Lèse-majesté in Thailand
Lèse-majesté (a French term meaning "to do wrong to majesty") in Thailand is a crime according to Section 112 of the Thai Criminal Code. It is illegal to defame, insult, or threaten the king, queen, heir-apparent, heir-presumptive, or regent. Modern Thai lèse-majesté law has been on the statute books since 1908. Thailand is the only constitutional monarchy to have strengthened its lèse-majesté law since World War II. With penalties ranging from three to fifteen years imprisonment for each count, it has been described as the "world's harshest lèse majesté law" and "possibly the strictest criminal-defamation law anywhere"; its enforcement "has been in the interest of the palace".: 134
The law has criminalised acts of insult since 1957. There is substantial room for interpretation, which causes controversy. Broad interpretation of the law reflects the inviolable status of the king, resembling feudal or absolute monarchs. Thailand's Supreme Court decided the law also applies to prior monarchs. Criticism of any privy council member has raised the question whether lèse-majesté applies by association. Even attempting to commit lèse-majesté, making sarcastic comments about the King's pet, and failure to rebuke an offense have been prosecuted as lèse-majesté.
Anyone can file a lèse-majesté complaint, and the police formally investigate all of them. Details of the charges are rarely made public. A Section 112 defendant meets with official obstruction throughout the case. There are months-long pretrial detentions, and courts routinely deny bail to those charged. The United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention determined that the pretrial detention of an alleged lèse-majesté offender violated international human rights law. The courts seem not to recognise the principle of granting defendants the benefit of the doubt. Judges have said accusers did not have to prove the factuality of the alleged lèse-majesté material but only claim it is defamatory. Pleading guilty then asking for a royal pardon is seen as the quickest route to freedom for any accused.
Since a 1976 coup, coup makers have regularly cited a surge of alleged lèse-majesté charges as a reason for overthrowing elected governments. This was cited as one of the major reasons for the 2006 coup and that of 2014. In 2006 and 2007, there were notable changes in the trend. Those targeted by lèse-majesté complaints included more average citizens who were given longer jail sentences. Human rights groups condemned its use as a political weapon and a means to restrict freedom. The 2014 junta government granted authority to army courts to prosecute lèse-majesté, which has usually resulted in secret trials and harsh sentences. Prior to the law's revival in 2020, for three years the Thai government often invoked other laws, such as the Computer Crimes Act and sedition laws, to deal with perceived damages and insults to the monarchy. The longest recorded sentence was in 2021: 87 years imprisonment, reduced to 43 years because the defendant pleaded guilty.
Origin and early developmentsEdit
In the feudal era, monarchs, royal officials, royal symbols, and wrongdoings in the palace were protected from many kinds of "violation".: 23–24 Crimes against royal symbols greatly affected the social structure of the sakdina era.: 24–5 [clarification needed]
The Siamese criminal code of 1908 separated the King and the state. It penalised persons who displayed malice or defamed the King, the Queen Consort, the Heir-apparent, or the Regent. Anyone doing so was subject to imprisonment not exceeding seven years or fines of not more than 5,000 baht, or both.: 3 Other sections provided protection from displays of malice or defamation of "the princes or princesses from whichever reign": 3 or from those who "create disloyalty" or "insult the king", and "cause the people to transgress the royal laws".: 3–4
As the print media was becoming widespread, the criminal code was strengthened in 1928 to penalise crimes of "advocates or teachers of any political or economic doctrine or system, intended or calculated to bring into hatred or contempt the Sovereign".: 4
Lèse-majesté law did not change significantly after the 1932 Siamese Revolution, because the Khana Ratsadon compromised and added the inviolable status of the king in the Constitution continues to the present day.: 28 However, the law included an exclusion clause for "an expression of good faith" or "a critical and unbiased comment on governmental or administrative acts".: 4 During that time, discussion about the monarchy was still free. This allowed discussion over whether Thailand be a constitutional monarchy in 1949, and a 1956 lecture by a legal scholar which said the king should not express an opinion on economic, political and social problems with no countersign.: 30 [clarification needed]
1957 changes: criminalisation of insultEdit
"... it might not be true, and even if it were true, [it] should not be publicized as there is no legislation that allows it. And regarding the institution of the monarchy, it should be revered by the people, in an inviolable status, always above any criticism.": 38–9
— A Court decision in 1986, ruling that gossip could be
lèse-majesté even if it were true.
On 1 January 1957, the criminal code of 1956 came into force.: 18 Since then, lèse-majesté forbade insult, in addition to the existing crimes of threats or defamation. The change broadly expanded the applicability of the law.: 6 Lèse-majesté was changed from an offense against the monarchy to an offense against national security,: 133 removing the right to express opinions which might be insulting to the monarchy if said within the spirit of the constitution.: 6
Thai Cold War dictator Sarit Thanarat, claimed national security, and used lèse-majesté charges to suppress political opponents, leading to some executions. He also handed over lèse-majesté cases to courts-martial.
