List of natural satellites

The Solar System's planets, and its most likely dwarf planets, are known to be orbited by at least 218 natural satellites, or moons. At least 19 of them are large enough to be gravitationally rounded; of these, all are covered by a crust of ice except for Earth's Moon and Jupiter's Io.[1] Several of the largest ones are in hydrostatic equilibrium and would therefore be considered dwarf planets or planets if they were in direct orbit around the Sun and not in their current states (orbiting planets or dwarf planets).

Moons are classed in two separate categories according to their orbits: regular moons, which have prograde orbits (they orbit in the direction of their planets' rotation) and lie close to the plane of their equators, and irregular moons, whose orbits can be pro- or retrograde (against the direction of their planets' rotation) and often lie at extreme angles to their planets' equators. Irregular moons are probably minor planets that have been captured from surrounding space. Most irregular moons are less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) in diameter.

The earliest published discovery of a moon other than the Earth's was by Galileo Galilei, who discovered the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter in 1610. Over the following three centuries only a few more moons were discovered. Missions to other planets in the 1970s, most notably the Voyager 1 and 2 missions, saw a surge in the number of moons detected, and observations since the year 2000, using mostly large, ground-based optical telescopes, have discovered many more, all of which are irregular.

Moons by primaryEdit

 
Some moons, minor planets and comets of the Solar System to scale
 
Selected moons, with Earth to scale. Nineteen moons are large enough to be round, and one, Titan, has a substantial atmosphere.
 
The number of moons discovered in each year until November 2019

Mercury, the smallest and innermost planet, has no moons, or at least none that can be detected to a diameter of 1.6 km (1.0 mi).[2] For a very short time in 1974, Mercury was thought to have a moon.

Venus also has no moons,[3] though reports of a moon around Venus have circulated since the 17th century.

Earth has one Moon, the largest moon of any rocky planet in the Solar System. Earth also has at least two co-orbitals: the asteroids 3753 Cruithne and 2002 AA29;[4] however, since they do not orbit Earth, they are not considered moons. (See Other moons of Earth and Quasi-satellite.)

Mars has two known moons, Phobos and Deimos ("fear" and "dread", after attendants of Ares, the Greek god of war, equivalent to the Roman Mars). Searches for more satellites have been unsuccessful, putting the maximum radius of any other satellites at 90 m (100 yd).[5]

Jupiter has 79 moons with known orbits; 72 of them have received permanent designations, and 57 have been named. Its eight regular moons are grouped into the planet-sized Galilean moons and the far smaller Amalthea group. They are named after lovers of Zeus, the Greek equivalent of Jupiter. Its 71 known irregular moons are organized into two categories: prograde and retrograde. The prograde satellites consist of the Himalia group and three others in groups of one. The retrograde moons are grouped into the Carme, Ananke and Pasiphae groups.

Saturn has 82 moons with known orbits; 66 of them have received permanent designations, and 53 of them have been named. Most of them are quite small. Seven moons are large enough to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, including Titan, the second largest moon in the Solar System. Including these large moons, 24 of Saturn's moons are regular, and traditionally named after Titans or other figures associated with the mythological Saturn. The remaining 58, all small, are irregular, and classified by their orbital characteristics into Inuit, Norse, and Gallic groups, and their names are chosen from the corresponding mythologies. The rings of Saturn are made up of icy objects ranging in size from one centimetre to hundreds of metres, each of which is on its own orbit about the planet. Thus a precise number of Saturnian moons cannot be given, as there is no objective boundary between the countless small anonymous objects that form Saturn's ring system and the larger objects that have been named as moons. At least 150 "moonlets" embedded in the rings have been detected by the disturbance they create in the surrounding ring material, though this is thought to be only a small sample of the total population of such objects.

Uranus has 27 moons, five of which are massive enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium. There are 13 moons that orbit within Uranus's ring system, and another nine outer irregular moons. Unlike most planetary moons, which are named from antiquity, all the moons of Uranus are named after characters from the works of Shakespeare and Alexander Pope's work The Rape of the Lock.

Neptune has 14 moons; the largest, Triton, accounts for more than 99.5 percent of all the mass orbiting the planet. Triton is large enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, but, uniquely for a large moon, has a retrograde orbit, suggesting it was a dwarf planet that was captured. Neptune also has seven known inner regular satellites, and six outer irregular satellites.

Pluto, a dwarf planet, has five moons. Its largest moon Charon, named after the ferryman who took souls across the River Styx, is more than half as large as Pluto itself, and large enough to orbit a point outside Pluto's surface. In effect, each orbits the other, forming a binary system informally referred to as a double-dwarf-planet. Pluto's four other moons, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos and Styx are far smaller and orbit the Pluto–Charon system.[6]

Among the other dwarf planets, Ceres has no known moons. It is 90 percent certain that Ceres has no moons larger than 1 km in size, assuming that they would have the same albedo as Ceres itself.[7] Eris has one large known moon, Dysnomia. Accurately determining its size is difficult: one indicative estimate of its radius is 350±57.5 km.[8]

Two objects were named as dwarf planets, under the expectation that they would prove to be so (though this remains uncertain). Haumea has two moons, Hiʻiaka and Namaka, of radii ~195 and ~100 km, respectively.[9] Makemake has one moon, discovered in April 2016.

