Nieuport-Delage NiD 42

The Nieuport-Delage NiD 42 was a fighter aircraft built in France in the early 1920s, the first in a family of designs that would form the backbone of the French fighter force over the next decade.[1][2]

NiD.42, 52, 62
Nieuport-Delage NiD 52.jpg
Nieuport-Delage NiD.52 prototype in French markings prior to delivery to Spain. The 42 was similar but had a wooden fuselage and relocated radiators.
Role Fighter
National origin France
Manufacturer Nieuport-Delage
Designer Gustave Delage
First flight 1924
Introduction 1924
Retired 1940
Status retired
Primary user Aéronautique Militaire
Number built 882
Developed from Nieuport-Delage Sesquiplan
Variants Nieuport-Delage NiD 52
Nieuport-Delage NiD 62

Design and developmentEdit

As first built, the NiD 42 was a highly streamlined parasol-wing monoplane with a monocoque fuselage and an open cockpit of which a single prototype was built. Soon afterwards, Nieuport-Delage built two examples of a modified version for the 1924 Coupe Beaumont as the NiD 42S,[3][4] on which the main wings were mounted directly to the sides of the upper fuselage at shoulder position with a short subsidiary wing fitted around the undercarriage axle.. To further streamline the design, the surface radiators were installed on the upper surface of the wing.[5]

Operational historyEdit

One of these aircraft was flown by Joseph Sadi-Lecointe in the race of 22 June and was the only one out of the five entrants to actually finish the course.[3][6][7] Indeed, having finished the prescribed six laps of the 50 km (31 mi) course, Sadi-Lecointe flew another four laps to break the world speed record over a 500-km closed-course.[7] His average speed in winning the Coupe Beaumont was 311 km/h (193 mph; 168 kn) and over the 500 km (310 mi) was 306 km/h (190 mph; 165 kn), beating the previous record for the latter by 36 km/h (22 mph; 19 kn).[7] On 15 February the following year, Sadi Lecointe took a NiD 42S up to a speed of 375 km/h (233 mph; 202 kn)[6] and went on to win the 1925 Coupe Beaumont with a NiD 42S on 18 October[6] with an average speed of 313 km/h (194 mph; 169 kn).[8]

While the NiD 42S was achieving these distinctions, development continued on the fighter version. Nieuport-Delage designed two further such variants in 1924; a single-seater designated NiD 42 C.1 and a similar machine with a second cockpit for a tail gunner with a machine gun in a ring mount, designated the NiD 42 C.2.[2] One of the latter was exhibited at that year's Salon de l'Aéronautique, along with a NiD 42 C.1 nose section to illustrate an alternative engine mount.[9] These differed from the original NiD 42 fighter in having a second, small wing added to the lower fuselage, turning the parasol monoplane into a sesquiplane, a design feature adopted from the NiD 37[10] which would be a key identifying feature through most of the versions developed from the 42.

Only two examples of the two-seater were built,[1] but Nieuport-Delage entered the single-seater in the 1925 concours des monoplaces, a competition by the Army's Technical Service to find a replacement for the NiD 29.[10] The NiD 42 was selected from a field of eleven competitors, and an order for 50 aircraft was placed,[10] of which 25 were eventually delivered.[2] Although impressive at the time it was designed, technology had already surpassed the NiD 42 when it entered service in 1928, particularly with regard to its wooden structure,[10] and most of the development work associated with the design was made in an effort to cure it of a tendency to enter a flat spin. Nevertheless, it provided the foundation for further development as the NiD 52 and NiD 62.[11]

VariantsEdit

NiD 42
prototype single-seat parasol-wing monoplane fighter with 370 kW (500 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Hb (one built)
NiD 42S
shoulder-wing monoplane racer with 450 kW (600 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Hb (two built)
NiD 42 C.1
 
Nieuport Delage NiD 44 C.1 photo from L'Aéronautique January,1926
single-seat sesquiplane fighter with 370 kW (500 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Hb (27 built, mostly for French AF, includes two for the Turkish Air Force
NiD 42 C.2
two-seat sesquiplane fighter with 370 kW (500 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Hb (two built)
NiD 44 C.1
prototype sesquiplane fighter, powered by a 340 kW (450 hp) Lorraine 12Ew W-12 engine, to test alternate engine (one built)
NiD 46 C.1
 
