Korean era name

Korean era names were titles adopted in historical Korea for the purpose of year identification and numbering. Era names were used during the period of Silla, Goguryeo, Balhae, Taebong, Goryeo, Joseon, and the Korean Empire. Various Korean regimes officially adopted the era names of Chinese dynasties.

Korean era name
Hangul
연호
Hanja
年號
Revised RomanizationYeonho
McCune–ReischauerYŏnho

Era names originated in 140 BCE in China, during the reign of the Emperor Wu of Han.[1][2] Since the middle of the 6th century CE, various Korean regimes started to use era names.[2][3][4]

List of Korean era namesEdit

This is a list of era names used by historical regimes on the Korean Peninsula. Several of these regimes officially adopted the era names of China; in such instances, the Chinese renditions of the era names are stated in parentheses.

GoguryeoEdit

Era name Period of use Length of use Remark
King Gwanggaeto of Goguryeo
(r. 391–413 CE)
Yeonglak
永樂
영락
391–412 CE 22 years
King Jangsu of Goguryeo
(r. 413–491 CE)
Yeonsu
延壽
연수
451 CE–? Unknown
Disputed usage
Yeonggang
永康
영강
Unknown Unknown The 7th year of Yeonggang might be 396 CE, 418 CE, 483 CE, or 551 CE.
Geonheung
建興
건흥
Unknown Unknown The 5th year of Geonheung might be 476 CE, 536 CE, or 596 CE.
Yeon-ga
延嘉
연가
Unknown Unknown The 7th year of Yeon-ga might be 479 CE or 539 CE.