Court decisions shortly after the change still took context into consideration. In December 1957, a case against a politician was dismissed because a political campaign was underway.: 32–3
The penalty for lèse-majesté used today was toughened from a maximum of seven years' imprisonment to three to fifteen years per count by order of the military junta of 1976. Except for World War II Empire of Japan, Thailand is the only constitutional monarchy that strengthened lèse-majesté in the 20th century.: 115–116
Between 1977 and 1986 when the royal power base grew among the urban middle class, the "kinship" and "bond" relationship was created between the people and the king as well as its modern "inviolable" status.: 37–8 Since then, court decisions and legal scholars' comments have interpreted lèse-majesté law to mean the king could not be criticised in any way.: 38–9
Examples of cases of insult include a politician, in 1988, who served four years in prison for suggesting that life would have been easier had he been born in the palace,: 134 and a man in 1976 who was arrested on charges of lèse-majesté for using a royal village scout scarf to wipe a table.: 134 Acts deemed insulting to the royal image include placing photographs of anybody on a website above those of the king. In March 2007, Oliver Jufer, a Swiss man, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for daubing black paint on portraits of King Bhumibol while drunk in Chiang Mai, although he received a royal pardon the following month.
Political crisis: A political weapon and ailing KingEdit
|Year||No. of case|
|2017 (9 mo.)||45|
Between 1990 and 2005, there was an average of five new lèse-majesté cases per year. Since then, however, there have been at least 400 cases—an estimated 1,500 percent increase. Prior to the 2006 coup, targets of lèse-majesté were mostly politicians, high-ranking bureaucrats and extra-constitutional figures, but after 2007, common people were charged.: 124 The law was interpreted to cover past monarchs and symbols associated with the monarch. No one had been sentenced to more than ten years in jail before 2007.: 40–1 Observers attributed the increasing number of lèse-majesté cases to King Bhumibol's public invitation of criticism in 2005, increased polarization following the 2006 military coup, and to speculation over his declining health in the period before his death in 2016.
In 2005, cases registered in the Attorney General's office rose sharply from 12 new cases in 2000–2004 to 17.: 17 Thai Rak Thai and Democrat Party as well as opposition movement People's Alliance for Democracy traded lèse-majesté accusations.: 124 Former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra's alleged lèse-majesté was one of the stated reasons for the Thai military's 2006 coup. After the coup, dozens of radio stations were shut down because of alleged lèse-majesté.
Academics have been investigated, imprisoned, and forced into exile over accusations of lèse-majesté. Prominent historian Somsak Jeamteerasakul was arrested for proposing an eight-point plan to reform of the monarchy. Professor Giles Ji Ungpakorn went into exile in 2007 after his book, A Coup for the Rich, questioned Bhumibol's role in the 2006 coup. In March 2011, Worachet Pakeerat, a law lecturer, banded together with same-minded lecturers and formed the Nitirat Group, aiming to amend the lèse-majesté law. He proposed reducing the maximum jail term to three years, a circumstance for pardoning, and that only the Office of His Majesty's Principal Private Secretary could file a complaint. His actions angered many people. In February 2012, he was assaulted in broad daylight in Bangkok.
During the government of Yingluck Shinawatra, the number of arrests and convictions for lèse-majesté offences declined significantly. However, she said she would not seek to reform the law. There were 478 cases in 2010.
In May 2014, the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), the military junta, granted authority to a military tribunal to prosecute lèse-majesté in Thailand. Military courts routinely imposed harsher sentences than civilian courts would. In August 2015, the Bangkok Military Court sentenced Pongsak Sriboonpeng to 60 years in prison for his six Facebook postings (later reduced to 30 years, when he pleaded guilty). This was Thailand's longest recorded sentence for lèse-majesté. The courts were dubbed "kangaroo courts." The military government has never successfully extradited someone living abroad.
iLaw, a Thai non-profit organisation, reported that the junta hold persons in custody for seven days without charges. Secret trials were held. Officials seized personal communication devices to search for incriminating evidence.
In 2015, Prachatai published an infographic showing that bathroom graffiti, a hand gesture, a hearsay report of a taxi conversation, and not standing during the playing of the royal anthem, among other things, could be punished as acts of lèse-majesté. A nurse wearing black on Bhumibol Adulyadej's birthday was charged with lèse-majesté.
The last formal attempt to amend the law occurred in May 2012 when more than 10,000 people signed a petition to parliament, but Speaker of the House of Representatives, Somsak Kiatsuranont, dismissed it citing that amendment of the law concerning the monarchy was not a constitutional right.
In December 2016, Jatupat "Pai" Boonpattararaksa, a rights group member, was accused of lèse-majesté for sharing a BBC Thai biography of Thailand's new king, Vajiralongkorn. He was the only person to be arrested even though more than 2,600 people also shared the story, as well as the publisher BBC Thai, which did not face prosecution. In May 2017, the military junta stated that merely viewing material is considered lèse-majesté and is a violation of the law. As of November 2018, at least 127 people have been charged with lèse-majesté since the latest coup.
In 2017, there was a case of a 14-year-old who was accused of lèse-majesté for burning down a royal decoration arch in Khon Kaen. This was the first prosecution of a minor. A lawyer who did not accept legal proceeding claiming that the court act in the name of the King who had conflict of interest in such cases, thus impartial and unjust. There were several low-profile instances where the authorities did not prosecute, but used other intimidation methods instead, such as holding the individual in military custody for seven days, checking for communication devices, asking them to unfollow a Facebook page, or asking them to make a video expressing loyalty to the monarch.
