneEdit

Ningbo Free Trade Zone is one of the 15 free trade zones authorized by the State Council of China, and is the only free trade zone in Zhejiang Province. It was established by State Council in 1992, covering the area of 2.3 km2 (0.89 sq mi). It lies in the middle of the coastline of Mainland China, at the south of Yangtze River Delta. In 2008, its industrial output value was RMB 53.33 billion and grew at 19.8% as compared to 2007.[50]

Nordic Industrial ParkEdit

The Nordic Industrial Park Co. Ltd. (NIP) is one of the first wholly foreign-owned industrial parks in China located in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. NIP is managed and operated by a Scandinavian management team.[51]

Ningbo Advertising ParkEdit

The Ningbo Advertising Park is a national level pilot park located in the Ningbo Southern Business District. The financial incentives have attracted over 300 relevant firms to establish operations.[52]

Ningbo PortEdit

Ningbo is not just an ordinary city—it has the same authority as provincial governments for economic administration—and has a port second only to Shanghai around the world in terms of annual cargo throughput. Unlike Shanghai, the port is deep-water and capable of handling 300,000 ton vessels. The port is located mainly in Beilun district and Zhenhai district. In 2006, Ningbo Port started its expansion towards the neighboring island city of Zhoushan for the purpose of building an even larger port with higher capacity to compete with neighboring ports in the region, such as Shanghai's Yangshan Deep-Water Port. The statistics in 2010 showed that total cargo throughput was 627,000,000 tons and container throughput 13,144,000 TEUs. With bulk container breakdowns, hugely improved logistics, and massive chemical and foodstuff, processing developments, Ningbo could win the race against Shanghai for the preeminent Chinese east coast port.[53]

Ningbo is part of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road that runs from the Chinese coast to the south, via Singapore towards the southern tip of India, via Mombasa to the Mediterranean, there via Athens to the Upper Adriatic region to the northern Italian hub of Trieste with its rail connections to Central and the Eastern Europe.[54][55][56]

TourismEdit

 
The Zunjing Hall (尊經閣) located within the Tianyi Chamber
 
King Ashoka Temple
 
The monument to victory in the Battle of Zhenhai (Sino-French War)

Due to its long history and the prosperity in economics, Ningbo is a city with very rich rich tourist resources. Here is a list of the main tourist attractions that have been authorized by the Ningbo Municipal Bureau of Culture, Radio, Television and Tourism in each subdivisions of Ningbo city.

Main tourist attractions in 6 urban districtsEdit

 
Prayer hall of Yuehu Mosque[17]
 