SillaEdit

Era name Period of use Length of use Remark
King Beopheung of Silla
(r. 514–540 CE)
Geon-won
建元
건원
536–551 CE 16 years Usage continued by King Jinheung of Silla upon his ascension to the throne.
King Jinheung of Silla
(r. 540–576 CE)
Gaeguk
開國
개국
551–568 CE 18 years
Daechang
大昌
대창
568–571 CE 3 years
Hongje
鴻濟
홍제
572–584 CE 12 years Usage continued by King Jinji of Silla and King Jinpyeong of Silla upon their ascension to the throne.
King Jinpyeong of Silla
(r. 579–632 CE)
Geonbok
建福
건복
584–634 CE 51 years Usage continued by Queen Seondeok of Silla upon her ascension to the throne.
Queen Seondeok of Silla
(r. 632–647 CE)
Inpyeong
仁平
인평
634–647 CE 14 years Usage continued by Queen Jindeok of Silla upon her ascension to the throne.
Queen Jindeok of Silla
(r. 647–654 CE)
Taehwa
太和
태화
647–650 CE 4 years
Yeonghwi (Yonghui)
永徽
영휘
650–654 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Muyeol of Silla
(r. 654–661 CE)
Yeonghwi (Yonghui)
永徽
영휘
654–655 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Hyeongyeong (Xianqing)
顯慶
현경
656–661 CE 6 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yongsag (Longshuo)
龍朔
용삭
661 CE 5 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Munmu of Silla
(r. 661–681 CE)
Yongsak (Longshuo)
龍朔
용삭
661–663 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Indeog (Linde)
麟德
인덕
664–665 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Geonbong (Qianfeng)
乾封
건봉
666–668 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Chongjang (Zongzhang)
總章
총장
668–670 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Hamhyeong (Xianheng)
咸亨
함형
670–674 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Sang-won (Shangyuan)
上元
상원
674–676 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Uibong (Yifeng)
儀鳳
의봉
676–679 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Jolo (Tiaolu)
調露
조로
679–680 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yeonglyung (Yonglong)
永隆
영륭
680–681 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Sinmun of Silla
(r. 681–692 CE)
Yeonglyung (Yonglong)
永隆
영륭
681 CE 3 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gaeyo (Kaiyao)
開耀
개요
681–682 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yeongsun (Yongchun)
永淳
영순
682–683 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Hongdo (Hongdao)
弘道
홍도
683 CE 1 month Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Saseong (Sisheng)
嗣聖
사성
684 CE 2 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Munmyeong (Wenming)
文明
문명
684 CE 10 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Sugong (Chuigong)
垂拱
수공
685–688 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yeongchang (Yongchang)
永昌
영창
689 CE 11 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Jaecho (Zaichu)
載初
재초
689–690 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Cheonsu (Tianshou)
天授
천수
690–692 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Yeoui (Ruyi)
如意
여의
692 CE 4 months Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
King Hyoso of Silla
(r. 692–702 CE)
Yeoui (Ruyi)
如意
여의
692 CE 3 months Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Jangsu (Changshou)
長壽
장수
692–694 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Yeonjae (Yanzai)
延載
연재
694 CE 8 months Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Jeungseong (Zhengsheng)
證聖
증성
695–696 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Mansetongcheon (Wansuitongtian)
萬歲通天
만세통천
696–697 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Singong (Shengong)
神功
신공
697 CE 4 months Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Seonglyeog (Shengli)
聖曆
성력
698–700 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Gusi (Jiushi)
久視
구시
700–701 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Daejok (Dazu)
大足
대족
701 CE 10 months Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Jang-an (Chang'an)
長安
장안
701–702 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
King Seongdeok of Silla
(r. 702–737 CE)
Jang-an (Chang'an)
長安
장안
702–704 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Sinlyong (Shenlong)
神龍
신룡
705–707 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty and Tang dynasty of China.
Gyeonglyong (Jinglong)
景龍
경룡
707–710 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Danglyung (Tanglong)
唐隆
당륭
710 CE 2 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gyeong-un (Jingyun)
景雲
경운
710–712 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Taegeuk (Taiji)
太極
태극
712 CE 4 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yeonhwa (Yanhe)
延和
연화
712 CE 4 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gaewon (Kaiyuan)
開元
개원
713–737 CE 25 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Hyoseong of Silla
(r. 737–742 CE)
Gaewon (Kaiyuan)
開元
개원
737–741 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Cheonbo (Tianbao)
天寶
천보
742 CE 5 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Gyeongdeok of Silla
(r. 742–765 CE)
Cheonbo (Tianbao)
天寶
천보
742–756 CE 15 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Jideok (Zhide)
至德
지덕
757–758 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Geon-won (Qianyuan)
乾元
건원
758–760 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Sang-won (Shangyuan)
上元
상원
760–761 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Bo-eung (Baoying)
寶應
보응
762–763 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gwangdeok (Guangde)
廣德
광덕
764 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yeongtae (Yongtai)
永泰
영태
765 CE 6 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Hyegong of Silla
(r. 765–780 CE)
Yeongtae (Yongtai)
永泰
영태
765–766 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Daelyeok (Dali)