The Attorney General's directive, dated 21 February 2018, issued a new guideline for prosecution. Now only the Attorney General can file a lèse-majesté case. And in June 2018, there was a new regulation which allowed public persecutors to decide against prosecuting cases that did not serve the public interest. Unprecedented moves were seen, such as dismissing lèse-majesté cases even though the defendants pleaded guilty, and those charged had received bail in certain cases. However, the authorities now favour invoking other laws instead, such as the Computer Crime Act and the sedition law. On 15 June 2020, Thai prime minister and former 2014 Thai coup d'état leader Prayut Chan-o-cha confirmed this stance, stating that King Vajiralongkorn had called for no further use of Section 112.
After the forced disappearance of Wanchalearm Satsaksit, an alleged lèse-majesté offender, in June 2020, #ยกเลิก112 (cancel 112) trended first on Twitter in Thailand with more than 500,000 retweets, as netizen believed his accusations were behind his abduction. In August, protests against the government included calls to reform the monarchy, including the abolition of Article 112.
During 2020 Thai protests, the authorities revived lèse-majesté law in response. In January 2021, a woman was sentenced to 43 years imprisonment for multiple charges of sharing sensitive audio clips online without commenting.
Social context and impactEdit
King Rama VI believed that insults to the king are also insults to his power source—the people. The king felt every subject is also insulted.: 26–7
David Streckfuss, a scholar on Thai human rights and politics, commented that lèse-majesté is one factor defining neo-absolutism in Thailand.: 110 Lèse-majesté is used in less democratic monarchies to protect the system of power.: 113 Thai mainstream media has supported the use of the law and avoid covering it.: 117 The media do not discuss the role of the monarchy in politics, thus creating a distorted view of the political scene.: 117 Lèse-majesté and communism were once the definition of the ultimate traitor. With the decline of communism, however, lèse-majesté began to define new kinds of traitors.: 127
Michael Kelly Connors, a professor in social science at the University of Nottingham, wrote the king had a dual position—an agent of political and economic interests and the soul of the nation showing the glaring disparity between social classes, and thus required controlled imagery. The stage-managed role of the monarch, the compulsory respect shown to the institution, and the pressure of social conformity left many people with a taste of bitterness which few felt confident to express. Thai elites feared the Thai monarchy would be subjected to mockery once it was open to scrutiny, just like the British monarchy.: 133–4
Streckfuss and Preechasilpakul wrote that lèse-majesté remains the most potent political charge in Thailand and the number of charges increased in times of political upheaval.: 2 Human rights groups say the lèse-majesté laws have been used as a political weapon to stifle free speech. Political scientist Giles Ungpakorn noted that "the lèse-majesté laws are not really designed to protect the institution of the monarchy. In the past, the laws have been used to protect governments and to shield military coups from lawful criticism. This whole [royal] image is created to bolster a conservative elite well beyond the walls of the palace." However, Connors argued that while some have used it as a political weapon, it has always been in the interests of the palace.: 134
Contemporary scope of the lawEdit
|Country||Max. jail term (years)|
Section 112 of Thai Criminal Code currently reads as follows:
"Whoever defames, insults or threatens the King, the Queen, the Heir-apparent or the Regent, shall be punished with imprisonment of three to fifteen years."
As lèse-majesté is one of the offences relating to the security of the kingdom, according to Section 7 of the Thai Criminal Code. Even alleged offences committed outside the kingdom can be punished within Thailand. Thai courts have demonstrated they will prosecute and jail even non-Thai citizens for offences committed outside of the kingdom as proven in the case against American citizen Joe Gordon who police arrested in May 2011 when he visited Thailand for medical treatment. The court later sentenced him to five years in jail.
David Streckfuss opined that lèse majesté law is not necessarily controversial, even some Western democratic countries seem to have severe jail punishment, if rarely used.: 119
In 2007, a controversy arose over whether criticism of members of King Bhumibol's privy council also constituted criticism of Bhumibol. Police Special Branch Commander Lt Gen Theeradech Rodpho-thong, who refused to file charges of lèse-majesté against activists who launched a petition to oust Privy Council President Prem Tinsulanonda, was demoted within days of the incident by Police Commander Seripisut Temiyavet.
In 2013, a man was found guilty of "preparing and attempting" to commit an act of lèse-majesté. He had images and captions deemed lèse-majesté in his electronic device—which, his accusers said, potentially could have been spread online. He was found guilty despite the law providing that mere preparation of the act is not a legal offence.
In 2016, a singer and activist, in addition to his prison sentence for defaming the monarchy, was ordered to write a song promoting "national reconciliation" after completing his sentence. The court order to write a song is outside the scope of the punishments in the Criminal Code.
Because of the uncertain and unpredictable nature of the offense charges, defendants often do not contest them and plead guilty.: 43 Lèse-majesté leads to self-censorship and vigilantism.: 43–4
In 2013, a person filed lèse-majesté charges against his own brother, showing how easily the lèse-majesté law can be misused, and that the law has now become a potential weapon in family feuds. Often the police, courts, and prosecutors are afraid they will be accused of disloyalty to the monarch if they fail to prosecute allegations of lèse-majesté. Additionally, there are cyberbullying cases where fake accounts were created and lèse-majesté material was posted to create misunderstanding that the person actually committed a crime.