A number of other objects in the Kuiper belt and scattered disk may turn out to be dwarf planets. 90482 Orcus was found to have a natural satellite, later named Vanth, in 2005.[10] 50000 Quaoar, 225088 Gonggong and 120347 Salacia all since been discovered to have moons.

As of August 2020, 309 asteroid moons and 119 trans-Neptunian moons (including those of Pluto and Haumea) had been discovered.[11]

Summary – number of moons
Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune
Number of moons 0 0 1 2 79 82 27 14
(Possible) dwarf Ceres Orcus Pluto Salacia Haumea Quaoar Make-
make
Gonggong Eris Sedna
Number of moons 0 1 5 1 2 1 1 1 1 0
Minor planet
See list

Due to Earth's varying distance from these planets (as well as their distance to the Sun), the limits at which we are able to detect new moons is very inconsistent. As the below graph demonstrates, the absolute magnitude (total inherent brightness, abbreviated H) of moons we have detected around planets peaks at H = 17 for Jupiter, H = 16 for Saturn, H = 13 for Uranus, and H = 11 for Neptune. Smaller moons may (and most likely do) exist around each of these planets, but are currently undetectable from Earth. Although spacecraft have visited all of these planets, Earth-based telescopes continue to outperform them in moon-detection ability.

Planetary moons by absolute magnitude

ListEdit

This is a list of the recognized moons of the planets and of the largest potential dwarf planets of the Solar System, ordered by their official Roman numeral designations. Moons that do not yet have official Roman numeral designations (because their orbits are not yet known well enough) are listed after those that do.

The 19 moons that are large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity are listed in bold. The seven largest moons, which are larger than any of the known dwarf planets, are listed in bold and italic. Sidereal period differs from semi-major axis because a moon's speed depends both on the mass of its primary and its distance from it.