大曆
대력
766–779 CE 14 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Geonjung (Jianzhong)
建中
건중
780 CE 4 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Seondeok of Silla
(r. 780–785 CE)
Geonjung (Jianzhong)
建中
건중
780–783 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Heung-won (Xingyuan)
興元
흥원
784 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Jeong-won (Zhenyuan)
貞元
정원
785 CE 1 month Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Wonseong of Silla
(r. 785–798 CE)
Jeong-won (Zhenyuan)
貞元
정원
785–798 CE 14 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Soseong of Silla
(r. 798–800 CE)
Jeong-won (Zhenyuan)
貞元
정원
799–800 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Aejang of Silla
(r. 800–809 CE)
Jeong-won (Zhenyuan)
貞元
정원
800–805 CE 6 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yeongjeong (Yongzhen)
永貞
영정
805 CE 5 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Wonhwa (Yuanhe)
元和
원화
806–809 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Heondeok of Silla
(r. 809–826 CE)
Wonhwa (Yuanhe)
元和
원화
809–820 CE 12 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Jang-gyeong (Changqing)
長慶
장경
821–824 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Bolyeok (Baoli)
寶曆
보력
825–826 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Heungdeok of Silla
(r. 826–836 CE)
Bolyeog (Baoli)
寶曆
보력
826–827 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Daehwa (Dahe)
大和
대화
827–835 CE 9 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gaeseong (Kaicheng)
開成
개성
836 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Huigang of Silla
(r. 836–838 CE)
Gaeseong (Kaicheng)
開成
개성
836–838 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Minae of Silla
(r. 838–839 CE)
Gaeseong (Kaicheng)
開成
개성
838–839 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Sinmu of Silla
(r. 839 CE)
Gaeseong (Kaicheng)
開成
개성
839 CE 7 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Munseong of Silla
(r. 839–857 CE)
Gaeseong (Kaicheng)
開成
개성
839–840 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Hoechang (Huichang)
會昌
회창
841–846 CE 6 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Daejung (Dazhong)
大中
대중
847–857 CE 11 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Heonan of Silla
(r. 857–861 CE)
Daejung (Dazhong)
大中
대중
857–860 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Hamtong (Xiantong)
咸通
함통
860–861 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Gyeongmun of Silla
(r. 861–875 CE)
Hamtong (Xiantong)
咸通
함통
861–875 CE 15 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Geonbu (Qianfu)
乾符
건부
875 CE 6 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Heongang of Silla
(r. 875–886 CE)
Geonbu (Qianfu)
乾符
건부
875–879 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gwangmyeong (Guangming)
廣明
광명
880–882 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Junghwa (Zhonghe)
中和
중화
882–886 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gwang-gye (Guangqi)
光啓
광계
886 CE 2 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Jeonggang of Silla
(r. 886–887 CE)
Gwang-gye (Guangqi)
光啓
광계
886–887 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Queen Jinseong of Silla
(r. 887–897 CE)
Gwang-gye (Guangqi)
光啓
광계
887–888 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Mundeok (Wende)
文德
문덕
888 CE 11 months Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yong-gi (Longji)
龍紀
광계
889 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Daesun (Dashun)
大順
대순
890–892 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gyeongbok (Jingfu)
景福
경복
893 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Geonnyeong (Qianning)
乾寧
건녕
894–897 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Hyogong of Silla
(r. 897–912 CE)
Geonnyeong (Qianning)
乾寧
건녕
897–898 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gwanghwa (Guanghua)
光化
광화
898–901 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Cheonbok (Tianfu)
天復
천복
901–904 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Cheon-u (Tianyou)
天祐
천우
904–907 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gaepyeong (Kaiping)
開平
개평
907–911 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
Geonhwa (Qianhua)
乾化
건화
911–912 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
King Sindeok of Silla
(r. 912–917 CE)
Geonhwa (Qianhua)
乾化
건화
912–913 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
Bonglyeok (Fengli)
鳳曆
봉력
913 CE 2 months Adopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
Geonhwa (Qianhua)
乾化
건화
913–915 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
Jeongmyeong (Zhenming)
貞明
정명
915–917 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
King Gyeongmyeong of Silla
(r. 917–924 CE)
Jeongmyeong (Zhenming)
貞明
정명
917–921 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
Yongdeok (Zhenming)
龍德
용덕
921–923 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
Dong-gwang (Tongguang)
同光
동광
923–924 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
King Gyeongae of Silla
(r. 924–927 CE)
Dong-gwang (Tongguang)
同光
동광
924–926 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Cheonseong (Tiancheng)
天成
천성
926–927 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
King Gyeongsun of Silla
(r. 927–935 CE)
Cheonseong (Tiancheng)
天成
천성
927–930 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Jangheung (Changxing)
長興
장흥
930–933 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Eungsun (Yingshun)
應順
응순
934 CE 4 months Adopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Cheongtae (Qingtai)
淸泰
청태
934–935 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.