Article 14 of the Computer Crimes Act BE 2550 (2007), which broadly bars the circulation through computer systems of information and material deemed detrimental to national security, has also been used to prosecute cases of lèse-majesté.
There have been occasions when lèse-majesté cases have been transferred to court-martial, most recently during the National Council for Peace and Order regime after the 2014 coup. There are differences between court-martial decisions compared to civilian court ones, including protection of any previous monarchs. Alleged counts are considered separately, making the punishment twice as harsh; the right to bail is restricted in wartime.
Detainees are seen barefoot and shackled at the ankles when brought to court. The courts sometimes use videoconferencing systems for court proceedings, so that defendants do not have to be physically present in the court. Two detainees have died in military custody. One hanged himself, and the other died of a blood infection, according to his autopsy.
Judges have also said the accuser did not necessarily have to prove the information was factual claiming, "because if it is true, it is more defamatory, and if it isn't true, then it's super-defamatory". Asked why the Criminal Court did not grant the benefit of the doubt to the defendant in the case of Ampon Tangnoppakul, Court of Justice spokesperson Sitthisak Wanachaikit replied:
When the public prosecutor who institutes the proceedings can exercise his burden of proof to the extent of bringing to light the evil intent of the defendant...the defendant needs to be punished according to the gravity of the case.
Professor Peter Leyland of SOAS, University of London and Professor Emeritus of London Metropolitan University, explained:
It [the lese majeste offence] can be committed entirely without criminal intent. There is no need for the prosecuting authorities to bring any evidence to bear relating to foresight on the part of the defendant with regard to the fact of the statement or conduct. [...] The police, prosecuting authorities and judges not only act in the name of the King, but there is an expectation that their loyalty to the Crown will be reflected in an outcome that confirms the dignity of the King at the expense of the accused.: 130
Court proceedings are lengthy, and defendants often pleading guilty as the quickest route to freedom. Court decisions are often overturned in the higher courts, thus lengthening the proceedings. Civilian courts often handed sentences of five years imprisonment per count, while military courts often handed sentences of 10 years per count.
The Office of Prevention and Suppression of Information Technology Crimes maintains a "war room" to monitor for pages which disparage the monarchy. A web crawler is used to search the internet. When an offending image or language is found, the office obtains a court order blocking the site. On 28 October 2008, The Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MICT) announced plans to spend about 100–500 million baht to build a gateway to block websites with contents defaming the royal institution.
In 2008, more than 4,800 webpages deemed insulting to Thailand's royal family were blocked. In December 2010, nearly 60,000 websites had been banned for alleged insults against Bhumibol. In 2011, the number increased to 70,000.
The website of Same Sky Books, publishers of Same Sky magazine, was shut down after comments on its bulletin board questioned mainstream media's claims that the entire country was in mourning over the death of Princess Galyani Vadhana.
In December 2015, the court verdict against Chiranuch Premchaiporn, webmaster of the news website Prachatai, was upheld in the highest court: "an eight-month suspended jail sentence and a 20,000 baht fine". Previously, she had been jailed without bail for nearly a year for not removing—in 2008—an allegedly insulting comment from an article fast enough. Although the comments did not directly mention Bhumibol or members of his family, the court found that Chiranuch displayed an intent to insult. Arrested in September 2010, she could face up to 50 years' imprisonment if found guilty.
In 2016, Facebook blocked users in Thailand from accessing a page satirising Thailand's royal family, citing the lèse-majesté law. Around the same time, there was speculation that the junta was able to obtain private chat logs of Facebook users.
In 2019, the Facebook page "Royalist Marketplace" was launched as a forum by academic Pavin Chachavalpongpun to discuss and criticise the Thai monarchy freely. The Thai authorities shut down access in Thailand to the Facebook page, which has accumulated around one million users. Facebook may be appealing, while Chachavalpongpun is facing a charge of cybercrime. He has since launched a replacement Facebook page.
Abuse of psychiatryEdit
On July 9, 2020, Tiwagorn Withiton, a Facebook user who went viral after posting a picture of himself wearing a t-shirt printed with the message, "I lost faith in the monarchy" was forcibly detained by police officers and admitted to Rajanagarindra Psychiatric Hospital in Khon Kaen. Tiwaporn is quoted as saying, "I well understand that it is political to have to make people think I'm insane. I won't hold it against the officials if there is a diagnosis that I'm insane, because I take it that they have to follow orders." He was discharged about two weeks later.
Bowarnsak Suwanno, Thai legal scholar, argued that countries limited free speech according to their cultural-legal circumstances.: 129 A Thai official said that the lèse-majesté law is similar to a libel law for commoners. Some abuse their rights by spreading hate speech or distorted information to incite hatred towards the monarchical institution. Those who are accused of lèse-majesté have the right to a fair trial, and the opportunity to contest the charges and assistance from a lawyer, as well as the right to appeal.[b]
The Rubbish Collection Organization, a fascist ultra-royalist organization which was founded during the 2013–2014 Thai political crisis, supports persecution for lèse-majesté, and launched an ongoing online campaign of mobbing and doxxing victims, together with other methods of intimidation.