Satellites of planets Satellites of dwarf planets
Satellite of Earth Satellites of Jupiter Satellites of Uranus
Satellites of Mars Satellites of Saturn Satellites of Neptune
Image Parent Numeral Name Mean radius (km) Orbital semi-major axis (km) Sidereal period (d)
(r = retrograde)
Discovery year Discovered by Notes Ref(s)
Earth I (1) Moon 1,738 384,399 27.321582 Prehistoric Synchronous rotation [12]
Mars I (1) Phobos 11.267 9,380 0.319 1877 Hall [13][14][15]
Mars II (2) Deimos 6.2±0.18 23,460 1.262 1877 Hall [13][14][15]
Jupiter I (1) Io 1,821.6±0.5 421,800 1.769 1610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [15][16]
Jupiter II (2) Europa 1560.8±0.5 671,100 3.551 1610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [15][16]
Jupiter III (3) Ganymede 2,634.1±0.3 1,070,400 7.155 1610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [15][16]
Jupiter IV (4) Callisto 2,410.3±1.5 1,882,700 16.69 1610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [15][16]
Jupiter V (5) Amalthea 83.5±2 181,400 0.498 1892 Barnard Inner moon (Amalthea) [14][15][17]
Jupiter VI (6) Himalia 69.8 11,461,000 250.56 1904 Perrine Prograde irregular (Himalia) [14][15][18] [19]
Jupiter VII (7) Elara 43 11,741,000 259.64 1905 Perrine Prograde irregular (Himalia) [14][15][20]
Jupiter VIII (8) Pasiphae 30 23,624,000 743.63 (r) 1908 Melotte Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15][21]
Jupiter IX (9) Sinope 19 23,939,000 758.90 (r) 1914 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15][22]
Jupiter X (10) Lysithea 18 11,717,000 259.20 1938 Nicholson Prograde irregular (Himalia) [14][15][23]
Jupiter XI (11) Carme 23 23,404,000 734.17 (r) 1938 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][23]
Jupiter XII (12) Ananke 14 21,276,000 629.77 (r) 1951 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][24]
Jupiter XIII (13) Leda 10 11,165,000 240.92 1974 Kowal Prograde irregular (Himalia) [14][15][25]
Jupiter XIV (14) Thebe 49.3±2.0 221,900 0.675 1979 Synnott (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [14][15][26]
Jupiter XV (15) Adrastea 8.2±2.0 129,000 0.298 1979 Jewitt, Danielson (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [14][15][27]
Jupiter XVI (16) Metis 21.5±2.0 128,000 0.295 1979 Synnott (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [14][15][28]
Jupiter XVII (17) Callirrhoe 4.5 24,103,000 758.77 (r) 2000 Scotti, Spahr, McMillan, Larsen, Montani, Gleason, Gehrels Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15][29]
Jupiter XVIII (18) Themisto 4 7,284,000 130.02 1975/2000 Kowal and Roemer (original); Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier (rediscovery) Prograde irregular (Themisto) [14][15][30][31]
Jupiter XIX (19) Megaclite 2.7 23,493,000 752.86 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15][32]
Jupiter XX (20) Taygete 2.5 23,280,000 732.41 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][32]
Jupiter XXI (21) Chaldene 1.9 23,100,000 723.72 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][32]
Jupiter XXII (22) Harpalyke 2.2 20,858,000 623.32 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][32]
Jupiter XXIII (23) Kalyke 2.6 23,483,000 742.06 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][32]
Jupiter XXIV (24) Iocaste 2.6 21,060,000 631.60 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][32]
Jupiter XXV (25) Erinome 1.6 23,196,000 728.46 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][32]
Jupiter XXVI (26) Isonoe 2 23,155,000 726.23 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][32]
Jupiter XXVII (27) Praxidike 3.5 20,908,000 625.39 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][32]
Jupiter XXVIII (28) Autonoe 2 24,046,000 760.95 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae)
Jupiter XXIX (29) Thyone 2 20,939,000 627.21 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][33]
Jupiter XXX (30) Hermippe 2 21,131,000 633.9 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][33]
Jupiter XXXI (31) Aitne 1.5 23,229,000 730.18 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][33]
Jupiter XXXII (32) Eurydome 1.5 22,865,000 717.33 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15][33]
Jupiter XXXIII (33) Euanthe 1.5 20,797,000 620.49 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][33]
Jupiter XXXIV (34) Euporie 1 19,304,000 550.74 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][33]
Jupiter XXXV (35) Orthosie 1 20,720,000 622.56 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][33]
Jupiter XXXVI (36) Sponde 1 23,487,000 748.34 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15][33]
Jupiter XXXVII (37) Kale 1 23,217,000 729.47 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][33]
Jupiter XXXVIII (38) Pasithee 1 23,004,000 719.44 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][33]
Jupiter XXXIX (39) Hegemone 1.5 23,577,000 739.88 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15]
Jupiter XL (40) Mneme 1 21,035,000 620.04 (r) 2003 Gladman, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15]
Jupiter XLI (41) Aoede 2 23,980,000 761.50 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15]
Jupiter XLII (42) Thelxinoe 1 21,164,000 628.09 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15]
Jupiter XLIII (43) Arche 1.5 23,355,000 731.95 (r) 2002 Sheppard, Meech, Hsieh, Tholen, Tonry Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][33]
Jupiter XLIV (44) Kallichore 1 23,288,000 728.73 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15]
Jupiter XLV (45) Helike 2 21,069,000 626.32 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15]
Jupiter XLVI (46) Carpo 1.5 17,058,000 456.30 2003 Sheppard, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular (Carpo) [14][15]
Jupiter XLVII (47) Eukelade 2 23,328,000 730.47 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15]
Jupiter XLVIII (48) Cyllene 1 23,809,000 752 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15]
Jupiter XLIX (49) Kore 1 24,543,000 779.17 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15]
Jupiter L (50) Herse 1 22,983,000 714.51 (r) 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15]
