Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation
Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC; Korean: 주식회사문화방송; Hanja: 株式會社文化放送; RR: Jusikhoesa Munhwa Bangsong; lit. "Cultural Broadcasting Corporation") is one of the leading South Korean television and radio network companies. Munhwa is the Sino-Korean word for "culture". Its flagship terrestrial television station MBC TV is Channel 11 (LCN) for Digital.
|Revised Romanization||Jusikhoesa Munhwa Bangsong|
|McCune–Reischauer||Chushikhoesa Munhwa Pangsong|
|Industry||Broadcast radio and television|
|Founded||21 February 1961|
|Headquarters||267, Sangam-dong, Mapo District, Seoul, South Korea|
Number of locations
|9 cities (Tokyo, Beijing, Bangkok, Paris, London, Los Angeles, Washington, and New York) (2015)|
|Park Sung-jae CEO & President, 2020-present|
|Revenue||1,500,941,912,398 won (2015)|
|59,272,035,738 won (2015)|
|82,403,520,805 won (2015)|
|Total assets||2,557,227,645,206 won (December 2015)|
|Total equity||1,000,000,000 won (December 2015)|
Number of employees
|1,712 (December 2015)|
Established on 2 December 1961, MBC is a Korean terrestrial broadcaster which has a nationwide network of 17 regional stations. Although it operates on advertising, MBC is a public broadcaster, as its largest shareholder is a public organization, The Foundation of Broadcast Culture. Today, it is a multimedia group with one terrestrial TV channel, three radio channels, five cable channels, five satellite channels and four DMB channels.
MBC is headquartered in Digital Media City (DMC), Mapo-gu, Seoul and has the largest broadcast production facilities in Korea including digital production centre Dream Center in Ilsan, indoor and outdoor sets in Yongin Daejanggeum Park.
Radio era (1961-1968)Edit
Launching the first radio broadcast signal (call sign: HLKV, frequency: 900 kHz, output: 10 kW) from Seoul, MBC started as the first non-governmental commercial broadcaster in Korea. On 12 April 1963, it obtained a license from the government for operating regional stations in major cities (Daegu, Gwangju, Daejeon, Jeonju) in Korea, and established a broadcast network which connects six cities including Seoul and Busan.
Black & white TV era (1969-1980)Edit
MBC launched TV broadcasting on 8 August 1969 (call sign: HLAC-TV, output: 2 kW), and started to broadcast its main news program MBC Newsdesk on 5 October 1970. It reached affiliation deal with 7 commercial stations (in Ulsan, Jinju, Gangnueng, Chuncheon, Mokpo, Jeju, Masan) between 1968 and 1969, and started nationwide TV broadcasting through its 13 affiliated or regional stations. In 1974, FM radio was launched, and MBC took over The Kyunghyang Shinmun (daily newspaper company).
Colour TV era (1980-1990)Edit
The first colour TV broadcasting was started on 22 December 1980. MBC was separated from The Kyunghyang Shinmun according to the 1981 Basic Press Act. In 1982, it moved into the Yeouido headquarters and founded professional baseball team MBC Cheong-ryong (Blue Dragon). With the live coverage of the 1986 Seoul Asian Games and the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games, MBC made a great advancement in scale and technology.
Multimedia era (1991-2000)Edit
After rapidly growing into a large corporation, covering major international events, MBC established specialized companies for each value chain (MBC Production, MBC Media Tech, MBC Broadcast Culture Center, MBC Arts Company, MBC Arts Center) and spined them off as subsidiaries to become a more efficient corporation amid fiercer competition in the multimedia era. ※ MBC Production and MBC Media Tech were merged into MBC C&I in August, 2011.
Digital era (2001–present)Edit
As the convergence of broadcasting and communications becomes full-fledged, MBC made its subsidiary iMBC (internet MBC) an independent corporation and pursued various internet-related business. Furthermore, it started cable TV (MBC Plus Media,) satellite TV, new DMB broadcasting and full daytime broadcasting on terrestrial television. In 2007, MBC established digital production centre Ilsan Dream Center, which is equipped with high-tech production facilities. In September 2014, it completed the construction of a new headquarters building and moved from Yeouido to Sangam-dong, opening a new era of Sangam MBC.
In 2001, MBC launched satellite and cable television broadcasting. As part of this expansion it created MBC America, a subsidiary based in Los Angeles, United States, to distribute its programming throughout the Americas. On 1 August 2008, MBC America launched MBC-D, a television network carried on the digital subchannels of KSCI-TV, KTSF-TV, and WMBC-TV. The service was planned to be launched in Atlanta, Chicago, and Washington, D.C. by the end of the year. In northeast metro Atlanta, it aired on WKTB-CD channel 47.3, but as of 2011 is on WSKC-CD channel 22.1.