In May 2016, a justice minister remarked on "concerns raised by United Nations Security Council member countries during the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) in Geneva" on 11 May 2016: "that foreign countries would not understand why Thailand needs the lèse-majesté law because they are not "civilised" nations with cultural refinement like ours".
A judge in a 2016 lèse-majesté case, when a man was sentenced to seven years and six months in prison said he would have given him a longer sentence, but the court's deputy president advised him on giving a shorter term.
The lèse-majesté law is described as "draconian". Amnesty International considers anyone jailed for insulting Bhumibol to be a political prisoner; if they had a peaceful expression and intent, a prisoner of conscience.
Article 112 is typically deployed with politically expedient timing, rather than at the time of the supposed offense. Jakrapob Penkair, a former minister to the Office of the Prime Minister, commented: "It's not about your action; it's about the timing. They wait until the moment when you seem most vulnerable."
The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression, David Kaye, commenting on the detention of a Thai national who posted a link to a Thai language BBC profile of Thailand's new king said, "Public figures, including those exercising the highest political authority, may be subject to criticism, and the fact that some forms of expression are considered to be insulting to a public figure is not sufficient to justify restrictions or penalties." Kaye went on to say that such laws, "have no place in a democratic country" and called for Thailand to repeal them.
Activists against the law or those who seek to reform it include: Mainueng Kor Kunatee (a poet who was assassinated in 2014); Somsak Jeamteerasakul; Giles Ji Ungpakorn; Pavin Chachavalpongpun, a former diplomat, and an associate professor at the Kyoto University and a leader of a campaign to abolish Article 112 of the Thai criminal code; and The Nitirat group—an association of law lecturers who campaign for constitutional reform and a change of Thailand's lèse-majesté law–including Worachet Pakeerut, Piyabutr Saengkanokkul, and Sawatree Suksri.
Not The Nation, an anonymous website that satirises a Thai newspaper, The Nation, satirised the media and the public response to the case of Thai American Joe Gordon in contrast to that paid to the drug-related case of Australian Schapelle Corby and to the pardoning of Greek-Cypriot-Australian Harry Nicolaides. NTN later satirised plea bargaining in the "Uncle SMS" case. In December 2013, NTN circumvented the chilling effect of LMIT on discussion of succession with a discussion of the abdication of royal dog Thong Daeng.
In July 2014, British comedian John Oliver described Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn as a "buffoon" and showed the leaked video of Vajiralongkorn and his topless wife celebrating the birthday of the prince's poodle, Air Chief Marshal Foo Foo, in a satirical piece about monarchy in general on Last Week Tonight with John Oliver. The Thai military government described Oliver as "undermining the royal institution", to which Oliver responded by saying: "It seems my Thailand vacation is going to have to be postponed very much indefinitely. If I can bring down your monarchy, you have—at best—a wobbly monarchy."
The Charoen Pokphand (CP) group is alleged to have supported Section 112 via a CP Freshmart marketing discount campaign that ran from February 12-15, 2021 titled "LOVE112" that offered a 112 baht discount for online purchases worth at least 666 baht. According to Khaosod English (KE) News Chief Teeranai Charuvastra, CP notified the news agency's editor to delete its February 16, 2021 news item covering the campaign because it was a sensitive issue and the editor agreed to have it removed. Prachatai news reported this incident on February 19, 2021.
- It reads: "The King shall be enthroned in a position of revered worship and shall not be violated. No person shall expose the King to any sort of accusation or action."
- These proceedings are lengthy, and the defendant rarely receives bail (see Legal proceedings section above).
- Cochrane, Liam (11 January 2017). "New Thai King requests constitutional changes to 'ensure his royal powers': Prime Minister". ABC News. ABC. Archived from the original on 17 July 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- "How powerful people use criminal-defamation laws to silence their critics". The Economist. 13 July 2017. Archived from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
- Connors, Michael Kelly (2003). Democracy and National Identity in Thailand. Routledge Curzon. ISBN 0-203-36163-6.
- "Thailand's lese-majeste law explained". 6 October 2017. Archived from the original on 12 November 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019 – via www.bbc.com.