Ningbo - Haishu District - Tianyi Square 2019-06-09 01

Main tourist attractions in Haishu District

  • Moon Lake Park (Yuehu Park): Moon Lake (Yuehu) is a reservoir excavated in the Tang Dynasty (636 AD) at the center of Haishu District, which is the historic old Ningbo in ancient times. The park includes the lake itself, some small islands on the lake, and many ancient Chinese architectures and historical sites, such as:
    • Tianyi Pavilion (Tianyi Ge or Tianyi Chamber): One of Ningbo's most popular and famous tourist attractions, located in the vicinity of the Moon Lake (Yuehu). Built in 1516 AD, it is the oldest library existent in Asia and is one of the top 3 oldest private libraries in the world. The collection dates back to the 11th century and includes woodblock and handwritten copies of the Confucian classics, rare local histories and lists of the candidates successful in imperial examinations. The currently Tianyi Pavilion refers to the whole museum complex that includes:
      • The historical library-related buildings
      • The ancient Chinese mansion of the library's first owner, Fan Qing, built in Ming Dynasty (1516 AD)
      • A traditional Chinese Garden as part of Fan's mansion
      • An ancient private theater of Chinese plays as part of Fan's mansion
      • A small Mahjong (麻将) museum, since Ningbo is regarded one of the birthplace of Mahjong.
    • The Yuehu Mosque (Moon Lake Mosque): A historical monument it was built in 1003 AD in Song Dynasty.
    • Buddhist Jushi Lin: A 700-year old Buddhist residence located on the beautiful Liutingzhou (an island of the Moon Lake), the lake scenery and cultural landscape of the area.
    • Shuize Stele: A stone stele which is used to measure water level in Pingqiao River near the Moon Lake. It was firstly built in 1242 AD, South Song Dynasty, and protected by a pavilion which was built during the Qing Dynasty
    • He Mijian Ci (贺秘监祠): A cultural relic protection built in honor of a Chinese poet named He Zhizhang (賀知章, 659 AD–744 AD) in Tang Dynasty. He called himself the "Siming Crazy Guest", where "Siming" is the name of a mountain in Ningbo. The building was completed in Song Dynasty (1144 AD) and repaired in Qing Dynasty (1865 AD)
    • Ancient Korean Embassy: It was built to welcome the Korean envoys and business groups during the Northern Song Dynasty. Destroyed by war in 1130 AD, the site of the Korean embassy was announced as a cultural relics protection unit in 1984. Now It is a showroom for the history of relations between Mingzhou (ancient name of Ningbo) and Korea.
    • Central Lake Temple, Central Lake East Bridge, Zhenming Ridge and Xuanmiao Temple: A Ningbo-born novelist Qu You wrote a fiction called Peony Dengji (牡丹灯记, Janpanese: Botan Dōrō also known as 怪談牡丹灯籠 Tales of the Peony Lantern ) (in the collection of Jiandeng Xinhua). It describes a love story between ghost and a man during Fang Guozhen period. The story took place at the Moon Lake. Japanese scholar Koyama Issei identified many of the locations, including Central Lake Temple, Central Lake East Bridge, Zhenming Ridge and Xuanmiao temple, that would fit geographically and architecturally of the places mentioned in the story. The story was adapted as one of one of three Kaidan tales in Japan.
  • Drum Tower Complex (Haishu Tower): Constructed during the Tang Dynasty, it is the only remaining ruin of an old city gate tower in Ningbo. At the top, there is a six-meter high Romanesque bell tower added in the Republic period. Around the base of the tower is a commercial area where all the buildings are reconstructed in the traditional style.
  • Chenghuang Temple (Ningbo County Temple): An ancient commercial center in downtown Ningbo.
  • Tianfeng Pagoda: The national cultural relics protection site is a typical Song-style loft-style brick-wood structure tower unique to Jiangnan in China. This hexagonal building is a landmark and the tallest ancient structure in the city. It appears as a seven-story tower with another seven stories underground and is renowned for its long history, architectural value and ancient artifacts. The tower was first built in 695 in the Tang Dynasty (618 AD -907 AD);
  • Tianyi Square: located in the bustling old downtown of Ningbo City with the nationwide famous shopping complex, named after the Tianyi Ge (Chamber), the oldest private library in Asia
  • Nantang Old Street: An old commercial street by the river with many folk-custom shops, souvenir stores and small-eating restaurants. Previously, Nantang Street acted like a place for local pelple to have fairs and flea markets. In 2013, the street is renovated to become a tourist sites.
  • Liangzhu Cultural Park: A thema park of the story of Liang and Zhu, one of the four folklores in China, and is reputed as the oriental version of the famous play Romeo and Juliet.
  • Baiyun Manor: An ancient academy where Huang Zongxi (黄宗羲) gave lectures. Huang, whose style name is Taichong, is a distinguished thinker, writer and historian of the late Ming and early Qing periods.
  • Tashan Weir: An ancient dam erected during the Tang Dynasty.
  • Ningbo Wulongtan Scenic Scenic Resort: Also called Five-dragon Pools Scenic Resort, it is one of the Ten New Sceneries in Ningbo, a National AAAA rated scenic area.

