Nieuport 10

The Nieuport 10 (or Nieuport XB in contemporary sources) was a French First World War sesquiplane that filled a wide variety of roles including reconnaissance, fighter and trainer.

Nieuport 10
Role reconnaissance, fighter and trainer
Manufacturer Nieuport
Designer Gustave Delage
First flight 1914
Introduction 1915
Status retired
Primary users Aéronautique Militaire
Royal Naval Air Service
Imperial Russian Air Service
Produced 1915-1918
Variants Nieuport 12
Nieuport 10 wing and aileron details

Design and development

In January 1914, designer Gustave Delage joined the Société Anonyme des Etablissements Nieuport, and started working on a series of aircraft that would remain in production for the remainder of the First World War. The Nieuport 10 was the first of these and was originally designed to compete in the Gordon Bennett Trophy race of 1914. World War I caused this contest to be cancelled, and the type was developed as a military two seat reconnaissance aircraft that entered service in 1915.

The type featured a distinctive "V" strut layout. The lower wing was much smaller in area than the upper wing. The concept was intended to combine the strength, compactness and stability of the biplane's wire braced wing cell with the speed and ease of handling of the monoplane.[1]

Many were built or converted as single-seat fighters by covering the front cockpit, and adding a Lewis Gun or Vickers machine gun either to fire through the center section of the top wing or mounted over it, firing forwards. In this form, the type was used as a fighter.

Two major types were developed from the Nieuport 10 - the Nieuport 11 Bébé - a smaller aircraft, designed from the outset as a single-seater, and the Nieuport 12 - a more powerful two-seater with a larger top wing. In addition, production was undertaken of a dedicated trainer version under the Nieuport 83 E.2 designation with detail changes. A single example of a triplane, using a Nieuport 10 airframe was built to test an unusual staggered wing concept.

Operational Use

Many of the early French aces flew the Nieuport 10, the best known of which was Georges Guynemer, who used several Nieuport 10s, all marked "Vieux Charles". Jan Olieslagers was flying a Nieuport 10 when he became the first Belgian to shoot down another aircraft, while the first Canadian aerial victory was also scored in a Nieuport 10, by Flight Sub-Lieutenant Arthur Ince.


Early French Nieuport X.B reconnaissance aircraft
Nieuport 10 triplane
American Nieuport 83 E.2 trainer
Nieuport X.B
Early designation distinguishing it from the earlier unrelated Nieuport X monoplane.
Nieuport X.AV
Company designation with the observer/gunner seated in the front and the pilot in the rear.[2]
Nieuport X.AR
Company designation with the pilot seated in the front and the observer/gunner in the rear.[2]
Nieuport 10 A.2
Two seat reconnaissance (Artillerie) aircraft, same as Nieuport X.AR.
Nieuport 10 C.1
Single-seat fighter variant. Inspired development of Nieuport 11 C.1.
Nieuport 10 E.2
Nieuport 10 A.2s used for training.
Nieuport 83 E.2
Purpose built trainer with detail modifications.
Nieuport 10 triplane
Testbed for triplane with unusual wing stagger.
Nieuport-Macchi 10.000
Italian built Nieuport 10 with many detail modifications.
Nieuport 18 or 18 meter Nieuport
Unofficial description of basic type based on nominal wing area of 18 square meters.
Nakajima Army Type 甲 2 (Ko 2) Trainer
Nieuport 83 E.2 built under licence in Japan.
Trainer Type 2
Siamese designation for imported Nieuport 83 E.2.


Belgian Air Force
Brazilian Air Force
Aéronautique Militaire
Finnish Air Force (ex-Russian examples)
Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic
Red Guards (ex-Russian examples)[3]
 Kingdom of Italy
Corpo Aeronautico Militare
Imperial Japanese Army Air Service
Aeronáutica Militar Portuguesa - 7 Nieuport Ni.83E-2 trainers received in 1917.[4]
 Russian Empire
Imperial Russian Air Service - imported large numbers and built under licence.
Imperial Russian Navy - ex Air Service aircraft.
Serbian Air Force[5]
British Royal Naval Air Service Nieuport 10 showing the original small tailplane and cutout in the top wing for the gunner.
Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Army (One aircraft only)
 United Kingdom
Royal Naval Air Service - early user. Note that the Royal Flying Corps did not use the Nieuport 10.
 United States
United States Air Service of the American Expeditionary Force - used as trainers only
 Soviet Union
Workers' and Peasants' Air Fleet (ex-Russian examples)


Two Nieuport-Macchi 10,000's survive and are on display in Italy, one at the Museo Storico Italiano della Guerra and one at the Museo della Scienza e della Tecnologia "Leonardo da Vinci", and an original Nieuport 83 E.2 that had been flown by Charles Nungesser while barnstorming in the United States shortly after the First World War, is at Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome on static display.