- "World Report 2014: Rights Trends in World Report 2014: Thailand". Human Rights Watch. 21 January 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "2014 coup marks the highest number of lese majeste prisoners in Thai history". Prachatai English. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "Thailand revives law banning criticism of king in bid to curb protests". BBC News. 25 November 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
- Team, WION Web (13 August 2020). "Thai government threatens legal action against Facebook over posts criticising monarchy, World News". WION. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
- "Thailand: Arbitrary arrest of human rights lawyer Mr. Anon Nampa and student activisist Mr. Panupong Chadnok". International Federation for Human Rights. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
- Wongcha-um, Thepgumpanat (19 January 2021). "Thai woman sentenced to 43 years in jail for insulting monarchy". Reuters/MSN. Archived from the original on 19 January 2021. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
- อาชามาส, นพพล (2014). "ประมวลกฎหมายอาญามาตรา 112 กับการประกอบสร้างสถานะอัน "ล่วงละเมิดมิได้"" [Article 112 of the Criminal Code and contribution to establish "inviolable" status]. นิติสังคมศาสตร์ (in Thai). 7 (1): 19–49. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
- Preechasilpakul, Somchai; Streckfuss, David. "Ramification and Re-Sacralization of the Lese Majesty Law in Thailand" (PDF). law.cmu.ac.th. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 December 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "วิวัฒนาการของ "กฎหมายหมิ่นประมาทพระมหากษัตริย์" ในรอบ 200 ปี ตามบริบทสังคมการเมือง | Freedom of Expression Documentation Center | ศูนย์ข้อมูลกฎหมายและคดีเสรีภาพ". iLaw. Archived from the original on 5 July 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
- David Streckfuss (2014). "Freedom and Silencing Under the Neo-Absolutist Monarchy Regime in Thailand, 2006–2011". In Chachavalpongpun, Pavin (ed.). "Good Coup" Gone Bad: Thailand's Political Development since Thaksin's Downfall. Singapore: ISEAS publishing. ISBN 9789814459617. Archived from the original on 16 December 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
- "BBC rejects Thai royal slur complaint". in.reuters.com. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- "Swiss man jailed for Thai insult". BBC News. 29 March 2007. Archived from the original on 13 September 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
- "Sensitive Heads of State". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- "Thai king pardons man who defaced his portrait". The Guardian. 12 April 2007. Archived from the original on 26 April 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- "List of individuals charged with Article 112 of the Criminal Code (lèse majesté)". iLAW. Archived from the original on 18 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- Todd Pitman and Sinfah Tunsarawuth (27 March 2011). "Thailand arrests American for alleged king insult". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- Julian Gearing (3 December 1999). "A Protective Law: It's called lèse-majesté, and it is taken seriously". Asiaweek. 25 (48). Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- "Thai coup leader says new PM within two weeks". TurkishPress. 19 September 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
- "World Notes Thailand". Time. 15 September 1986. Archived from the original on 20 June 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
- "Court refuses to free editor held for six months on lèse-majesté charge". Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- "SEAPA Alert: Thai history professor faces lèse-majesté complaint". seapabkk.org. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- "Somsak Jeamteerasakul". thaipoliticalprisoners.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- "British professor flees Thailand after charge of insulting king". The Guardian. 9 February 2009. Archived from the original on 19 May 2020. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
- Sinfah Tunsarawuth (September 2012), "Royal Chill", Index on Censorship, 41 (3): 103–107, doi:10.1177/0306422012456809, S2CID 220923628, archived from the original on 10 October 2012, retrieved 29 April 2014
- Achara Ashayagachat (11 May 2012). "Ampon team of lawyers say their best 'not good enough'". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- "High time to concede the Thai king can do wrong". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 16 December 2020. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
- "All crimes involving alleged lese majeste, sedition subjected to Military Court: Thai Coup makers". pracchatai.com. 25 May 2014. Archived from the original on 7 September 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- "Running Afoul of the Thai Monarchy (Published 2015)". The New York Times. 20 September 2015. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
- "Thailand: UPR Submission 2015". Human Rights Watch. 21 September 2015. Archived from the original on 10 October 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "The Vicious Law Silencing Thai Dissent". Time. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "Thai Minister Asks French Diplomat to Extradite Lese Majeste Suspects". Khaosod English. 14 July 2015. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "2014 Situation Summary Report 2/5: Lèse majesté cases: One step forward, three steps backward". iLaw. Archived from the original on 28 September 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "Parents of Thai ex-princess given jail term for lese majeste". BBC News. 11 March 2015. Archived from the original on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "Prachatai Infographic 20151021". 21 October 2015. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2019 – via Flickr.