Main tourist attractions in Yinzhou District

  • Ningbo Museum (Yinzhou Museum, or Ningbo Historic Museum): A museum focuses on Ningbo area history and traditional customs, considered the masterwork of Wang Shu, who is the first Chinese citizen to win the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 2012.
  • Romon U-Park: One of the largest urban indoor theme parks in the world
  • Ningbo Eastern New Town: Newly developed area of Ningbo City, with a well-designed CBD (including two 400m skyscrapers and other headquarters of many listed company and government offices), several museums, galleries, and shopping centers, including:
    • Ningbo Urban Planning Exhibition Center[57]
    • Ningbo Hankyu Commercial Complex: Opened in 2021, it is the first overseas outlet of Hankyu, the famous Japanese department store.
    • Ningbo New Library
  • Yinzhou Park and Ningbo Southern CBD
  • Dongqian Lake: The largest natural freshwater lake in Zhejiang Province. The earliest historical record of the lake dates back to West Jin Dynasty, and there are several natural sceneries and historical attractions around the lake:
    • Little Putuo: An island on the lake with several temples built in Song Dynasty by a prime minister called Shihao .
    • Yuefei Temple: A temple built in Song Dynasty in memory of Yuefei.
    • Taogong Island: The place where Fanli and Xishi once lived according to folklore.
    • Southern Song Dynasty Rock Carving Park: won the "National Cultural Relics Conservation Best Project Award" awarded by the China National Architecture Research Association and the China Cultural Relics Conservation Foundation
    • Fuquan Mountain: a mountain with a Chinese tea theme park
    • Ningbo Hanling Old Street: an ancient street with a history thousands of years. It was once called Hanling City. The 'city' here means bazaar.
  • Qita Temple, a Zen Buddhist temple complex first consecrated during the Tang Dynasty in the downtown area of Ningbo city.
  • Tianhou Temple, a former temple of Mazu as the "Empress of Heaven" once used by Fujianese merchants as their guild hall (Qing'an Huiguan). In the 19th century, it was accounted by S. Wells Williams as the most beautiful place in Ningbo and by John Thomson as one of the most beautiful temples in China, but that structure was destroyed during the Chinese Civil War. It has been reconstructed with many of its original works of art, however, to form the East Zhejiang Maritime Affairs and Folk Customs Museum.
  • Temple of King Ashoka: a Buddhist temple first established in Western Jin Dynasty (282 AD).
  • Tiantong Temple: One of the "Five Chan Buddhism Temples". Tiantong Temple is the cradle of the Sōtō school (曹洞宗, Sōtō-shū) of Japanese Buddhism.
  • Ningbo Ocean World: An aquarium with an ocean theater
  • Ningbo Youngor Zoo
  • Ningbo Sakura Park (Zhongxing Sakura Park): A sakura park built to commemorate the friendship city between Ningbo City and Nagaoka City, Japan

Main tourist attractions in Jiangbei District

  • Sanjiangkou: Located on the borders of 3 urban districts of Ningbo city: Haishu District, Yingzhou District, and Jiangbei District. The place where the Yong River, Yaojiang River and Fenghua River meet, and it is also the heart of old Ningbo city.
  • Old Bund (Old Waitan): A waterfront area and a protected historical district in central of Ningbo, built earlier than the Bund of Shanghai, with lots of early 19th century architectures, stores and restaurants.
  • Baoguo Temple: The oldest intact wooden structure in eastern China. It is in the first batch of National Key Cultural Relics Protection Sites in China. Currently, it is the Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum, and has become a teaching and research base for many top architectural universities
  • Ningbo Museum of Art
  • Ningbo Museum of Garden (宁波园林博物馆)
  • Sacred Heart Cathedral, Ningbo
  • Cicheng Ancient Town: A very well-maintained ancient Chinese ancient walled city built in 8th century, including ancient-time schools, courts, temples, houses, commercial areas. In December 2009, the ancient buildings in Cicheng received the honorary award of the UNESCO Asia-Pacific Heritage Awards for Culture Heritage Conservation by UNESCO.
  • Yaojiang Park

Main tourist attractions in Zhenhai District

  • Jiulong Lake
  • Zhaobao Mountain
  • The Seventeen Houses of Zheng's: The seventeen Houses of Zheng's represented the classical style of residences in Ming and Qing Dynasty in the south part of Yangtze River Basin. Every room constitutes its own system with unique layout and scientific structure and fine workmanship, which implies a great significance for research and sightseeing.
  • Ningbo Bang Museum and Culture Park: It mainly displays exhibits related to the Ningbo Gang (Ningbo Merchants Group), and the development history of the business gang. It was one of the ten largest commercial groups during the Ming and Qing dynasties, and it became the biggest commercial regional group of China in the Late Qing dynasty.
  • Yugang Bao's Old House

Main tourist attractions in Beilun District

  • Port Museum of China

Main tourist attractions in Fenghua District

Main tourist attractions in 2 countiesEdit

Main tourist attractions in Xiangshan County

  • Yushan Islands
  • Nantian Island
  • Xiangshan Movie and Television Theme City

Main tourist attractions in Ninghai County

  • The Zhedong Grand Canyon
  • Nanxi Hot Spring
  • Qiantong Old Town

Main tourist attractions in 2 county-level citiesEdit

Main tourist attractions in Yuyao City (County)

  • Hemudu Culture Relics Site and Museum: The relic cite and museum of a Neolithic culture that flourished just south of the Hangzhou Bay The culture may be divided into early and late phases, before and after 4000 BC respectively. The site at Hemudu, 22 km northwest of Ningbo, was discovered in 1973. Hemudu sites were also discovered at Tianluoshan in Yuyao city, and on the islands of Zhoushan. Hemudu are said to have differed physically from inhabitants of the Yellow River sites to the north. Some authors propose that the Hemudu Culture was a source of the pre-Austronesian cultures.