Other regimes contemporaneous with SillaEdit

Era name Period of use Length of use Remark
Kim Heon-chang
(r. 822 CE)
Gyeong-un
慶雲
경운
822–825 CE 4 years Usage continued by Kim Beop-mun upon his ascension to the throne.

BalhaeEdit

Era name Period of use Length of use Remark
King Mu of Balhae
(r. 719–737 CE)
Inan
仁安
인안
720–737 CE 18 years Usage might be from 718 CE to 737 CE, for a total length of 20 years; or from 719 CE to 737 CE, for a total length of 19 years.
King Mun of Balhae
(r. 737–793 CE)
Daeheung
大興
대흥
738–794 CE 57 years Usage might be from 737 CE to 774 CE, then from 786 CE to 793 CE, for a total length of 45 years; or from 737 CE to 774 CE, then from 785 CE to 793 CE, for a total length of 46 years.
Boryeok
寶曆
보력
774–785 CE 12 years Usage might be from 774 CE to 786 CE, for a total length of 13 years. Subsequently, reverted to Daeheung (大興; 대흥).
King Seong of Balhae
(r. 793–794 CE)
Jungheung
中興
중흥
794 CE 1 year
King Gang of Balhae
(r. 794–809 CE)
Jeongnyeok
正曆
정력
795–809 CE 15 years Usage might be from 794 CE to 808 CE, for a total length of 15 years; or from 795 CE to 807 CE, for a total length of 13 years.
King Jeong of Balhae
(r. 809–812 CE)
Yeongdeok
永德
영덕
810–812 CE 3 years Usage might be from 808 CE to 812 CE, for a total length of 5 years; or from 808 CE to 811 CE, for a total length of 4 years.
King Hui of Balhae
(r. 812–817 CE)
Jujak
朱雀
주작
813–817 CE 5 years Usage might be from 812 CE to 817 CE, for a total length of 6 years; or from 812 CE to 816 CE, for a total length of 5 years.
King Gan of Balhae
(r. 817–818 CE)
Taesi
太始
태시
818 CE 1 year Usage might be from 813 CE to 817 CE, for a total length of 5 years; or from 817 CE to 818 CE, for a total length of 2 years.
King Seon of Balhae
(r. 818–830 CE)
Geonheung
建興
건흥
819–830 CE 12 years Usage might be from 818 CE to 830 CE, for a total length of 13 years.
Dae Ijin
(r. 830–857 CE)
Hamhwa
咸和
함화
831–857 CE 27 years

Later BaekjeEdit

Era name Period of use Length of use Remark
Gyeon Hwon
(r. 892–935 CE)
Jeonggae
正開
정개
900–936 CE 37 years Usage continued by Gyeon Singeom upon his ascension to the throne.

TaebongEdit

Era name Period of use Length of use Remark
Gung Ye
(r. 901–918 CE)
Mutae
武泰
무태
904–905 CE 2 years
Seongchaek
聖冊
성책
905–911 CE 7 years
Sudeokmanse
水德萬歲
수덕만세
911–914 CE 4 years
Jeonggae
政開
정개
914–918 CE 5 years