- "3 lèse majesté complaints filed against women wearing black around King's birthday". Prachatai English. 10 December 2014. Archived from the original on 24 January 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "10 Q&A about lèse majesté law | Freedom of Expression Documentation Center | ศูนย์ข้อมูลกฎหมายและคดีเสรีภาพ". iLaw. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- Ketbungkan, Kaewta (3 December 2016). "Activist 'Pai Dao Din' Arrested For Lese Majeste". Khaosod English. Archived from the original on 5 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- Amy Sawitta Lefevre; Aukkarapon Niyomyat (22 May 2017). "Thailand extends web controls from composers of illicit content to viewers". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "US TV series slammed over monarchy reference". Bangkok Post. 19 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
- "1 ปี การคุมขัง 'ไผ่ ดาวดิน' กับสถานการณ์มาตรา 112 ในรอบปี 2560". Thai Lawyers for Human Rights (in Thai). 22 December 2017. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- Wongwat, Metta (15 November 2017). "A Decade of Article 112 Cases". Prachatai English. Archived from the original on 18 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- "Changes in Thailand's lèse majesté prosecutions in 2018". tlhr2014.com. Archived from the original on 2 November 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- English, Khaosod (15 June 2020). "HM King Puts Stop on Uses of Royal Insult Law: PM". Khaosod English. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "8 ปี หลังความเคลื่อนไหวยกเลิก ม. 112 ความพยายามที่ยังไม่เกิดผล". BBC Thai (in Thai). 20 June 2020. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "รวมปฏิกิริยาต่อ 10 ข้อเรียกร้องของแนวร่วมธรรมศาสตร์และการชุมนุม". BBC News ไทย (in Thai). Archived from the original on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
- "Thai woman jailed for record 43 years for criticising monarchy". BBC News. 19 January 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
- Head, Jonathan (5 December 2007). "Why Thailand's king is so revered". BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 February 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Swiss man faces jail for lèse majesté". The Daily Telegraph. London. 13 March 2007. Archived from the original on 16 December 2020. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
- Schuetze, Christopher (11 April 2018). "Dutch Parliament reduces penalties for insulting king". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "US man jailed in Thai royal case". BBC News. 8 December 2011. Archived from the original on 26 May 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
- "Authorities close in on Prem's foes". Bangkok Post. 5 April 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
- "Row festers over website seeking to oust Prem". The Nation (Thailand). 3 April 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
- "Special Branch chief demoted in reshuffle". The Nation (Thailand). 5 April 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
- "Swiss man 'insulted' Thai king". Al Jazeera. 12 March 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
- "New lese majeste precedence set by Thailand's public prosecutors and Court". iLaw. Archived from the original on 2 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- Charuvastra, Teeranai (1 June 2016). "Singer Gets 7 Years for Lese Majeste, Must Write 'Reconciliation Song'". Khaosod English. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "1 เดือนหลังการสวรรคต: ประมวลสถานการณ์ความขัดแย้งและการดำเนินคดีมาตรา 112". Thai Lawyers for Human Rights (in Thai). 15 November 2016. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "Thailand: End Harsh Punishments for Lese Majeste Offenses". Human Rights Watch. 2 December 2011. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "พุฒิพงศ์ พงศ์เอนกกุล "มาตรา 112 : ผลพวงรัฐประหาร 6 ตุลา 2519"". Prachatai (in Thai). Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "Second Thailand lese majeste detainee dies in military custody". BBC News. 9 November 2015. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "Court defers lese majeste case, defence advised". Nation. Archived from the original on 6 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- สิทธิศักดิ์ วนะชกิจ (9 May 2012). "อากงปลงไม่ตก (2)" (PDF) (in Thai). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- "คดี 112 จากชั้นต้นถึงอุทธรณ์ กับการให้เหตุผลของศาลที่ต่างกัน | Freedom of Expression Documentation Center | ศูนย์ข้อมูลกฎหมายและคดีเสรีภาพ". iLaw. Archived from the original on 2 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "Thailand firewall to block 'offensive' websites". Bangkok Post. 28 October 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
- "Media freedom threats worry internet community". Bangkok Post. 5 February 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
- Fuller, Thomas (2 October 2011). "A High-Tech War Against Slights to a Centuries-Old Monarchy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
- "Thai YouTube Ban Persists Over King Clip". AP via CBS. 5 April 2007. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007. Retrieved 5 April 2007.
- "More Thai king videos on YouTube". BBC. 5 April 2007. Archived from the original on 4 May 2007. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- "Inconvenient truths of censorship". The Nation. 16 April 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
- "Thailand Shuts Down Political Web Site". Fox News. Archived from the original on 29 May 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
- "Court upholds Lese Majeste Conviction of Newspaper Editor, Chiranuch Premchaiporn – CTN News – Chiang Rai Times". www.chiangraitimes.com. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- "Police lèse majesté "experts" in Prachatai trial". Global Voices Advocacy. 2 September 2011. Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
- "Thai webmaster facing 50 years for lèse majesté postings". Global Voices Advocacy. 5 February 2011. Archived from the original on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
- Charuvastra, Teeranai (5 May 2016). "Facebook Blocks Thailand From Page Satirizing Monarchy". Khaosod English. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
- "Facebook blocks group critical of Thai monarchy". BBC News. 25 August 2020. Archived from the original on 25 August 2020. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
- "Thai police arrest activist over monarchy protest". Reuters. 19 August 2020. Archived from the original on 25 August 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
- "Royalist Marketplace returns". Prachatai English. Archived from the original on 3 September 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
- English, Khaosod (22 June 2020). "Man Behind Viral 'Lost Faith' Shirt Gets Cop Visit". Khaosod English. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Facebook user behind viral 'lost faith' shirt committed to psychiatric hospital". Prachatai English. Archived from the original on 13 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "After court rejects petition to free dissident, he is released from mental hospital". The Isaan Record. 22 July 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
- "THE USE OF THE LÈSE-MAJESTÉ LAW IN THAILAND". Royal Thai Embassy Singapore. Government of Thailand. Archived from the original on 5 January 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- ""The king can do no wrong" และกฎหมายอาญามาตรา 112". Manager Online (in Thai). Retrieved 11 November 2020.
- Sombatpoonsiri, Janjira (2018). "Conservative Civil Society in Thailand". In Youngs, Richard (ed.). The mobilization of conservative civil society: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. pp. 27–32. OCLC 1059452133. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 January 2019. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
- "New Social Media and Politics in Thailand: The Emergence of Fascist Vigilante Groups on Facebook". ASEAS – Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies (in German). 9 (2): 215–234. 2016. ISSN 1999-2521. OCLC 7179244833. Archived from the original on 16 December 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
- "Address UN rights worries" (Editorial). Bangkok Post. 14 May 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- "Singer Tom Dundee gets 7 years, 6 months for lese majeste". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
- "Thais examine 'lese majeste plot'". BBC News. 28 October 2015. Archived from the original on 6 June 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2019 – via www.bbc.com.