Main tourist attractions in Cixi City (County)

  • Dapeng Mountain

Notable peopleEdit

Many well known Chinese came from Ningbo or have Ningbo as their ancestral home.

People in mainland China
People in Hong Kong
People in Taiwan
People overseas

TransportationEdit

 
Zhao bao shan Bridge, Zhenhai District, Ningbo
 
Ningbo New Railway Station was reopened in December 2013 after years of on-site restoration to accommodate high speed rails and increasing passengers.

BridgeEdit

As there are three main rivers running through Ningbo, it is crucial to build bridges to improve the efficiency of the transport network in Ningbo. The Ling Bridge which connects Haishu district and Jiangdong District is the earliest modern bridge built in Ningbo, designed by German engineers. Since the late 1980s, 16 bridges have been built on the three rivers. Currently another 27 bridges are under construction.

The Hangzhou Bay Bridge, a combination cable-stayed bridge and causeway across Hangzhou Bay, opened to the public on May 1, 2008. This bridge connects the municipalities of Shanghai and Ningbo, and is considered the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world. It is the world's second-longest bridge, after the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in Louisiana, United States.

The Jintang Bridge, a 4 lane sea crossing bridge linking Jintang Island of Zhoushan and Zhenhai district, is a 27 km (17 mi) long opened on December 26, 2009.

The Xiangshan Harbor Bridge opened to traffic on December 29, 2012, connecting Ningbo with Xiangshan. The 47 km (29 mi)long project includes 22 km (14 mi) as the main body of the bridge and a 8 kilometer-long tunnel.[58]

SeaEdit

The port of Ningbo is one of the world's busiest ports. It was ranked number 1 in total Cargo Volume and number 3 in total container traffic since 2019.[59]

AirEdit

Ningbo Lishe International Airport connects Ningbo by air to the rest of China, with regularly scheduled domestic and international flights. In 2009, new air routes between Ningbo and Taiwan were opened. Jetstar Asia launched a new route between Ningbo and Singapore in September 2011. Tiger Air planned to begin flying this route from 26 December 2013.[needs update]

RailwayEdit

Three railway lines intersect in Ningbo: the Xiaoshan–Ningbo Railway (Xiaoyong Line), which runs west to Hangzhou, the Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou (Yongtaiwen) Railway, which runs south to Wenzhou, and the Hangzhou–Ningbo High-Speed Railway, which runs parallel to the Xiaoyong Line providing high-speed railway service.

With the booming economy in the region, the Xiaoyong Railway, a conventional railway built in the 1950s, could not meet the demand for railway travel between Zhejiang's two largest cities, so construction of a new high-speed railway line between Hangzhou and Ningbo started in 2009. The new railway line was finished by 2013 and reduced travel time between Ningbo and Hangzhou to 50 minutes.

The Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway is a high-speed railway that opened in September 2009. It connects Ningbo with cities along the coast to the south to Fujian Province. High-speed trains on this line operate at speeds of up to 250 km/h (160 mph).

Ningbo re-opened the Ningbo railway station after three years of construction on December 28, 2013. With a construction area of more than 120,000 m2,[60] it is one of the largest railway stations in China.

ExpresswayEdit

Seven expressways connect Ningbo with its surrounding cities:

  • The Hangyong expressway, built in the 1990s, connects Hangzhou and Ningbo, now part of Hangzhou Bay ring expressway (G9211).
  • The Yongtaiwen expressway (G15), opened in 2000, connects Ningbo with Taizhou and Wenzhou.
  • The Yongjin expressway (G1512) connects Ningbo and Jinhua.
  • The Huyong expressway (G15) connects Ningbo and Shanghai via the Hangzhou Bay bridge.
  • The Yongzhou expressway (G9211) via Jintang Bridge.[61]
  • The G1501 Ningbo Ring Expressway
  • The G15W2 Ningbo–Dongguan Expressway
 
Ningbo Rail Transit Plan (2026)

Rapid rail transit and subwayEdit

Ningbo has multiple metro lines in service, under construction, and under authorized planning:

Ningbo Rail Transit in 6 Urban Districts of Ningbo (Not Including 2 County-level Cities and 2 Counties)
Lines Length in Kilometers (km) Number of Stations In-Service Year
Lines in Service
Line 1 46.17 29 2014
Line 2 33.95 27 2015
Line 3 38.63 27 2019
Line 4 36.11 25 2020
Lines Under Construction
Line 2 Extension 2.9 2 2021
Line 5 27.5 22 2021
Line 3 Extension 9.5 5 2023
Line 4 East Extension 2.5 1 Construction Began in 2021
Constructing Plans That Will be Completed by 2026
Line 1 West Extension 1.5 1 by 2026
Line 4 West Extension 2.5 1 by 2026
Line 6 38.6 24 by 2026
Line 7 38.8 25 by 2026
Line 8 22.6 18 by 2026

Since the Metro lines above serve mainly 6 urban districts of Ningbo, so Ningbo government announced several future plans to built further rapid transit to connect 6 urban districts with the county-level cities and counties.

 
Line 1 train leaving Xujiacao Changle Station

MilitaryEdit

Ningbo is the headquarter of the East Sea Fleet of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy.

CultureEdit

As a city with giant ports, Ningbo influenced many countries near China, such as Japan.

LanguageEdit

Ningbo speech is a dialect of Wu Chinese that has preserved many aspects of ancient Chinese phonology. Its original wording mode can be found in classical reference books. It can be found that the trisyllable and tetrasyllable phrases or proverbs in Ningbo dialect make it most unusual and dynamic. Moreover, the onomatopoeia, assonance words, collocations, inversions, and other language characteristics within Ningbo dialect all add spice to people's[who?] life. After the unequal treaty port opening, western culture gradually permeated Ningbo. Thus the prefix " yang" before the nouns of imported goods is a special language phenomenon of Ningbo dialect.[62]

FoodEdit

Ningbo is known for Ningbo Tangyuan, small stuffed buns which are boiled. The stuffing is usually ground sesame mixed with sugar. It can also be mixed with pork fat. The stuffing is wrapped with sticky rice powder. Even more so, Ningbo is famous throughout China for its seafood. Seafood markets are abundant, carrying countless varieties of fish, crabs/lobsters/shrimp, shellfish, snails, jellyfish and other invertebrates, and sea vegetables in all stages of preparation from "still swimming," to cleaned and ready to cook, to fully cooked.

FestivalsEdit

Ningbo has many traditional Han Chinese festivals same as other provinces in China. However, the date of Mid-Autumn Festival is different from others. Han Chinese will have Mid-Autumn Festival on Lunar Calendar August 15, but Ningbo will have on August 16th. The most creditable history for this is that long ago, the whole city waited for Shih Hao, a Southern Sung prime minister.[clarification needed]

EducationEdit

At the end of the year 2020, there were 1,896 schools of all levels and types in the city, with a total of 1,418,000 students. Among them, there are 15 colleges and universities in Ningbo with 177,000 full-time students; 86 regular high schools with 93,000 students; 35 vocational schools with 69,000 students; 230 junior high schools with 21.7 (should this be 217,000 students? It is not 21.7 people) students. There are 427 primary schools with 517,000 students. At the end of the year, there were 838 full-time private primary and secondary schools (including kindergartens) in the city, with 258,000 students in school (including kindergartens), accounting for 21.7% of the city's full-time primary and secondary school (including kindergartens) students. In the compulsory education section, there are 288,000 children of migrant workers go to schools in Ningbo.[63]

In the whole year of 2020, the city attract 1,372 more workers with doctoral degrees, with a total of 9,265; newly attracted 67,000 highly skilled talents, with a total of 551,000; newly attracted 35 post-doctoral research stations, with a total of 224; newly built skilled master jobs There are 10 offices, totaling 100. Throughout the year, 327,000 skilled personnel were trained in the city. In the whole year of 2020, 166,000 university graduates were attracted to Ningbo City, a year-on-year increase of 20.5%.

Higher-Educational institutionsEdit

Ningbo has 15 universities and colleges as of May 2021. Besides, Ningbo has many research institutions that offers graduate degree programs. Here is a list of current universities and colleges in Ningbo.

