National Board of Review
The National Board of Review of Motion Pictures is an organization in the United States dedicated to discussing and selecting what its members regard as the best film works of each year.[not verified in body]
|Formation||January 1909(as New York Board of Motion Picture Censorship)|
On December 24, 1908 New York City Mayor George B. McClellan Jr. revoked all moving-picture exhibition licenses in the city pending inspection of the premises. Given the inadequacy of fire exits and instances of rear exits blocked, the Mayor considered the highly flammable celluloid film presented an unacceptable fire hazard. He stated that based upon complaints by a number of the city's rectors and pastors and the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, that upon re-issuance, the licensees were prohibited from operating on Sunday. He further indicated his intention to revoke the license of any motion picture show "...on evidence that pictures have been exhibited by the licensees which tend to degrade or injure the morals of the community." The motion picture exhibitors blamed the mayor's actions on pressure from owners of burlesque and vaudeville theaters threatened by competition and were able to obtain an injunction.
In 1909, Charles Sprague Smith and others formed the New York Board of Motion Picture Censorship to make recommendations to the Mayor's office concerning controversial films. It quickly became known as the National Board of Motion Picture Censorship. In an effort to avoid government censorship of films, the National Board became the unofficial clearinghouse for new movies. The Board's stated purpose was to endorse films of merit and champion the new "art of the people", which was transforming America's cultural life. In March 1916 the Board changed its name to the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures to avoid the controversial word "censorship".
Producers submitted their films to the board before making release prints; they agreed to cut any footage that the board found objectionable, up to and including destroying the entire film. Thousands of films carried the legend "Passed by the National Board of Review" in their main titles from 1916 into the 1950s, when the board began to lose financial support, partly due to the NBR being overpowered by the MPAA in regards to film censorship.
In 1930, the NBR was the first group to choose the 10 best English-language movies of the year and the best foreign films, and is still the first critical body to announce its annual awards. In 1936 executive secretary Wilton A. Barrett explained the Board's workings:
The National Board is opposed to legal censorship regarding all forms of the motion picture...It believes that far more constructive ...is the method of selecting the better pictures, publishing descriptive, classified lists of them and building up audiences and support for them through the work of community groups...
The NBR has also gained international acclaim for its publications: Film Program (1917–1926); Exceptional Photoplays (1920–1925); Photoplay Guide to Better Movies (1924–1926); National Board of Review Magazine (1926–1942); New Movies (1942–1949); and Films in Review, which published its first issue in 1950.
Films in ReviewEdit
The board's official magazine had existed in several forms and different names since its inception. In 1950, the magazine changed its name from Screen Magazine and launched the first issue as Films in Review (ISSN 0015-1688) on February 1, 1950. Films in Review ceased print publishing in 1997 and became an online publication only at Filmsinreview.com. It is the oldest film review and commentary publication in the United States.
To determine the NBR's annual awards, ballots are sent in by over 100 members of group of film enthusiasts, academics and filmmakers in the New York metropolitan area, and subsequently tabulated by a certified public accountancy firm in order to decide the winners. In addition, the Awards Committee determines the special achievement awards presented at the annual gala in January.
The organization also works to foster commentary on all aspects of film production by underwriting educational film programs and seminars for film students. In 2017, the NBR provided grants to Reel Works Teen Filmmaking, Ghetto Film School, and Educational Video Center. The organization also awarded grants to 13 student filmmakers as part of its annual student grant program.
- Best Film + Top 10 Films
- Best Director
- Best Actor
- Best Actress
- Best Supporting Actor
- Best Supporting Actress
- Best Acting by an Ensemble
- Breakthrough Performance
- Best Adapted Screenplay
- Best Original Screenplay
- Best Animated Film
- Best Documentary Film
- Best Foreign Language Film
- Spotlight Award
- Best Family Film
- Top 5 Documentaries
- Best Directorial Debut
- Best Animated Feature
- Top 10 Independent Films
- Special Recognition
- Best Juvenile Performance
- NBR Freedom of Expression
- Special Filmmaking Achievement
- Top Five Foreign Language Films
- Special Achievement in Producing
- William K. Everson Film History Award
- Career Achievements in Production: Cinematography, Music, FX
Note: Until 1945, there were only awards for Best Picture and intermittent awards for Best Documentary and Best Foreign Film.
- Picture Shows All Out of Business. The New York Times, December 25, 1908. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "National Board of Review of Motion Pictures records 1907-1971", NYPL
- Sklar, Robert (1994). Movie-Made America: A Cultural History of American Movies (2nd ed.). New York City: Vintage Books. pp. 31–32. ISBN 0-679-75549-7.
- Chris, Cynthia (2012). "Censoring Purity". Camera Obscura 79. Duke University Press. 27 (1): 97–98, 105. doi:10.1215/02705346-1533457. ISSN 0270-5346. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- "Exit: 'Passed by National Board of Review'". Boxoffice. No. January 19, 1952. Associated Publications. January 19, 1952. p. 25.
- Barrett, Wilton A. "The National Board of Review of Motion Pictures--How It Works." The Journal of Educational Sociology, vol. 10, no. 3, 1936, pp. 177–188. Accessed 7 May 2021
- "SCREEN MAGAZINE BOWS; Films in Review, Published by National Board, Out Today". The New York Times. February 1, 1950. Retrieved February 16, 2010.
- 1987 National Board of Review Best Juvenile Performance Empire of the Sun Chistain Bale
- "Top 5 Foreign Language Films | Archive". National Board of Review. 2018. Retrieved December 4, 2019.