GoryeoEdit

Era name Period of use Length of use Remark
King Taejo of Goryeo
(r. 918–943 CE)
Cheonsu
天授
천수
918–933 CE 16 years
Jangheung (Changxing)
長興
장흥
933 CE 10 months Adopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Eungsun (Yingshun)
應順
응순
934 CE 4 months Adopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Cheongtae (Qingtai)
淸泰
청태
934–938 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Cheonbok (Tianfu)
天福
천복
938–943 CE 6 years Adopted the era name of the Later Jin dynasty of China.
King Hyejong of Goryeo
(r. 943–945 CE)
Cheonbok (Tianfu)
天福
천복
944 CE 7 months Adopted the era name of the Later Jin dynasty of China.
Gaeun (Kaiyun)
開運
개운
944–945 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Later Jin dynasty of China.
King Jeongjong of Goryeo
(r. 945–949 CE)
Gaeun (Kaiyun)
開運
개운
946–948 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Later Jin dynasty of China.
Geon-u (Qianyou)
乾祐
건우
948–949 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Later Han dynasty of China.
King Gwangjong of Goryeo
(r. 949–975 CE)
Gwangdeok
光德
광덕
949–952 CE 4 years
Gwangsun (Guangshun)
廣順
광순
952–954 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Later Zhou dynasty of China.
Hyeondeok (Xiande)
顯德
현덕
954–960 CE 7 years Adopted the era name of the Later Zhou dynasty of China.
Junpung
峻豊
준풍
960–963 CE 4 years
Geondeok (Qiande)
乾德
건덕
963–968 CE 6 years Adopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Gaebo (Kaibao)
開寶
개보
968–975 CE 8 years Adopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
King Gyeongjong of Goryeo
(r. 975–981 CE)
Gaebo (Kaibao)
開寶
개보
976 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Taepyeongheung-gug (Taipingxingguo)
太平興國
태평흥국
976–981 CE 6 years Adopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
King Seongjong of Goryeo
(r. 981–997 CE)
Taepyeongheung-gug (Taipingxingguo)
太平興國
태평흥국
982–984 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Onghui (Yongxi)
雍熙
옹희
984–987 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Dangong (Duangong)
端拱
단공
988–989 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Sunhwa (Chunhua)
淳化
순화
990–994 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Tonghwa (Tonghe)
統和
통화
994–997 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Mokjong of Goryeo
(r. 997–1009 CE)
Tonghwa (Tonghe)
統和
통화
998–1009 CE 12 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Hyeonjong of Goryeo
(r. 1009–1031 CE)
Tonghwa (Tonghe)
統和
통화
1010–1012 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Gaetae (Kaitai)
開泰
개태
1012–1015 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Daejungsangbu (Dazhongxiangfu)
大中祥符
대중상부
1016 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Cheonhui (Tianxi)
天禧
천희
1017–1022 CE 6 years Adopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Geonheung (Qianxing)
乾興
건흥
1022 CE 3 months Adopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Taepyeong (Taiping)
太平
태평
1022–1031 CE 10 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Deokjong of Goryeo
(r. 1031–1034 CE)
Taepyeong (Taiping)
太平
태평
1032–1034 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Jeongjong of Goryeo
(r. 1034–1046 CE)
Taepyeong (Taiping)
太平
태평
1035–1038 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Junghui (Chongxi)
重熙
태평
1038–1046 CE 9 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Munjong of Goryeo
(r. 1046–1083 CE)
Junghui (Chongxi)
重熙
태평
1047–1055 CE 9 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Cheongnyeong (Qingning)
淸寧
청녕
1055–1064 CE 10 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Ham-ong (Xianyong)
咸雍
함옹
1065–1074 CE 10 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Daegang (Dakang)
大康
대강
1075–1082 CE 8 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Sunjong of Goryeo
(r. 1083 CE)
Daegang (Dakang)
大康
대강
1083 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Seonjong of Goryeo
(r. 1083–1094 CE)
Daegang (Dakang)
大康
대강
1084 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Daean (Da'an)
大安
대안
1085–1094 CE 10 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Heonjong of Goryeo
(r. 1094–1095 CE)
Suchang (Shouchang)
壽昌
수창
1095 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Sukjong of Goryeo
(r. 1095–1105 CE)
Suchang (Shouchang)
壽昌
수창
1096–1101 CE 6 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Geontong (Qiantong)
乾統
건통
1101–1105 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Yejong of Goryeo
(r. 1105–1122 CE)
Geontong (Qiantong)
乾統
건통
1106–1110 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Cheongyeong (Tianqing)
天慶
천경
1111–1116 CE 6 years Adopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Injong of Goryeo
(r. 1122–1146 CE)
Hwangtong (Huangtong)
皇統
황통
1141–1146 CE 6 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Uijong of Goryeo
(r. 1146–1170 CE)
Hwangtong (Huangtong)
皇統
황통
1147–1149 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Cheondeok (Tiande)