Nieuport Delage NiD 46 C.1 photo from L'Aéronautique January,1926
prototype sesquiplane fighter with 370 kW (500 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Gb to test alternate engine (one built)
NiD 52 C.1
version for Spanish Air Force with 370 kW (500 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Hb (126 built, including 125 under licence in Spain)
NiD 62 C.1
production fighter version for French military with 370 kW (500 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Hb (322 built)
NiD 621
advanced trainer powered by a 370 kW (500 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Hb (three built)
NiD 622
production fighter powered by a 370 kW (500 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Hb (314 built)
NiD 623
speed record aircraft modified from 62 powered by a 450 kW (600 hp) Lorraine 12Fd Courlis W-12 engine, (one built)
NiD 624
experimental altitude aircraft powered by a 450 kW (600 hp) Lorraine 12Fd Courlis W-12 engine, (one built)
NiD 626
variant for Peru with 370 kW (500 hp) Lorraine 12Hdr V-12 engine (12 built)
NiD 628
testbed for testing Farman turbocharger powered by a 370 kW (500 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Mc (two built)
NiD 629
production fighter powered by a 370 kW (500 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Mdsh (50 built for French)
NiD 72 C.1
metalized version for Belgium and Brazil powered by a 450 kW (600 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Lb (16 built for Brazil and Belgium)
NiD 82 C.1
metalized prototype with 450 kW (600 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Lb and entirely new wing and tail (one built)

OperatorsEdit

  Belgium
  Brazil
  France
  Peru
  Spain
  Turkey

Specifications (NiD 42 C1)Edit

 
Nieuport Delage NiD 42 C.1 3-view drawing from L'Aéronautique August,1927

Data from "Nieuport-Delage NiD-42"[12]

General characteristics

  • Crew: One pilot
  • Length: 7.50 m (24 ft 7 in)
  • Wingspan: 12.00 m (39 ft 4 in)
  • Height: 3.00 m (9 ft 10 in)
  • Wing area: 30.9 m2 (332 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 1,260 kg (2,780 lb)
  • Gross weight: 1,808 kg (3,998 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 12Hb , 336 kW (450 hp)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 265 km/h (165 mph, 143 kn)
  • Range: 400 km (250 mi, 220 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 7,325 m (24,000 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 3.83 m/s (756.92 ft/min)

Armament

  • 2 × fixed, forward-firing machine guns in wings
  • 1 × fixed, forward-firing machine gun in engine cowling

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Taylor 1989, p. 698.
  2. ^ a b c The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft 1985, p. 2612.
  3. ^ a b The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft 1985, p. 2600.
  4. ^ Serryer, J (19 June 1924). "Le Sesquiplane Nieuport-Delage". Les Ailes (157): 2.
  5. ^ "The Nieuport-Delage Type 42", p. 461.
  6. ^ a b c Hartmann 2006, 10.
  7. ^ a b c "'Sadi' wins Beaumont Cup." Flight, 26 June 1924, p. 416. Retrieved: 16 September 2012.
  8. ^ "Sadi Lecointi wins Beaumont Cup." Flight, 22 October 1925, p. 682. Retrieved: 16 September 2012.
  9. ^ "The Paris Aero Show 1924" 1924, p. 774.
  10. ^ a b c d Hartmann 2006, p. 15.
  11. ^ Taylor and Alexander 1969, p. 117.
  12. ^ Parmentier 2000

BibliographyEdit

  • Bruner, Georges (1977). "Fighters a la Francaise, Part One". Air Enthusiast (3): 85–95. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Hartmann, Gérard. "Les avions Nieuport-Delage." La Coupe Schneider et hydravions anciens/Dossiers historiques hydravions et moteurs, 2006.
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft (Part Work 1982-1985). London: Orbis Publishing, 1985.
  • Parmentier, Bruno. "Nieuport-Delage NiD-42." Aviafrance - Un siècle d'aviation française, 27 August 2000.
  • Taylor, John W. R. and Jean Alexander. Combat Aircraft of the World. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-71810-564-8.
  • Taylor, Michael J. H. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions, 1989. ISBN 0-517-69186-8.
  • Wauthy, Jean-Luc & de Neve, Florian (June 1995). "Les aéronefs de la Force Aérienne Belge, deuxième partie 1919–1935" [Aircraft of the Belgian Air Force]. Le Fana de l'Aviation (in French) (305): 28–33. ISSN 0757-4169.

External linksEdit