Matthew the Apostle
Matthew the Apostle,[a] also known as Saint Matthew and possibly as Levi, was, according to the New Testament, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. According to Christian traditions, he was also one of the four Evangelists as author of the Gospel of Matthew, and thus is also known as Matthew the Evangelist, a claim rejected by the majority of modern biblical scholars, though the "traditional authorship still has its defenders."
Matthew the Apostle
|Apostle, Evangelist, and Martyr|
|Born||1st century AD|
|Died||1st century AD|
near Hierapolis or Ethiopia, relics in Salerno, Italy
|Venerated in||Eastern Orthodox Church|
Eastern Catholic Churches
Church of the East
|Feast||21 September (Western Christianity)|
22 October (Coptic Orthodox)
16 November (Eastern Christianity)
|Patronage||Accountants; Salerno, Italy; bankers; tax collectors; perfumers; civil servants|
|Major works||Gospel of Matthew|
The New Testament records that as a disciple, he followed Jesus, and was one of the witnesses of the Ascension of Jesus. Later Church fathers such as Irenaeus and Clement of Alexandria claim that Matthew preached the Gospel to the Jewish community in Judea, before going to other countries.
In the New TestamentEdit
Among the early followers and apostles of Jesus, Matthew is mentioned in Matthew 9:9 and Matthew 10:3 as a publican (KJV) or tax collector (NIV) who, while sitting at the "receipt of custom" in Capernaum, was called to follow Jesus.[Matthew 9:9][Mark 2:15–17][Luke 5:29] He is also listed among the twelve, but without identification of his background, in Mark 3:18, Luke 6:15 and Acts 1:13. In passages parallel to Matthew 9:9, both Mark 2:14 and Luke 5:27 describe Jesus' calling of the tax collector Levi, the son of Alphaeus, but Mark and Luke never explicitly equate this Levi with the Matthew named as one of the twelve.
According to the Gospels, Matthew was a 1st-century Galilean (presumably born in Galilee, which was not part of Judea or the Roman Judaea province), the son of Alphaeus. As a tax collector, he would probably not have been literate, and certainly could not write highly educated Greek. His fellow Jews would have despised him for what was seen as collaborating with the Roman occupation force.
After his call, Matthew invited Jesus for a feast. On seeing this, the Scribes and the Pharisees criticized Jesus for eating with tax collectors and sinners. This prompted Jesus to answer, "I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance."[Mark 2:17][Luke 5:32]
The New Testament records that as a disciple, he followed Jesus, and was one of the witnesses of the Ascension of Jesus. Afterwards, the disciples withdrew to an upper room (Acts 1:10–14)(traditionally the Cenacle) in Jerusalem. The disciples remained in and about Jerusalem and proclaimed that Jesus was the promised Messiah.
Later Church fathers such as Irenaeus (Against Heresies 3.1.1) and Clement of Alexandria claim that Matthew preached the Gospel to the Jewish community in Judea, before going to other countries. Ancient writers are not in agreement as to which other countries these are. The Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church each hold the tradition that Matthew died as a martyr, although this was rejected by Heracleon, a Gnostic Christian viewed as a heretic, as early as the second century.
The Gospel of Matthew is anonymous: the author is not named within the text, and the superscription "according to Matthew" was added some time in the second century. The tradition that the author was the disciple Matthew begins with the early Christian bishop Papias of Hierapolis (c. AD 60–163), who is cited by the Church historian Eusebius (AD 260–340), as follows: "Matthew collected the oracles (logia: sayings of or about Jesus) in the Hebrew language (Hebraïdi dialektōi), and each one interpreted (hērmēneusen – perhaps "translated") them as best he could."[b]
On the surface, this has been taken to imply that Matthew's Gospel itself was written in Hebrew or Aramaic by the apostle Matthew and later translated into Greek, but nowhere does the author claim to have been an eyewitness to events, and Matthew's Greek "reveals none of the telltale marks of a translation". Scholars have put forward several theories to explain Papias: perhaps Matthew wrote two gospels, one, now lost, in Hebrew, the other our Greek version; or perhaps the logia was a collection of sayings rather than the gospel; or by dialektōi Papias may have meant that Matthew wrote in the Jewish style rather than in the Hebrew language. The consensus is that Papias does not describe the Gospel of Matthew as we know it, and it is generally accepted that Matthew was written in Greek, not in Aramaic or Hebrew. Therefore, while the traditional authorship still has its defenders, the majority of mainstream Bible scholars rejects the Matthean authorship of the gospel.