Jupiter LI (51) S/2010 J 1 1 23,314,300 723.2 (r) 2010 Jacobson, Brozović, Gladman, Alexandersen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [34]
Jupiter LII (52) S/2010 J 2 0.5 20,307,200 588.1 (r) 2010 Veillet Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [34]
Jupiter LIII (53) Dia 2 12,118,000 287.0 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Prograde irregular (Himalia) [34]
Jupiter LIV (54) S/2016 J 1 3 20,595,500 602.7 (r) 2016 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [34]
Jupiter LV (55) S/2003 J 18 1 20,274,000 588.0 (r) 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [34]
Jupiter LVI (56) S/2011 J 2 0.5 23,329,700 726.8 (r) 2011 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [34]
Jupiter LVII (57) Eirene 2 23,731,800 759.7 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Carme) [34]
Jupiter LVIII (58) Philophrosyne 1 22,820,000 701.3 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [34]
Jupiter LIX (59) S/2017 J 1 2 23,484,000 734.2 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [34]
Jupiter LX (60) Eupheme 1 21,199,710 627.8 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [34]
Jupiter LXI (61) S/2003 J 19 1 22,757,000 697.6 (r) 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [34]
Jupiter LXII (62) Valetudo 0.5 18,928,100 532.0 2016 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Valetudo) [34]
Jupiter LXIII (63) S/2017 J 2 1 23,241,000 723.8 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [34]
Jupiter LXIV (64) S/2017 J 3 1 20,639,300 605.8 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [34]
Jupiter LXV (65) Pandia 1.5 11,494,800 251.8 (r) 2017 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Himalia) [34]
Jupiter LXVI (66) S/2017 J 5 1 23,169,400 720.5 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [34]
Jupiter LXVII (67) S/2017 J 6 1 22,394,700 684.7 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [34]
Jupiter LXVIII (68) S/2017 J 7 1 20,571,500 602.8 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [34]
Jupiter LXIX (69) S/2017 J 8 0.5 23,174,400 720.7 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [34]
Jupiter LXX (70) S/2017 J 9 1 21,430,000 640.9 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [34]
Jupiter LXXI (71) Ersa 1.5 11,453,000 250.4 (r) 2018 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Himalia) [34]
Jupiter LXXII (72) S/2011 J 1 0.5 20,155,300 580.7 (r) 2011 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [34]
Jupiter S/2003 J 2 1 20,554,400 602.02 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15]
Jupiter S/2003 J 4 1 22,048,600 668.85 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15]
Jupiter S/2003 J 9 0.5 24,168,700 767.6 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][35]
Jupiter S/2003 J 10 1 22,896,000 707.78 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme?) [14][15]
Jupiter S/2003 J 12 0.5 21,557,700 646.64 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15]
Jupiter S/2003 J 16 1 20,512,500 600.18 (r) 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][36]
Jupiter S/2003 J 23 1 24,678,100 792.00 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15]
Saturn I (1) Mimas 198.2±0.4 185,540 0.942 1789 Herschel Main-group moon [14][15]
Saturn II (2) Enceladus 252.1±0.2 238,040 1.370 1789 Herschel Main-group moon [14][15]
Saturn III (3) Tethys 533.1±0.7 294,670 1.888 1684 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [14][15]
Saturn IV (4) Dione 561.4±0.4 377,420 2.737 1684 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [14][15]
Saturn V (5) Rhea 763.8±1.0 527,070 4.518 1672 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [14][15]
Saturn VI (6) Titan 2,574.73±0.09 1,221,870 15.95 1655 Huygens Main-group moon [14][15]
Saturn VII (7) Hyperion 135 1,500,880 21.28 1848 W.Bond, G. Bond, and Lassell Main-group moon [14][15]
Saturn VIII (8) Iapetus 735.6±1.5 3,560,840 79.33 1671 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [14][15]
Saturn IX (9) Phoebe 106.5±0.7 12,947,780 550.31 (r) 1899 Pickering Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn X (10) Janus 89.5±1.4 151,460 0.695 1966 Dollfus; Voyager 1 (confirmed) Inner moon (co-orbital) [14][15]
  Saturn XI (11) Epimetheus 58.1±1.8 151,410 0.694 1966 Walker; Voyager 1 (confirmed) Inner moon (co-orbital) [14][15]
Saturn XII (12) Helene 17.6±0.4 377,420 2.737 1980 Laques, Lecacheux Main-group trojan [14][15]
Saturn XIII (13) Telesto 12.4±0.4 294,710 1.888 1980 Smith, Reitsema, Larson, Fountain (Voyager 1) Main-group trojan [14][15]
Saturn XIV (14) Calypso 10.7±0.7 294,710 1.888 1980 Pascu, Seidelmann, Baum, Currie Main-group trojan [14][15]
Saturn XV (15) Atlas 15.1±0.9 137,670 0.602 1980 Terrile (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [14][15]
Saturn XVI (16) Prometheus 43.1±2.7 139,380 0.613 1980 Collins (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [14][15]
Saturn XVII (17) Pandora 40.7±1.5 141,720 0.629 1980 Collins (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [14][15]
Saturn XVIII (18) Pan 14.1 133,580 0.575 1990 Showalter (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [14][15]
Saturn XIX (19) Ymir 9 23,140,400 1,315.58 (r) 2000 Gladman Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn XX (20) Paaliaq 11 15,200,000 686.95 2000 Gladman Prograde irregular (Inuit) [14][15]
Saturn XXI (21) Tarvos 7.5 17,983,000 926.23 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Gallic) [14][15]
Saturn XXII (22) Ijiraq 6 11,124,000 451.42 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Inuit) [14][15]
Saturn XXIII (23) Suttungr 3.5 19,459,000 1,016.67 (r) 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn XXIV (24) Kiviuq 8 11,110,000 449.22 2000 Gladman Prograde irregular (Inuit) [14][15]
Saturn XXV (25) Mundilfari 3.5 18,628,000 952.77 (r) 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn XXVI (26) Albiorix 16 16,182,000 783.45 2000 Holman, Spahr Prograde irregular (Gallic) [14][15]