天德
천덕
1149–1153 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Jeong-won (Zhenyuan)
貞元
정원
1153–1156 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Jeonglyung (Zhenglong)
正隆
정륭
1156–1161 CE 6 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Daejeong (Dading)
大定
대정
1161–1170 CE 10 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Myeongjong of Goryeo
(r. 1170–1197 CE)
Daejeong (Dading)
大定
대정
1171–1189 CE 19 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Myeongchang (Mingchang)
明昌
명창
1190–1196 CE 7 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Seung-an (Cheng'an)
承安
승안
1196–1197 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Sinjong of Goryeo
(r. 1197–1204 CE)
Seung-an (Cheng'an)
承安
승안
1198–1200 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Taehwa (Taihe)
泰和
태화
1201–1204 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Huijong of Goryeo
(r. 1204–1211 CE)
Taehwa (Taihe)
泰和
태화
1205–1208 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Daean (Da'an)
大安
대안
1209–1211 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Gangjong of Goryeo
(r. 1211–1213 CE)
Sung-gyeong (Chongqing)
崇慶
숭경
1212–1213 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Jinyeong (Zhining)
至寧
지녕
1213 CE 5 months Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Jeong-u (Zhenyou)
貞祐
정우
1213 CE 3 months Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Gojong of Goryeo
(r. 1213–1259 CE)
Jeong-u (Zhenyou)
貞祐
정우
1214–1224 CE 11 years Adopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Wonjong of Goryeo
(r. 1260–1274 CE)
Jungtong (Zhongtong)
中統
중통
1260–1264 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Jiwon (Zhiyuan)
至元
지원
1264–1274 CE 11 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chungnyeol of Goryeo
(r. 1274–1308 CE)
Jiwon (Zhiyuan)
至元
지원
1275–1294 CE 20 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Wonjeong (Yuanzhen)
元貞
원정
1295–1297 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Daedeok (Dade)
大德
대덕
1297–1307 CE 11 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Jidae (Zhida)
至大
지대
1308 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chungseon of Goryeo
(r. 1308–1313 CE)
Jidae (Zhida)
至大
지대
1309–1311 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Hwang-gyeong (Huangqing)
皇慶
황경
1312–1313 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chungsuk of Goryeo
(r. 1313–1330 CE; first reign)
Yeon-u (Yanyou)
延祐
연우
1314–1320 CE 7 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Jichi (Zhizhi)
至治
지치
1321–1323 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Taejeong (Taiding)
泰定
태정
1324–1328 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Chihwa (Zhihe)
致和
치화
1328 CE 8 months Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Cheonsun (Tianshun)
天順
천순
1328 CE 1 month Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Cheonlyeok (Tianli)
天曆
천력
1328–1330 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Jisun (Zhishun)
至順
지순
1330 CE 8 months Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chunghye of Goryeo
(r. 1330–1332 CE; first reign)
Jisun (Zhishun)
至順
지순
1331–1332 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chungsuk of Goryeo
(r. 1332–1339 CE; second reign)
Jisun (Zhishun)
至順
지순
1332–1333 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Wontong (Yuantong)
元統
원통
1333–1335 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Jiwon (Zhiyuan)
至元
지원
1335–1339 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chunghye of Goryeo
(r. 1339–1344 CE; second reign)
Jiwon (Zhiyuan)
至元
지원
1340 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Jijeong (Zhizheng)
至正
지정
1341–1344 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chungmok of Goryeo
(r. 1344–1348 CE)
Jijeong (Zhizheng)
至正
지정
1345–1348 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chungjeong of Goryeo
(r. 1349–1351 CE)
Jijeong (Zhizheng)
至正
지정
1349–1351 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Gongmin of Goryeo
(r. 1351–1374 CE)
Jijeong (Zhizheng)
至正
지정
1352–1369 CE 18 years Adopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty and Northern Yuan dynasty of China.
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1370–1374 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Wang U
(r. 1374–1388 CE)
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1375–1377 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Seongwang (Xuanguang)
宣光
선광
1377–1378 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Northern Yuan dynasty of China.
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1378–1388 CE 11 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Wang Chang
(r. 1388–1389 CE)
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1388–1389 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Gongyang of Goryeo
(r. 1389–1392 CE)
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1389–1392 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.