According to Maurice Casey, Matthew the Apostle did indeed write a collection of sayings of Jesus in Aramaic, which was independent of the current Gospel of Matthew, possibly written by another Matthew or Matthias in the early church. According to Gerd Theissen, Matthew the Apostle was the author of the Q source.
Non-canonical or apocryphal gospelsEdit
In the 3rd century, Jewish–Christian gospels attributed to Matthew were used by Jewish–Christian groups such as the Nazarenes and Ebionites. Fragments of these gospels survive in quotations by Jerome, Epiphanius and others. Most academic study follows the distinction of Gospel of the Nazarenes (36 fragments), Gospel of the Ebionites (7 fragments), and Gospel of the Hebrews (7 fragments) found in Schneemelcher's New Testament Apocrypha. Critical commentators generally regard these texts as having been composed in Greek and related to Greek Matthew. A minority of commentators consider them to be fragments of a lost Aramaic- or Hebrew-language original.
Origen said the first Gospel was written by Matthew. This Gospel was composed in Hebrew near Jerusalem for Hebrew Christians and translated into Greek, but the Greek copy was lost. The Hebrew original was kept at the Library of Caesarea. The Nazarene Community transcribed a copy for Jerome which he used in his work. Matthew's Gospel was called the Gospel according to the Hebrews or sometimes the Gospel of the Apostles and it was once believed that it was the original to the Greek Matthew found in the Bible. However, this has been challenged by modern biblical scholars such as Bart D. Ehrman and James R. Edwards. See also the two-source hypothesis
Jerome relates that Matthew was supposed by the Nazarenes to have composed their Gospel of the Hebrews though Irenaeus and Epiphanius of Salamis consider this simply a revised version of the canonical Gospel. This Gospel has been partially preserved in the writings of the Church Fathers, said to have been written by Matthew. Epiphanius does not make his own the claim about a Gospel of the Hebrews written by Matthew, a claim that he merely attributes to the heretical Ebionites.
Matthew is recognized as a saint in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran and Anglican churches (see St. Matthew's Church). His feast day is celebrated on 21 September in the West and 16 November in the East. (Those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar would keep the day on 29 November of the modern Gregorian Calendar, being 16 November in the Julian Calendar). He is also commemorated by the Orthodox, together with the other Apostles, on 30 June (13 July), the Synaxis of the Holy Apostles. His tomb is located in the crypt of Salerno Cathedral in southern Italy. Matthew is remembered in the Church of England with a Festival on 21 September.
Like the other evangelists, Matthew is often depicted in Christian art with one of the four living creatures of Revelation 4:7. The one that accompanies him is in the form of a winged man. The three paintings of Matthew by Caravaggio in the church of San Luigi dei Francesi in Rome, where he is depicted as called by Christ from his profession as a tax gatherer, are among the landmarks of Western art.
The Quran speaks of Jesus' disciples but does not mention their names, instead referring to them as "helpers to the work of Allah". Muslim exegesis and Qur'an commentary, however, name them and include Matthew amongst the disciples. Muslim exegesis preserves the tradition that Matthew and Andrew were the two disciples who went to Ethiopia to preach the message of God.
- Biblical Hebrew: מַתִּתְיָהוּ, romanized: Mattityahu, shortened to מַתִּי Matti (whence Arabic: مَتَّى, romanized: Mattā), meaning "Gift of YHWH";
Aramaic: ܡܰܬ݁ܰܝ, romanized: Mattai; Koinē Greek: Μαθθαῖος, Maththaîos or Ματθαῖος, Matthaîos; Coptic: ⲙⲁⲧⲑⲉⲟⲥ, romanized: Mattheos; Latin: Matthaeus
- Eusebius, "History of the Church" 3.39.14–17, c. 325 CE, Greek text 16: "ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ἱστόρηται τῷ Παπίᾳ περὶ τοῦ Μάρκου· περὶ δὲ τοῦ Ματθαῖου ταῦτ’ εἴρηται· Ματθαῖος μὲν οὖν Ἑβραΐδι διαλέκτῳ τὰ λόγια συνετάξατο, ἡρμήνευσεν δ’ αὐτὰ ὡς ἧν δυνατὸς ἕκαστος. Various English translations published, standard reference translation by Philip Schaff at CCEL: "[C]oncerning Matthew he [Papias] writes as follows: 'So then(963) Matthew wrote the oracles in the Hebrew language, and every one interpreted them as he was able.'(964)" Online version includes footnotes 963 and 964 by Schaff.