Saturn XXVII (27) Skathi 4 15,540,000 728.20 (r) 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn XXVIII (28) Erriapus 5 17,343,000 871.19 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Gallic) [14][15]
Saturn XXIX (29) Siarnaq 20 18,015,400 896.44 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Inuit) [14][15]
Saturn XXX (30) Thrymr 3.5 20,314,000 1,094.11 (r) 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn XXXI (31) Narvi 3.5 19,007,000 1,003.86 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn XXXII (32) Methone 1.45 194,440 1.010 2004 Porco, Charnoz, Brahic, Dones (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [15]
Saturn XXXIII (33) Pallene 2.22 212,280 1.154 2004 Gordon, Murray, Beurle, et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [15]
Saturn XXXIV (34) Polydeuces 1.3 377,200 2.737 2004 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Main-group trojan [15]
Saturn XXXV (35) Daphnis 3.8±0.8 136,500 0.594 2005 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Inner moon (shepherd) [15]
Saturn XXXVI (36) Aegir 3 20,751,000 1,117.52 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn XXXVII (37) Bebhionn 3 17,119,000 834.84 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Gallic) [14][15]
Saturn XXXVIII (38) Bergelmir 3 19,336,000 1,005.74 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn XXXIX (39) Bestla 3.5 20,192,000 1,088.72 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn XL (40) Farbauti 2.5 20,377,000 1,085.55 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn XLI (41) Fenrir 2 22,454,000 1,260.35 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn XLII (42) Fornjot 3 25,146,000 1,494.2 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn XLIII (43) Hati 3 19,846,000 1,038.61 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15]
Saturn XLIV (44) Hyrrokkin 4 18,437,000 931.86 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15]
Saturn XLV (45) Kari 3.5 22,089,000 1,230.97 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15]
Saturn XLVI (46) Loge 3 23,058,000 1,311.36 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15]
Saturn XLVII (47) Skoll 3 17,665,000 878.29 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15]
Saturn XLVIII (48) Surtur 3 22,704,000 1,297.36 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15]
Saturn XLIX (49) Anthe 0.9 197,700 1.0365 2007 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [37]
Saturn L (50) Jarnsaxa 3 18,811,000 964.74 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15]
Saturn LI (51) Greip 3 18,206,000 921.19 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15]
Saturn LII (52) Tarqeq 3.5 18,009,000 887.48 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular (Inuit) [15]
Saturn LIII (53) Aegaeon 0.33 167,500 0.808 2008 Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens G-ring moonlet [38][39]
Saturn LIV (54) S/2004 S 20 3 19,418,000 1,010.55 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [40]
Saturn LV (55) S/2004 S 22 3 20,636,000 1,107.13 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [41]
Saturn LVI (56) S/2004 S 23 4 21,163,000 1,149.82 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [42]
Saturn LVII (57) S/2004 S 25 4 21,174,000 1,150.69 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [43]
Saturn LVIII (58) S/2004 S 26 4 26,676,000 1,627.18 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [44]
Saturn LIX (59) S/2004 S 27 6 19,976,000 1,054.45 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden, Jacobson Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [45]
Saturn LX (60) S/2004 S 29 4 16,981,000 826.44 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Inuit) [46]
Saturn LXI (61) S/2004 S 30 3 20,396,000 1,087.84 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [47]
Saturn LXII (62) S/2004 S 32 4 21,214,000 1,153.96 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [48]
Saturn LXIII (63) S/2004 S 33 4 24,168,000 1,403.18 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [49]
Saturn LXIV (64) S/2004 S 34 3 24,299,000 1,414.59 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [50]
Saturn LXV (65) S/2004 S 35 6 22,412,000 1,253.08 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [51]
Saturn LXVI (66) S/2004 S 38 4 21,908,000 1,211.02 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [52]
Saturn S/2004 S 7 3 20,999,000 1,140.24 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [14][15]
Saturn S/2004 S 12 2.5 19,878,000 1,046.19 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [14][15]
Saturn S/2004 S 13 3 18,404,000 933.48 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [14][15]
Saturn S/2004 S 17 2 19,447,000 1,014.70 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [14][15]
Saturn S/2004 S 21 3 22,645,000 1,272.61 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [53]
Saturn S/2004 S 24 3 22,901,000 1,294.25 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (group unknown, possibly Gallic?) [54]
Saturn S/2004 S 28 4 22,020,000 1,220.31 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [55]
Saturn S/2004 S 31 4 17,568,000 869.65 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Inuit) [56]
Saturn S/2004 S 36 3 23,192,000 1,319.07 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [57]
Saturn S/2004 S 37 4 15,892,000 748.18 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [58]
Saturn S/2004 S 39 3 23,575,000 1,351.83 (r) 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [59]
Saturn S/2006 S 1 3 18,790,000 963.37 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [15]
Saturn S/2006 S 3 3 22,096,000 1,227.21 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [15]
Saturn S/2007 S 2 3 16,725,000 808.08 (r) 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [15]
Saturn S/2007 S 3 3 18,975,000 977.8 (r) 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [15]
Saturn S/2009 S 1 0.15 117,000 0.471 2009 Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens B-ring moonlet [60]
Uranus I (1) Ariel 578.9±0.6 190,900 2.520 1851 Lassell Main-group moon [14][15]
Uranus II (2) Umbriel 584.7±2.8 266,000 4.144 1851 Lassell Main-group moon [14][15]