- "All eyes on Article 112". Bangkok Post. 18 September 2011. Archived from the original on 16 December 2020. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
- "ส.ศิวรักษ์ ชี้ รปห.-112 ล้วนกระทบสถาบันกษัตริย์ ถูกใช้เป็นเครื่องมือทางการเมือง". Prachatai (in Thai). Archived from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "UN slams Thailand for first royal slur charge under new king". South China Morning Post. Agence France-Presse. 7 February 2017. Archived from the original on 2 April 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- Fuller, Thomas (9 December 2015). "Thai Police Investigate U.S. Ambassador on Suspicion of Insulting King (Published 2015)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
- Kong Rithdee (26 April 2014). "Poet's death casts chill on our society". Bangkok Post.
- Andrew Walker (7 August 2011). "Ji Ungpakorn on lese majeste". New Mandala. Archived from the original on 4 May 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
- "A Thai Academic in Peril for Speaking Out". Asia Sentinel. 13 June 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
- "Nitirat academic Sawatree released from military camp". Prachatai English. 9 June 2014. Archived from the original on 30 July 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- Anonymous (28 September 2011). "About". Not the Nation. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
Not The Nation is for entertainment purposes only. Redistribution of Not The Nation content with attribution is permitted. Some photos and images used on Not The Nation are taken from the Internet. If one of them is yours, we apologize and are grateful. The author(s) of Not The Nation choose(s) to remain anonymous.
- RealJoeGordon (19 August 2011). "EMBASSY STATEMENT ON U.S. CITIZEN JOE GORDON". Facebook. Archived from the original on 16 December 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
EMBASSY STATEMENT ON U.S. CITIZEN JOE GORDON
The United States is disappointed by the prosecutor's decision to file lese majeste charges against U.S. citizen Joe Gordon. We have discussed Mr. Gordon's case extensively with Thai authorities, stressing at every possible opportunity his rights as an American citizen. We urge the Thai authorities to ensure freedom of expression is respected and that Mr. Gordon, a U.S. citizen, receives fair treatment.
- Anonymous (3 December 2011). "Prosecutor Offers 'Uncle SMS' Reduced Sentence in Exchange For Acting More Evil". Not The Nation. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
...Under the proposed agreement, Ampon's sentence will be reduced from 20 to only 5 years if he agrees to act more evil between now and his incarceration.
- Anonymous (3 December 2013). "Thongdaeng Abdicates To Foo Foo". Not The Nation. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
In a shocking event that may forever alter the social and cultural landscape of the Kingdom of Thailand, His Majesty the King's royal dog Thongdaeng has abdicated his position as the nation's ruling pet of state to Foo Foo, Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn's longstanding dog-in-waiting.
- "Thailand's Military Government Thinks John Oliver Is a Threat to Its Monarchy". Vice. 25 July 2014. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "Thai junta unamused by comedian John Oliver's royal jibes". The Guardian. 30 July 2014. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "Khaosod English deletes report on CP's 'LOVE112' discount campaign at the company's urging". Prachatai English. 19 February 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
- Arnott, David; Franke, Peter (1993). "Majestätsbeleidigung, Sulak und die thailändischen Generäle". Südostasien informationen (in German). 9 (2): 37. doi:10.11588/soai.1993.2.8336.
- Chachavalpongpun, Pavin (2011). "Lese-majeste: An anachronistic but potent weapon". East Asia Forum Quarterly. 3 (4): 26.
- Greenfield, Kate (2013). "The Runaway Lese Majeste Train: How Thailand's Lese Majeste Law Must Be Reformed in Order to Stop Its Abuse". Southwestern Journal of International Law. 19: 377.
- Haberkorn, Tyrell (2016). "A Hyper-Royalist Parapolitics in Thailand". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. 172 (2–3): 225–248. doi:10.1163/22134379-17202003.
- Streckfuss, David (1995). "Kings in the Age of Nations: The Paradox of Lese-Majeste as Political Crime in Thailand". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 37 (3): 445–475. doi:10.1017/S0010417500019769. ISSN 0010-4175. JSTOR 179215.
- David Streckfuss (2011), Truth on Trial in Thailand: Defamation, Treason and Lèse-majesté, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-41425-8
- Van Reuben, Regina (2018). "Majestätsbeleidigung im Königreich Thailand". Südostasien informationen (in German): 11. doi:10.11588/soai.1984.0.3947.
- Somyot Pruksakasemsuk (29 April 2014). "Battling lese majeste law from a jail cell". Bangkok Post.
- "'Trash' doc urges harsh medicine – Slammed for his lese majeste stance, Dr Rienthong is still bent on weeding out wrongdoers". Bangkok Post. 26 April 2014.
- "Monk accuses red DJs of lese majeste". Bangkok Post. 22 April 2014.
- Kong Rithdee (19 April 2014). "Free speech tied in lese majeste knot". Bangkok Post.