Irenaeus of Lyons (died c. 202 CE) makes a similar comment, possibly also drawing on Papias, in his Against Heresies, Book III, Chapter 1, "Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect"
- Easton 1897. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEaston1897 (help)
- "Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle, Washington, D.C". Stmatthewscathedral.org. 21 September 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- Allison 2010, p. 27.
- Jacquier 1911.
- Ehrman 1999, p. 45.
- Ehrman 2009, p. 56.
- "Saint Matthew". franciscanmedia.org. Franciscan Media. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- Freedman 2001, p. 130–133, 201.
- Schneemelcher 2003, p. 17.
- Lardner 1838, p. 299.
- Bock 2002, p. 164.
- Orr 1915, p. 2009.
- Harrington 1991, p. 8.
- Nolland 2005, p. 16.
- Martin 2012.
- Turner 2008, p. 15–16.
- Bingham 1998, p. 64.
- Hagner 1986, p. 281.
- Ehrman 1999, p. 43.
- Muddiman & Barton 2010, p. 27.
- Casey 2010.
- Theissen 2003.
- Vielhauer & Strecker 2003, p. 542.
- Edwards 2009, p. 18.
- Repschinski 2000, p. 14.
- Nicholson 1879, p. 82.
- Saint Jerome 2000, p. 10.
- Hultgren & Haggmark 1996, p. 122.
- Nicholson 1879, p. 26.
- Dods 1858, p. iv.
- Harrison 1964, p. 152.
- Edwards 2009, p. 245.
- Mills & Wilson 2003, p. 942.
- Epiphanius of Salamis 1987, p. 129.
- ELCA 2006, p. 57.
- "The Calendar". The Church of England. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- Quran 3:49–53
- Noegel & Wheeler 2003, p. 86.
- Bartlet, James Vernon (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.).
- Allison, Dale C., Jr. (22 April 2010). Muddiman, John; Barton, John (eds.). The Gospels. Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-19-958025-5.
- Bingham, D. Jeffrey (1998). Irenaeus' Use of Matthew's Gospel in Adversus Haereses. Peeters Publishers. ISBN 978-90-6831-964-4.
- Bock, Darrell L. (2002). Studying the Historical Jesus: A Guide to Sources and Methods. Baker Academic. ISBN 978-1-58558-596-0.
- Davies, William David; Finkelstein, Louis (1984). The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 2, The Hellenistic Age. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-21929-7.
- Dods, John Bovee (1858). Gibson Smith (ed.). The Gospel of Jesus. G. Smith.
Gospel of the Apostles.
- Easton, Matthew George (1897). . Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.
- Edwards, James R. (2009). The Hebrew Gospel and the Development of the Synoptic Tradition. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-6234-1.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (23 September 1999). Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium. Oxford University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-19-802888-8.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (2009). A Brief Introduction to the New Testament. Oxford University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-19-536934-2.
- "Lesser Festivals, Commemorations, and Occasions". Evangelical Lutheran Worship. Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. 2006. ISBN 978-0-8066-5672-4 – via Augsburg Fortress.
- Epiphanius of Salamis (1987). The Panarion of Ephiphanius of Salamis. Book I (sects 1-46). Translated by Frank Williams. Brill. ISBN 90-04-07926-2.
- Freedman, David Noel (2001). The Anchor Bible Reference Library. Doubleday.
- Harrison, Everett Falconer (1964). Introduction to the New Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780802847867.
- Hezser, Catherine (2001). Jewish Literacy in Roman Palestine. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3-16-147546-7.
- Hultgren, Arland J.; Haggmark, Steven A. (1996). The Earliest Christian Heretics: Readings from Their Opponents. Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0-8006-2963-2.
- Jacquier, Eugène (1911). Catholic Encyclopedia. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company. . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.).