Uranus III (3) Titania 788.9±1.8 436,300 8.706 1787 Herschel Main-group moon [14][15]
Uranus IV (4) Oberon 761.4±2.6 583,500 13.46 1787 Herschel Main-group moon [14][15]
Uranus V (5) Miranda 235.8±0.7 129,900 1.413 1948 Kuiper Main-group moon [14][15]
Uranus VI (6) Cordelia 20.1±3 49,800 0.335 1986 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [14][15]
Uranus VII (7) Ophelia 21.4±4 53,800 0.376 1986 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [14][15]
Uranus VIII (8) Bianca 25.7±2 59,200 0.435 1986 Smith (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Uranus IX (9) Cressida 39.8±2 61,800 0.464 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Uranus X (10) Desdemona 32±4 62,700 0.474 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Uranus XI (11) Juliet 46.8±4 64,400 0.493 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Uranus XII (12) Portia 67.6±4.0 66,100 0.513 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Uranus XIII (13) Rosalind 36±6 69,900 0.558 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Uranus XIV (14) Belinda 40.3±8 75,300 0.624 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Uranus XV (15) Puck 81±2 86,000 0.762 1985 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Uranus XVI (16) Caliban 36.4 7,231,100 579.73 (r) 1997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [61][15]
Uranus XVII (17) Sycorax 93 12,179,400 1,288.38 (r) 1997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [61][15]
Uranus XVIII (18) Prospero 25 16,256,000 1,978.29 (r) 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [14][15]
Uranus XIX (19) Setebos 24 17,418,000 2,225.21 (r) 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [14][15]
Uranus XX (20) Stephano 16 8,004,000 677.36 (r) 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [14][15]
Uranus XXI (21) Trinculo 9.5 8,504,000 749.24 (r) 2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [14][15]
Uranus XXII (22) Francisco 11 4,276,000 266.56 (r) 2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, Gladman Retrograde irregular [14][15]
Uranus XXIII (23) Margaret 10 14,345,000 1,687.01 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt Prograde irregular [14][15]
Uranus XXIV (24) Ferdinand 10 20,901,000 2,887.21 (r) 2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, et al. Retrograde irregular [14][15]
Uranus XXV (25) Perdita 15 76,417 0.638 1999 Karkoschka (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15]
Uranus XXVI (26) Mab 12 97,736 0.923 2003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [15]
Uranus XXVII (27) Cupid 9 74,392 0.613 2003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [15]
Neptune I (1) Triton 1,353.4±0.9 354,800 5.877 (r) 1846 Lassell Retrograde irregular [14][15]
Neptune II (2) Nereid 170±25 5,513,820 360.14 1949 Kuiper Prograde irregular [62][15]
Neptune III (3) Naiad 33±3 48,224 0.294 1989 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Neptune IV (4) Thalassa 41±3 50,075 0.311 1989 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Neptune V (5) Despina 78±4.7 52,526 0.335 1989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Neptune VI (6) Galatea 88±4 61,953 0.429 1989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Neptune VII (7) Larissa 97±3 73,548 0.555 1981 Reitsema, Hubbard, Lebofsky, Tholen (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Neptune VIII (8) Proteus 210±7 117,647 1.122 1989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15]
Neptune IX (9) Halimede 31 15,728,000 1,879.71 (r) 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [14][15]
Neptune X (10) Psamathe 20 46,695,000 9,115.91 (r) 2003 Jewitt, Kleyna, Sheppard, Holman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [14][15]
Neptune XI (11) Sao 22 22,422,000 2,914.07 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular [14][15]
Neptune XII (12) Laomedeia 21 23,571,000 3,167.85 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular [14][15]
Neptune XIII (13) Neso 30 48,387,000 9,373.99 (r) 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [14][15]
  Neptune XIV (14) Hippocamp 17.4 105,283 0.9362 2013 Showalter et al. Inner moon [63]
  Orcus I (1) Vanth 221±5 9,000±9 9.539 2005 Brown & Suer Synchronous rotation [64]
  Pluto I (1) Charon 606±0.5 19,591 6.387 1978 Christy Synchronous rotation [14][15]
  Pluto II (2) Nix 22.5 48,671 24.85 2005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. Chaotic rotation [14][15]
  Pluto III (3) Hydra 27.5 64,698 38.20 2005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. Chaotic rotation [14][15]
  Pluto IV (4) Kerberos 7 57,729 32.17 2011 Showalter (Hubble) Chaotic rotation [14][15][65][66]
  Pluto V (5) Styx 5.5 42,393 20.16 2012 Showalter (Hubble) Chaotic rotation [14][15][67]
  Salacia I (1) Actaea 142±5 5,724±27 5.494 2006 Noll et al. [64]
  Haumea I (1) Hiʻiaka ≈160 49,880 49.12 2005 Brown et al. [9][68][69]
Haumea II (2) Namaka ≈85 25,657 18.2783 2005 Brown et al. [9][68][69]
  Quaoar I (1) Weywot 37 14,500±800 12.438 2007 Brown [70]
  Makemake I (1) S/2015 (136472) 1 ≈87.5 >21,000 >12.4 2016 Parker et al. [71][72]
  Gonggong I (1) Xiangliu 150 24,020±200 25.221 2010 Marton, Kiss & Müller assuming a prograde orbit [73]
Eris I (1) Dysnomia 350±60[8] 37,273±64 15.786 2005 Brown, Rabinowitz, Trujillo et al. SDO moon [74]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ice in the Solar System - NASA
  2. ^ Warell, J.; Karlsson, O. (2007). "A search for natural satellites of Mercury". Planetary and Space Science. 55 (14): 2037–2041. Bibcode:2007P&SS...55.2037W. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2007.06.004.
  3. ^ "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Venus: Moons". NASA. Archived from the original on 11 February 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2008.
  4. ^ Whitehouse, David (21 October 2002). "Earth's little brother found". BBC News. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  5. ^ Sheppard, Scott; et al. (2004). "A Survey for Outer Satellites of Mars: Limits to Completeness". The Astronomical Journal. 128 (5): 2542–2546. arXiv:astro-ph/0409522. Bibcode:2004AJ....128.2542S. doi:10.1086/424541. S2CID 45681283.