Other regimes contemporaneous with GoryeoEdit

Era name Period of use Length of use Remark
Myocheong
(r. 1135 CE)
Cheongae
天開
천개
1135 CE 1 year

JoseonEdit

Era name Period of use Length of use Remark
King Taejo of Joseon
(r. 1392–1398 CE)
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1392–1398 CE 7 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Jeongjong of Joseon
(r. 1398–1400 CE)
Geonmun (Jianwen)
建文
건문
1399–1400 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Taejong of Joseon
(r. 1400–1418 CE)
Geonmun (Jianwen)
建文
건문
1401–1402 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1402 CE 7 months Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Yeonglak (Yongle)
永樂
영락
1403–1418 CE 16 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Sejong of Joseon
(r. 1418–1450 CE)
Yeonglak (Yongle)
永樂
영락
1419–1424 CE 6 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Honghui (Hongxi)
洪熙
홍희
1425 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Seondeok (Xuande)
宣德
선덕
1426–1435 CE 10 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Jeongtong (Zhengtong)
正統
정통
1436–1449 CE 14 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Gyeongtae (Jingtai)
景泰
경태
1450 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Munjong of Joseon
(r. 1450–1452 CE)
Gyeongtae (Jingtai)
景泰
경태
1451–1452 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Danjong of Joseon
(r. 1452–1455 CE)
Gyeongtae (Jingtai)
景泰
경태
1453–1455 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Sejo of Joseon
(r. 1455–1468 CE)
Gyeongtae (Jingtai)
景泰
경태
1455–1457 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Cheonsun (Tianshun)
天順
천순
1457–1464 CE 8 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Seonghwa (Chenghua)
成化
성화
1465–1468 CE 4 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Yejong of Joseon
(r. 1468–1469 CE)
Seonghwa (Chenghua)
成化
성화
1469 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Seongjong of Joseon
(r. 1469–1494 CE)
Seonghwa (Chenghua)
成化
성화
1470–1487 CE 18 year Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Hongchi (Hongzhi)
弘治
홍치
1488–1494 CE 7 year Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Yi Yung
(r. 1494–1506 CE)
Hongchi (Hongzhi)
弘治
홍치
1495–1505 CE 11 year Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Jeongdeok (Zhengde)
正德
정덕
1506 CE 9 months Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Jungjong of Joseon
(r. 1506–1544 CE)
Jeongdeok (Zhengde)
正德
정덕
1506–1521 CE 16 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Gajeong (Jiajing)
嘉靖
가정
1522–1544 CE 23 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Injong of Joseon
(r. 1544–1545 CE)
Gajeong (Jiajing)
嘉靖
가정
1545 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Myeongjong of Joseon
(r. 1545–1567 CE)
Gajeong (Jiajing)
嘉靖
가정
1546–1566 CE 21 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Yung-gyeong (Longqing)
隆慶
융경
1567 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Seonjo of Joseon
(r. 1567–1608 CE)
Yung-gyeong (Longqing)
隆慶
융경
1568–1572 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Manlyeok (Wanli)
萬曆
만력
1573–1608 CE 36 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Yi Hon
(r. 1608–1623 CE)
Manlyeok (Wanli)
萬曆
만력
1609–1620 CE 12 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Taechang (Taichang)
泰昌
태창
1620–1621 CE 4 months Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Cheongye (Tianqi)
天啓
천계
1621–1623 CE 3 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Injo of Joseon
(r. 1623–1649 CE)
Cheongye (Tianqi)
天啓
천계
1623–1627 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Sungjeong (Chongzhen)
崇禎
숭정
1628–1637 CE 10 years Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China. Usage continued informally within the Joseon royal court after 1637 CE well into the 19th century CE.[5]
Sungdeok (Chongde)
崇德
숭덕
1537–1643 CE 7 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Sunchi (Shunzhi)
順治
순치
1644–1649 CE 6 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Hyojong of Joseon
(r. 1649–1659 CE)
Sunchi (Shunzhi)
順治
순치
1650–1659 CE 10 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Hyeonjong of Joseon
(r. 1659–1674 CE)
Sunchi (Shunzhi)
順治
순치
1660–1661 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Ganghui (Kangxi)
康熙
강희
1662–1674 CE 13 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Sukjong of Joseon
(r. 1674–1720 CE)
Ganghui (Kangxi)
康熙
강희
1675–1720 CE 46 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Gyeongjong of Joseon
(r. 1720–1724 CE)
Ganghui (Kangxi)
康熙
강희
1721–1722 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Ongjeong (Yongzheng)
雍正
옹정
1723–1724 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Yeongjo of Joseon
(r. 1724–1776 CE)
Ongjeong (Yongzheng)
雍正
옹정
1725–1735 CE 11 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Geonlyung (Qianlong)
乾隆
건륭
1736–1776 CE 41 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Jeongjo of Joseon
(r. 1776–1800 CE)
Geonlyung (Qianlong)
乾隆
건륭
1777–1795 CE 19 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Gagyeong (Jiaqing)
嘉慶
가경
1796–1800 CE 5 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Sunjo of Joseon
(r. 1800–1834 CE)
Gagyeong (Jiaqing)
嘉慶
가경
1801–1820 CE 20 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Dogwang (Daoguang)
道光
도광
1821–1834 CE 14 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Heonjong of Joseon
(r. 1834–1849 CE)
Dogwang (Daoguang)
道光
도광
1835–1849 CE 15 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Cheoljong of Joseon
(r. 1849–1864 CE)
Dogwang (Daoguang)
道光
도광
1850 CE 1 year Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Hampung (Xianfeng)
咸豊
함풍
1851–1861 CE 11 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Dongchi (Tongzhi)
同治
동치
1862–1863 CE 2 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Gojong of Joseon
(r. 1864–1897 CE; as King of Joseon)
Dongchi (Tongzhi)
同治
동치
1864–1874 CE 10 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Gwangseo (Guangxu)
光緖
광서
1875–1894 CE 20 years Adopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Gaeguk
開國
개국
1894–1895 CE 2 years The 1st year of Gaeguk was officially taken to be 1392 CE; 1894 CE was therefore the 503rd year of Gaeguk.
Geon-yang
建陽
건양
1896–1897 CE 2 years