- Saint Jerome (2000). Thomas P. Halton (ed.). On Illustrious Men (The Fathers of the Church, Volume 100). CUA Press. ISBN 978-0813201009.
- Lardner, Nathaniel (1838). "St Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist". The Works of Nathaniel Lardner. 5. W. Ball.
- Martin, Dale B. (2012). "Introduction to New Testament History and Literature" (PDF). oyc.yale.edu. Yale University. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- Marx, Werner G. (April–June 1979). "Money Matters in Matthew". Bibliotheca Sacra. 136 (542): 148–157.
- Mills, Watson E.; Wilson, Richard F. (2003). Mercer Commentary on the New Testament. Mercer University Press. ISBN 978-0-86554-864-0.
- Muddiman, John; Barton, John (2010). The Gospels. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-958025-5.
- Nicholson, E.B. (1879). The Gospel according to the Hebrews, its fragments tr. and annotated, with a critical analysis of the evidence relating to it.
- Noegel, Scott B.; Wheeler, Brandon M. (2003). Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press (Roman & Littlefield). ISBN 978-0810843059.
- Orr, James, ed. (1915). "Matthew". The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Chicago: The Howard-Severance Co.
- Repschinski, Boris (2000). The Controversy Stories in the Gospel of Matthew: Their Redaction, Form und [sic] Relevance for the Relationship Between the Matthean Community and Formative Judaism. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 978-3-525-53873-9.
- Schneemelcher, Wilhelm, ed. (2003). New Testament Apocrypha: Writings relating to the Apostles; Apocalypses and related subjects. Translated by Robert McLachlan Wilson. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22722-7.
- Theissen, Gerd (2003). The New Testament: History, Literature, Religion. T & T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-08949-6.
- Vielhauer, Philipp; Strecker, Georg (2003). Schneemelcher, Wilhelm (ed.). New Testament Apocrypha: Writings relating to the Apostles; Apocalypses and related subjects. Translated by Robert McLachlan Wilson. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22722-7.
- Aune, David E. (ed.) (2001). The Gospel of Matthew in current study. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-4673-0.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Aune, David E. (1987). The New Testament in its literary environment. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-25018-8.
- Beaton, Richard C. (2005). "How Matthew Writes". In Bockmuehl, Markus; Hagner, Donald A. (eds.). The Written Gospel. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83285-4.
- Browning, W. R. F. (2004). Oxford Dictionary of the Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860890-5.
- Burkett, Delbert (2002). An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00720-7.
- Casey, Maurice (2010). Jesus of Nazareth: An Independent Historian's Account of His Life and Teaching. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-567-64517-3.
- Clarke, Howard W. (2003). The Gospel of Matthew and Its Readers. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34235-5.
- Cross, Frank L.; Livingstone, Elizabeth A., eds. (2005) . "Matthew, Gospel acc. to St.". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 1064. ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Dunn, James D. G. (2003). Jesus Remembered. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3931-2.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (2012). Did Jesus Exist?: The Historical Argument for Jesus of Nazareth. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-220460-8.
- Fuller, Reginald H. (2001). "Biblical Theology". In Metzger, Bruce M.; Coogan, Michael D. (eds.). The Oxford Guide to Ideas & Issues of the Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195149173.
- Hagner, D. A. (1986). "Matthew, Gospel According to". In Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (ed.). International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. 3: K-P. Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 280–8. ISBN 978-0-8028-8163-2.
- Harris, Stephen L. (1985). Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield.
- Kowalczyk, A. (2008). The influence of typology and texts of the Old Testament on the redaction of Matthew's Gospel. Bernardinum. ISBN 978-83-7380-625-2.
- Kupp, David D. (1996). Matthew's Emmanuel: Divine Presence and God's People in the First Gospel. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-57007-7.
- Levine, Amy-Jill (2001). "Visions of kingdoms: From Pompey to the first Jewish revolt". In Coogan, Michael D. (ed.). The Oxford History of the Biblical World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513937-2.
- Levison, J.; Pope-Levison, P. (2009). "Christology". In Dyrness, William A.; Kärkkäinen, Veli-Matti (eds.). Global Dictionary of Theology. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830878116.
- Luz, Ulrich (2005). Studies in Matthew. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3964-0.
- Luz, Ulrich (1995). The Theology of the Gospel of Matthew. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43576-5.