List of Universities and Colleges in Ningbo as of May 2021
English Name Chinese Name (中文名) Degree Program Website Note
Ningbo University 宁波大学 bachelor's degree, master's degree, doctoral degree https://www.nbu.edu.cn/en/ A Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines
University of Nottingham, Ningbo China 宁波诺丁汉大学 bachelor's degree, master's degree, doctoral degree https://www.nottingham.edu.cn/en/ Affiliated with the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom (UK) and the first Sino-foreign university in China
Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University 浙大宁波理工学院 bachelor's degree, master's degree, doctoral degree http://www.nit.zju.edu.cn/en/
Zhejiang Wanli University 浙江万里学院 bachelor's degree, master's degree http://en.zwu.edu.cn/
Ningbo University of Technology 宁波工程学院 bachelor's degree, master's degree http://www.nbut.cn/
Ningbo University of Finance and Economics 宁波财经学院 bachelor's degree http://www.nbut.cn/
College of Science and Technology, Ningbo University 宁波大学科学技术学院 bachelor's degree https://www.ndky.edu.cn/ An independent college of Ningbo University
China Coast Guard Academy 中国人民武装警察部队海警学院 bachelor's degree
Zhejiang University of Pharmacy 浙江药科职业大学 associate degree, bachelor's degree https://www.zjpc.net.cn/
Zhejiang Business Technology Institute 浙江工商职业技术学院 associate degree https://www.zjbti.net.cn/
Zhejiang Pharmaceutical College 宁波职业技术学院 associate degree https://en.nbpt.edu.cn/
Zhejiang Fashion Institute of Technology 浙江纺织服装职业技术学院 associate degree http://www.zjff.edu.cn/
Ningbo City College of Vocational Technology 宁波城市职业技术学院 associate degree https://www.nbcc.cn/
Ningbo College of Health Sciences 宁波卫生职业技术学院 associate degree http://www.nbchs.net/
Ningbo Childhood Education College 宁波幼儿师范高等专科学校 associate degree https://www.nbei.net/

As of 2020, many famous universities and research institutions have an operating campus or institutes in Ningbo, most of them have been offering graduate degrees programs.

Part of Research Institutions Offering Graduate Programs in Ningbo
English Name Chinese Name (中文名)
Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences 中国科学院宁波材料技术与工程研究所
Ningbo Institute of Technology, BeihangUniversity 北京航空航天大学宁波创新研究院
Zhejiang University, Ningbo 浙江大学宁波校区
Harbin Institute of Technology, Ningbo 哈尔滨工业大学宁波智能装备研究院
Dalian University of Technology, Ningbo 大连理工大学宁波研究院
Tianjin University, Ningbo 天津大学浙江研究院
Ningbo Institute of Marine-Derived Pharmaceutical, Peking University 北京大学宁波海洋药物研究院
Northwestern Polytechnical University, Ningbo 西北工业大学宁波研究院

Compared to other 14 sub-provincial cities in China, Ningbo has the smallest number of higher-educational institutions.

Secondary and primary educationEdit

Compulsory education (basic education in Chinese terms) is from the ages 6 to 15. Students are catered to in a variety of state and private schools. Studying for the gaokao(高考), a test of a student's skill, is optional.[64] At the end of the year 2020, there were 86 regular high schools with 93,000 students in Ningbo; 35 vocational schools with 69,000 students; 230 junior high schools with 21.7 students. There are 427 primary schools with 517,000 students. At the end of the year, there were 838 full-time private primary and secondary schools (including kindergartens) in the city, with 258,000 students in school (including kindergartens), accounting for 21.7% of the city's full-time primary and secondary school (including kindergartens) students. In the compulsory education section, there are 288,000 children of migrant workers go to schools in Ningbo.[63]

International educationEdit

Several schools are permitted to operate foreign educational programs as an alternative to the Chinese National curriculum and accept international students.

Access International Academy Ningbo (AIAN) and Ningbo Zhicheng School International (NZSI) both offer the American AERO (American Education Reaches Out) curriculum with the College Board Advanced Placement examinations. Ningbo International School (NBIS) delivers the Cambridge International Primary and Secondary Curricula leading to iGCSE Examinations and A-Levels. Huamao Multicultural Education Academy[65] is an IB World School and offers an international curriculum through the IB Primary Years Program for students ages 3–12 and the IB Diploma Program for students ages 16–19.

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Ningbo is twinned with:[66]

City Country Since
Nagaokakyō, Kyoto   Japan 1983
Aachen   Germany 1986
Wilmington, Delaware   United States 1988
Waitakere City   New Zealand 1998
Rouen   France 1990
Santos, São Paulo   Brazil 2002
Port Elizabeth   South Africa 2003
Veszprém   Hungary 2003
Stavanger   Norway 2004
Varna   Bulgaria 2004
Bydgoszcz   Poland 2005
Nottingham   United Kingdom 2005
Florence   Italy 2008
Daegu   South Korea 2013
Bitola   North Macedonia 2014

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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