Korean EmpireEdit

Era name Period of use Length of use Remark
Emperor Gojong of Korea
(r. 1897–1907 CE; as Emperor of Korean Empire)
Gwangmu
光武
광무
1897–1907 CE 11 years
Emperor Sunjong of Korea
(r. 1907–1910 CE)
Yunghui
隆熙
융희
1907–1910 CE 4 years

Korea under Japanese ruleEdit

Era name Period of use Length of use Remark
Meiji
明治
메이지
1910–1912 CE 3 years Era name of the Emperor Meiji. 1910 CE was the 43rd year of Meiji.
Taishō
大正
다이쇼
1912–1926 CE 15 years Era name of the Emperor Taishō.
Shōwa
昭和
쇼와
1926–1945 CE 20 years Era name of the Emperor Shōwa.

Modern era systemsEdit

Republic of KoreaEdit

  1. Daehan minguk (대한민국, 大韓民國 "Great Korean Republic" : 1948)
  2. Dangun-giwon (단군기원, 檀君紀元 "First Age of Lord Dangun" : 1948–1961)
  3. Seoryeok-giwon (서력기원, 西曆紀元 "Age of Seoryeok", i.e. Age of the Western calendar, 1962-)

Democratic People's Republic of KoreaEdit

  1. Juche (주체, 主體 : 1912-)

The North Korean government and associated organizations use a variation of the Gregorian calendar with a Juche year based on April 15, 1912 CE, the date of birth of Kim Il-sung, as year 1. There is no Juche year 0. The calendar was introduced in 1997. Months are unchanged from those in the standard Gregorian calendar. In many instances, the Juche year is given after the CE year, for example, 18 September 2021 Juche 110. But in North Korean publications, the Juche year is usually placed before the corresponding CE year, as in Juche 110 (2021).

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lü, Zongli (2003). Power of the words: Chen prophecy in Chinese politics, AD 265-618. ISBN 9783906769561.
  2. ^ a b Sogner, Sølvi (2001). Making Sense of Global History: The 19th International Congress of the Historical Sciences, Oslo 2000, Commemorative Volume. ISBN 9788215001067.
  3. ^ "International Congress of Historical Sciences". International Congress of Historical Sciences. 19. 2000. ISBN 9788299561419. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  4. ^ "Ancient tradition carries forward with Japan's new era". Retrieved 29 December 2019.
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