Specifications (Nieuport-Macchi 10)

Drawing of definitive Nieuport 10 C.1 fighter

Data from Nieuport Macchi 11 & 17[6] and French Aircraft of the First World War[7]

General characteristics

  • Crew: Two
  • Length: 7.01 m (23 ft 0 in)
  • Upper wingspan: 8.03 m (26 ft 4 in)
  • Upper Chord: 1.61 m (5 ft 3 in)
  • Wing Sweep: 2° 45'
  • Lower wingspan: 7.51 m (24 ft 8 in)
  • Lower Chord: 0.90 m (2 ft 11 in)
  • Height: 2.85 m (9 ft 4 in)
  • Wing area: 18 m2 (190 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 440 kg (970 lb)
  • Gross weight: 650 kg (1,433 lb)
  • Undercarriage track: 1.60 m (5 ft 3 in)[8]
  • Powerplant: 1 × le Rhône 9C 9-cylinder air-cooled rotary piston engine, 60 kW (80 hp)
  • Propellers: 2-bladed fixed-pitch Régy 155 or Chauviere 2219 propeller, 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) diameter [8]


  • Maximum speed: 140 km/h (87 mph, 76 kn)
  • Range: 300 km (190 mi, 160 nmi)
  • Endurance: 2 hours 30 minutes
  • Service ceiling: 4,000 m (13,000 ft)
  • Time to altitude: 15 minutes 30 seconds to 2,000 m (6,600 ft)
  • Wing loading: 36.1 kg/m2 (7.4 lb/sq ft)


See also

Related lists



  1. Spooner, 1917, p.884
  2. Davilla & Soltan, pp. 355–359
  3. Berner, 1934
  4. Niccoli 1998, p. 20.
  5. Janić, 2011
  6. Longoni, 1976, p.48
  7. Davilla, 1997, p358
  8. Pommier, 2002, p.167


  • Apostolo, Giorgio (1991). Aermacchi - from Nieuports to AMX. Milan, Italy: Giorgio Apostolo Editore (GAE).
  • Berner, Aarne (1934). "Air Force Participation in Finnish War of Independence in Year 1918. Chapter III. Red Air Activity in Finland y. 1918" (PDF). Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  • Bruce, J.M. (1998). Nieuport 10~12 - Windsock Datafile 68. Herts, UK: Albatros Publications. ISBN 978-1902207018.
  • Cooksley, Peter (1997). Nieuport Fighters In Action. In Action Aircraft Number 167. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications. ISBN 978-0897473774.
  • Davilla, Dr. James J.; Soltan, Arthur (1997). French Aircraft of the First World War. Mountain View, CA: Flying Machines Press. ISBN 978-1891268090.
  • Durkota, Alan; Darcey, Thomas; Kulikov, Victor (1995). The Imperial Russian Air Service Famous Pilots and Aircraft of World War I. Mountain View, CA: Flying Machines Press. ISBN 0-9637110-2-4.
  • Janić, Č; Petrović, O (2011). Short History of Aviation in Serbia. Beograd: Aerokomunikacije. ISBN 978-8691397326.
  • Longoni, Maurizio (1976). Nieuport Macchi 11 & 17 (in Italian). Milan: Intergest.
  • Nicolli, Riccardo (January–February 1998). "Atlantic Sentinels: The Portuguese Air Force Since 1912". Air Enthusiast. No. 73. pp. 20–35. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Pommier, Gerard (2002). Nieuport 1875-1911 A biography of Edouard Nieuport. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 978-0764316241.
  • Rimmell, Ray (1990). World War One Survivors. Bucks: Aston Publications. ISBN 0-946627-44-4.
  • Rosenthal, Léonard; Marchand, Alain; Borget, Michel; Bénichou, Michel (1997). Nieuport 1909-1950 Collection Docavia Volume 38. Clichy Cedex, France: Editions Lariviere. ISBN 978-2848900711.
  • Sanger, Ray (2002). Nieuport Aircraft of World War One. Wiltshire: Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1861264473.
  • Stanley Spooner, ed. (3 Aug 1917). "Some Nieuport "Milestones"". Flight. Vol. IX no. 35/453. Royal Aero Club. pp. 884–890.
  • Taylor, John W. R.; Alexander, Jean (1969). Combat Aircraft of the World. New York: Putnam. pp. 112–113. LCCN 68-25459.
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