In March 2013, computer shutdowns hit South Korean television stations including the MBC. The South Korean government asserted a North Korean link in the March cyberattacks, which has been denied by Pyongyang.
MBC is an active member of international organizations such as ABU (Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union), IATAS (The International Academy of Television Arts & Science) and INPUT (International Public Television Screening Conference), and is affiliated with 21 broadcasters in 13 different countries.
It is engaged in various global business through overseas corporations in Los Angeles and Shanghai, and bureaus in North America, Latin America, Europe and the Middle East as well as Asia, in close cooperation with major global media groups.
MBC is devoted to entering foreign markets and expanding the business area. It maintains a close relationship with foreign buyers by participating in major content markets every year such as MIP-TV, MIPCOM, NATPE, BCWW and ATF. In addition, it operates an English web site which introduces various MBC content to the overseas buyers and viewers so that they can easily access its content.
MBC drama What on Earth Is Love? is the first Korean Wave drama which sparked the K-drama boom across China, when it was aired on CCTV in 1997. Since then, numerous MBC dramas, entertainment shows, and documentaries have been exported to different countries. The drama "Dae Jang Geum" was shown in as many as 91 countries around the world. More recently, MBC is widening its content business area by exporting show formats such as I Am a Singer, We Got Married and Dad! Where Are We Going? to other countries.
2020 - Deepfake technology controversyEdit
On 20 April 2020, MBC News broadcast news about deepfake pornography. MBC used deepfake technology, an AI technology which changes an identity of someone on an image or a video to someone else's likeness. The news sparked outrage among Korean netizens due to its contents which consist of inappropriate materials. Korean boy band BTS, Korean singer IU and other celebrities were used as examples on the news. Viewers and fans of the celebrities used the hashtag #MBC_합성_사과해, to tell MBC to apologise and respond towards the incident. However, MBC hasn't said any official statements regarding the incident.
2021 - Olympics broadcast offensive accusationEdit
During the broadcasting of the parade of nations on the 2020 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, MBC was accused domestically and internationally for making depictions of numerous countries that were deemed racist and offensive. The most notable country depictions displayed during the broadcast is the use of the Chernobyl disaster to depict Ukraine and riots to depict Haiti. The incident sparked anger among Ukrainians and Haitians. On 27 July, MBC president Park Sung-jae apologised to the public as well as nations affected. He apologised to the Embassy of Ukraine and Romania in Seoul in a press conference and promised to ensure all of its content to be respectful towards universal values and cultural diversity. MBC also declared a written apology on their official website. Haitian Foreign Minister Claude Joseph however, fired back at MBC saying "their apology didn't go far enough, but the incident shouldn't be allowed to distract from the athletes who have worked tirelessly for years to get to the Olympics". The incident caused national uproar among Koreans, with some Korean netizens accusing MBC for being insensitive and unprofessional.
- 1 terrestrial TV (MBC TV – channel 11)
- 3 Radio stations:
|MBC Standard FM||900 kHz AM
95.9 MHz FM
|MBC FM4U||91.9 MHz FM||10 kW|
|Channel M||CH 12A DAB||2 kW|
- 5 cable (drama, sports, game-show, variety and documentary)
- 5 satellite (drama, sports, game-show, variety and documentary)
- 3 terrestrial DMB (TV, radio, data)
- 2 satellite DMB (drama, sports)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Choe Sang-Hun, "Computer Networks in South Korea Are Paralyzed in Cyberattacks" Archived 2 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 20 March 2013.
- Lee Minji (10 April 2013). "(2nd LD) Gov't confirms Pyongyang link in March cyber attacks". Yonhap News. Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
- "MBC, 아이유-방탄소년단 합성 딥페이크 보도… 팬들 화났다". Naver Post (in Korean). 22 April 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
- Vigdor, Neil (25 July 2021). "Broadcaster Apologizes for 'Inappropriate' Images Aired During Olympic Parade". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
- "MBC's Olympic howlers show shallow outlook on world". Korea JoongAng Daily. 27 July 2021. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
- Si-jin, Lee (26 July 2021). "MBC chief apologizes after yet another inappropriate caption airs during Tokyo Games". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
- "[사과문] 머리 숙여 사죄드립니다". MBC와 함께 (in Korean). 26 July 2021. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
- Lemaire, Sandra; Gallo, William (26 July 2021). "Haiti: S Korean TV Channel Apology Over Olympics Stereotypes 'Didn't Go Far Enough'". Voice of America. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
- "South Korean TV network apologises for offensive Olympic broadcast". France 24. 24 July 2021. Retrieved 2 August 2021.