- McMahon, Christopher (2008). "Introduction to the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles". In Ruff, Jerry (ed.). Understanding the Bible: A Guide to Reading the Scriptures. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780884898528.
- Morris, Leon (1986). New Testament Theology. Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-45571-4.
- Peppard, Michael (2011). The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in Its Social and Political Context. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199753703.
- Perkins, Pheme (28 July 1998). "The Synoptic Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles: Telling the Christian Story". The Cambridge Companion to Biblical Interpretation. ISBN 0521485932., in Kee, Howard Clark, ed. (1997). The Cambridge companion to the bible: part 3. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-48593-7.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Saldarini, Anthony (2003). "Matthew". Eerdmans commentary on the Bible. ISBN 0802837115., in Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William (2003). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3711-0.
- Saldarini, Anthony (1994). Matthew's Christian-Jewish Community. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-73421-7.
- Sanford, Christopher B. (2005). Matthew: Christian Rabbi. Author House. ISBN 9781420883718.
- Scholtz, Donald (2009). Jesus in the Gospels and Acts: Introducing the New Testament. Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 9780884899556.
- Senior, Donald (2001). "Directions in Matthean Studies". The Gospel of Matthew in Current Study: Studies in Memory of William G. Thompson, S.J. ISBN 0802846734., in Aune, David E. (ed.) (2001). The Gospel of Matthew in current study. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-4673-0.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Senior, Donald (1996). What are they saying about Matthew?. PaulistPress. ISBN 978-0-8091-3624-7.
- Stanton, Graham (1993). A gospel for a new people: studies in Matthew. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-25499-5.
- Strecker, Georg (2000) . Theology of the New Testament. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-0-664-22336-6.
- Tuckett, Christopher Mark (2001). Christology and the New Testament: Jesus and His Earliest Followers. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664224318.
- Van de Sandt, H. W. M. (2005). "Introduction". Matthew and the Didache: Two Documents from the Same Jewish–Christian Milieu?. ISBN 9023240774., in Van de Sandt, H. W. M., ed. (2005). Matthew and the Didache. Royal Van Gorcum&Fortress Press. ISBN 978-90-232-4077-8.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Weren, Wim (2005). "The History and Social Setting of the Matthean Community". Matthew and the Didache: Two Documents from the Same Jewish–Christian Milieu?. ISBN 9023240774., in Van de Sandt, H. W. M., ed. (2005). Matthew and the Didache. Royal Van Gorcum&Fortress Press. ISBN 978-90-232-4077-8.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Allison, D. C. (2004). Matthew: A Shorter Commentary. T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-08249-7.
- Davies, W. D.; Allison, D. C. (2004). Matthew 1–7. T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-08355-5.
- Davies, W. D.; Allison, D. C. (1991). Matthew 8–18. T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-08365-4.
- Davies, W. D.; Allison, D. C. (1997). Matthew 19–28. T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-08375-3.
- Duling, Dennis C. (2010). "The Gospel of Matthew". In Aune, David E. (ed.). The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-0825-6.
- France, R. T. (2007). The Gospel of Matthew. Eerdmans. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8028-2501-8.
- Harrington, Daniel J. (1991). The Gospel of Matthew. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814658031.
- Keener, Craig S. (1999). A commentary on the Gospel of Matthew. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3821-6.
- Luz, Ulrich (1992). Matthew 1–7: a commentary. Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0-8006-9600-9.
- Luz, Ulrich (2001). Matthew 8–20: a commentary. Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0-8006-6034-5.
- Luz, Ulrich (2005). Matthew 21–28: a commentary. Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0-8006-3770-5.
- Morris, Leon (1992). The Gospel according to Matthew. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-85111-338-8.
- Nolland, John (2005). The Gospel of Matthew: A Commentary on the Greek Text. Eerdmans. ISBN 0802823890.
- Turner, David L. (2008). Matthew. Baker. ISBN 978-0-8010-2684-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint Matthew.|
- St Matthew the Apostle from The Golden Legend
- Apostle and Evangelist Matthew Orthodox icon and synaxarion
- Benedict XVI, "Matthew", General audience, 30 August 2006
- "The Caravaggio Effect"
Life of Jesus: Ministry Events
Hometown Rejection of Jesus,
"Physician, heal thyself"
New Wine into Old Wineskins