  6. ^ Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, William M.; Young, Eliot F.; Young, Leslie A.; Stern, S. Alan (2006). "Orbits and Photometry of Pluto's Satellites: Charon, S/2005 P1, and S/2005 P2". The Astronomical Journal. 132 (1): 290–298. arXiv:astro-ph/0512491. Bibcode:2006AJ....132..290B. doi:10.1086/504422. S2CID 119386667.. a, i, e per JPL (site updated 2008 Aug 25)
  7. ^ Bieryla, Allyson; Parker, J. W. (December 2006). "Search for Satellites around Ceres". 2007 AAS/AAPT Joint Meeting, American Astronomical Society Meeting 209, #25.02; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. 38: 933. Bibcode:2006AAS...209.2502B.
  8. ^ a b Johnston, W. R. (30 December 2008). "(136199) Eris and Dysnomia". Johnston's Archive. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  9. ^ a b c Dumas, C.; Carry, B.; Hestroffer, D.; Merlin, F. (2011). "High-contrast observations of (136108) Haumea". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 528: A105. arXiv:1101.2102. Bibcode:2011A&A...528A.105D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201015011. S2CID 119226136.
  10. ^ Daniel W. E. Green (22 February 2007). "IAUC 8812: Sats OF 2003 AZ_84, (50000), (55637), (90482)". IAU Circular. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  11. ^ Johnston, Wm. Robert (9 August 2020). "Asteroids with Satellites". Johnston's Archive.
  12. ^ Wieczorek, M.; et al. (2006). "The constitution and structure of the lunar interior". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 60 (1): 221–364. Bibcode:2006RvMG...60..221W. doi:10.2138/rmg.2006.60.3. S2CID 130734866.
  13. ^ a b "Notes: The Satellites of Mars". The Observatory. 1 (6): 181–185. 20 September 1877. Bibcode:1877Obs.....1..181. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg "Planetary Satellite Physical Parameters". JPL, NASA. 19 February 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2016., and references therein.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe "Planetary Satellite Mean Orbital Parameters". JPL, NASA. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2016., and references therein.
  16. ^ a b c d Showman, Adam P.; Malhotra, Renu (1999). "The Galilean Satellites" (PDF). Science. 286 (5437): 77–84. doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.77. PMID 10506564.
  17. ^ Barnard, E. E. (1892). "Discovery and Observation of a Fifth Satellite to Jupiter". Astronomical Journal. 12: 81–85. Bibcode:1892AJ.....12...81B. doi:10.1086/101715.
  18. ^ Crommelin, A. C. D. (10 March 1905). "Provisional Elements of Jupiter's Satellite VI". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 65 (5): 524–527. Bibcode:1905MNRAS..65..524C. doi:10.1093/mnras/65.5.524.
  19. ^ Porco, Carolyn C.; et al. (March 2003). "Cassini Imaging of Jupiter's Atmosphere, Satellites, and Rings". Science. 299 (5612): 1541–1547. Bibcode:2003Sci...299.1541P. doi:10.1126/science.1079462. PMID 12624258. S2CID 20150275.
  20. ^ Perrine, C. D. (1905). "The Seventh Satellite of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 17 (101): 62–63. Bibcode:1905PASP...17...56.. doi:10.1086/121624. JSTOR 40691209.
  21. ^ Melotte, P. J. (1908). "Note on the Newly Discovered Eighth Satellite of Jupiter, Photographed at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 68 (6): 456–457. Bibcode:1908MNRAS..68..456.. doi:10.1093/mnras/68.6.456.
  22. ^ Nicholson, S. B. (1914). "Discovery of the Ninth Satellite of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 26 (1): 197–198. Bibcode:1914PASP...26..197N. doi:10.1086/122336. PMID 16586574.
  23. ^ a b Nicholson, S.B. (1938). "Two New Satellites of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 50 (297): 292–293. Bibcode:1938PASP...50..292N. doi:10.1086/124963.
  24. ^ Nicholson, S. B. (1951). "An unidentified object near Jupiter, probably a new satellite". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 63 (375): 297–299. Bibcode:1951PASP...63..297N. doi:10.1086/126402.
  25. ^ Kowal, C. T.; Aksnes, K.; Marsden, B. G.; Roemer, E. (1974). "Thirteenth satellite of Jupiter". Astronomical Journal. 80: 460–464. Bibcode:1975AJ.....80..460K. doi:10.1086/111766.
  26. ^ Synnott, S.P. (1980). "1979J2: The Discovery of a Previously Unknown Jovian Satellite". Science. 210 (4471): 786–788. Bibcode:1980Sci...210..786S. doi:10.1126/science.210.4471.786. ISSN 0036-8075. JSTOR 1684562. PMID 17739548.
  27. ^ Jewitt, D. C.; Danielson, G.E.; Synnott, S.P. (1979). "Discovery of a New Jupiter Satellite". Science. 206 (4421): 951. Bibcode:1979Sci...206..951J. doi:10.1126/science.206.4421.951. ISSN 0036-8075. JSTOR 1749286. PMID 17733911. S2CID 6391249.
  28. ^ Synnott, S.P. (1981). "1979J3: Discovery of a Previously Unknown Satellite of Jupiter". Science. 212 (4501): 1392. Bibcode:1981Sci...212.1392S. doi:10.1126/science.212.4501.1392. ISSN 0036-8075. JSTOR 1686790. PMID 17746259.
  29. ^ "IAUC 7460: S/1999 J 1". 20 July 2000. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  30. ^ "IAUC 2845: Probable New Satellite of Jupiter". 3 October 1975. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  31. ^ "IAUC 7525: S/1975 J 1 = S/2000 J 1". 25 November 2000. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i "IAUC 7555: Satellites of Jupiter". 5 January 2001. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "IAUC 7900: Satellites of Jupiter". 16 May 2002. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Jupiter's Known Satellites". Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  35. ^ "MPEC 2020-V19 : S/2003 J 9". Minor Planet Electronic Circular. Minor Planet Center. 5 November 2020.
  36. ^ "MPEC 2020-V10 : S/2003 J 16". Minor Planet Electronic Circular. Minor Planet Center. 4 November 2020.
  37. ^ C. Porco & the Cassini Imaging Team (18 July 2007). "S/ 2007 S 4". IAU Circular. 8857.
  38. ^ "IAU Circular No. 9023". International Astronomical Union. 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2009.
  39. ^ Thomas, P. C.; Burns, J. A.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Hedman, M. M.; et al. (2013). "Saturn's Mysterious Arc-Embedded Moons: Recycled Fluff?" (PDF). 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. p. 1598. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  40. ^ "MPEC 2019-T126 : S/2004 S 20". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  41. ^ "MPEC 2019-T128 : S/2004 S 22". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  42. ^ "MPEC 2019-T129 : S/2004 S 23". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  43. ^ "MPEC 2019-T132 : S/2004 S 25". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  44. ^ "MPEC 2019-T133 : S/2004 S 26". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  45. ^ "MPEC 2019-T134 : S/2004 S 27". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  46. ^ "MPEC 2019-T136 : S/2004 S 29". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  47. ^ "MPEC 2019-T137 : S/2004 S 30". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  48. ^ "MPEC 2019-T154 : S/2004 S 32". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  49. ^ "MPEC 2019-T155 : S/2004 S 33". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  50. ^ "MPEC 2019-T156 : S/2004 S 34". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  51. ^ "MPEC 2019-T157 : S/2004 S 35". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  52. ^ "MPEC 2019-T160 : S/2004 S 38". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  53. ^ "MPEC 2019-T127 : S/2004 S 21". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  54. ^ "MPEC 2019-T131 : S/2004 S 24". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  55. ^ "MPEC 2019-T135 : S/2004 S 28". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  56. ^ "MPEC 2019-T153 : S/2004 S 31". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  57. ^ "MPEC 2019-T158 : S/2004 S 36". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  58. ^ "MPEC 2019-T159 : S/2004 S 37". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  59. ^ "MPEC 2019-T161 : S/2004 S 39". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  60. ^ "IAU Circular No. 9091". International Astronomical Union. 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  61. ^ a b Farkas-Takács, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pál, A.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Hanyecz, O.; et al. (September 2017). "Properties of the Irregular Satellite System around Uranus Inferred from K2, Herschel, and Spitzer Observations". The Astronomical Journal. 154 (3): 13. arXiv:1706.06837. Bibcode:2017AJ....154..119F. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa8365. S2CID 118869078. 119.
  62. ^ Kiss, C.; Pál, A.; Farkas-Takács, A. I.; Szabó, G. M.; Szabó, R.; Kiss, L. L.; et al. (April 2016). "Nereid from space: Rotation, size and shape analysis from K2, Herschel and Spitzer observations" (PDF). Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 457 (3): 2908–2917. arXiv:1601.02395. Bibcode:2016MNRAS.457.2908K. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw081. S2CID 54602372.
  63. ^ Kelly Beatty (15 July 2013). "Neptune's Newest Moon". Sky & Telescope. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  64. ^ a b Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S.; Roe, H. G.; Buie, M. W.; Porter, S. B.; Parker, A. H.; Nesvorný, D.; Benecchi, S. D.; Stephens, D. C.; Trujillo, C. A. (2019). "Mutual Orbit Orientations of Transneptunian Binaries" (PDF). Icarus. 334: 62–78. Bibcode:2019Icar..334...62G. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2019.03.035. ISSN 0019-1035.
  65. ^ Showalter, M. R.; Hamilton, D. P. (20 July 2011). "New Satellite of (134340) Pluto: S/2011 (134340) 1". Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams. Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
  66. ^ "NASA's Hubble Discovers Another Moon Around Pluto". NASA. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  67. ^ "Hubble Discovers a Fifth Moon Orbiting Pluto". NASA. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  68. ^ a b D. C. Fabrycky; M. J. Holman; D. Ragozzine; M. E. Brown; T. A. Lister; D. M. Terndrup; J. Djordjevic; E. F. Young; L. A. Young; R. R. Howell (2008). "Mutual Events of 2003 EL61 and its Inner Satellite". AAS DPS Conference 2008. 40: 36.08. Bibcode:2008DPS....40.3608F.
  69. ^ a b Ragozzine, D.; Brown, M.E. (2009). "Orbits and Masses of the Satellites of the Dwarf Planet Haumea = 2003 EL61". The Astronomical Journal. 137 (6): 4766–4776. arXiv:0903.4213. Bibcode:2009AJ....137.4766R. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/137/6/4766. S2CID 15310444.
  70. ^ Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E. (May 2010). "Quaoar: A Rock in the Kuiper Belt". The Astrophysical Journal. 714 (2): 1547–1550. arXiv:1003.5911. Bibcode:2010ApJ...714.1547F. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/714/2/1547. S2CID 17386407.
  71. ^ "Hubble Discovers Moon Orbiting the Dwarf Planet Makemake". hubblesite.org. 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  72. ^ Parker, A. H.; Buie, M. W.; Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S. (25 April 2016). "Discovery of a Makemakean Moon". The Astrophysical Journal. 825 (1): L9. arXiv:1604.07461. Bibcode:2016ApJ...825L...9P. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/825/1/L9. S2CID 119270442.
  73. ^ Kiss, Csaba; Marton, Gabor; Parker, Alex H.; Grundy, Will; Farkas-Takacs, Aniko; Stansberry, John; Pal, Andras; Muller, Thomas; Noll, Keith S.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Barr, Amy C.; Young, Leslie A.; Vinko, Jozsef (October 2018). "The mass and density of the dwarf planet (225088) 2007 OR10". Icarus. 334: 3–10. arXiv:1903.05439. Bibcode:2018DPS....5031102K. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2019.03.013. S2CID 119370310.
  74. ^ Holler, Bryan J.; Grundy, William M.; Buie, Marc W.; Noll, Keith S. (February 2021). "The Eris/Dysnomia system I: The orbit of Dysnomia". Icarus. 355: 114130. arXiv:2009.13733. Bibcode:2021Icar..35514130H. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2020.114130. S2CID 221995416. 114130.