Hoop Dreams is a 1994 American documentary film directed by Steve James, and produced by Frederick Marx, James, and Peter Gilbert, with Kartemquin Films. It follows the story of two African-American high school students, William Gates and Arthur Agee, in Chicago and their dream of becoming professional basketball players.
|Directed by||Steve James|
|Music by||Ben Sidran|
|Distributed by||Fine Line Features|
|Box office||$11.8 million|
Originally intended to be a 30-minute short film produced for the Public Broadcasting Service, it eventually led to five years of filming and 250 hours of footage. It premiered at the 1994 Sundance Film Festival where it won the Audience Award for Best Documentary. It was only the second documentary film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Film Editing (the first being Woodstock). Despite its length (171 minutes) and unlikely commercial genre, it received high critical and popular acclaim, and grossed over $11 million worldwide. It was #1 on the Current TV special 50 Documentaries to See Before You Die. In 2005, Hoop Dreams was included in the annual selection of 25 motion pictures added to the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" and recommended for preservation.
The film follows Gates and Agee, two African-American teenagers who are recruited by a scout from St. Joseph High School in Westchester, Illinois, a predominantly white high school with an outstanding basketball program. The team was led by Gene Pingatore, who coached National Basketball Association (NBA) Hall of Fame player Isiah Thomas.
Taking 90-minute commutes to school, enduring long and difficult workouts and practices, and having to acclimate to a foreign social environment, Gates and Agee struggle to improve their athletic skills in a job market with heavy competition. Along the way, their families celebrate their successes and support each other during times of economic hardship caused from the school change.
Seed money for Hoop Dreams came from several sources, including the National Endowment for the Arts, PBS, and PBS member station KTCA in Minnesota. Kartemquin Films of Chicago is credited as a production organization along with KTCA. The film was given as an example to defend the level of U.S. government funding of PBS, which was reduced in the following years.
The film was originally intended by filmmakers Peter Gilbert, Steve James, and Frederick Marx to be a 30-minute short, shot in three weeks, to be aired on PBS, focusing on one playground court and its young players. The filmmakers followed the children back to their homes, and after nearly eight years, and with over 250 hours of raw footage, a 30-minute PBS special turned into a three-hour feature film on the lives of Gates and Agee, while grossing $7.8 million.
At one point, the electricity was turned off in the Agee home; the filmmakers continued filming and (off-camera) provided money for the lights to be turned back on.
Without any money, the crew shot five days in the summer going into freshman year, seven days of freshman year and 10 days of sophomore year. Once demo reels were released, the filmmakers began to hear back positive results and gain funds. CPB funded $70,000 and KTCA gave another $60,000, MacArthur funded $250,000. With their large funds, the crew shot 40 days junior year, and shot 100 days between the summer of junior year and the end of the film.
The film was universally acclaimed by critics. Gene Siskel and Roger Ebert gave the film "Two Thumbs Up" on their show, with both critics naming Hoop Dreams the best film of 1994. Ebert in his initial television review proclaimed "This is one of the best films about American life that I have ever seen", and later called it the best film of the decade  and "one of the great moviegoing experiences of my lifetime." In 2004, The New York Times placed the film on its Best 1000 Movies Ever list. The film has a 98% approval rating from Rotten Tomatoes, based on 55 reviews with an average rating of 8.7/10. The website's critical consensus states, "One of the most critically acclaimed documentaries of all time, Hoop Dreams is a rich, complex, heartbreaking, and ultimately deeply rewarding film that uses high school hoops as a jumping-off point to explore issues of race, class, and education in modern America."
- 1st – Gene Siskel, The Chicago Tribune
- 1st — Roger Ebert, Chicago Sun Times
- 1st – Kenneth Turan, Los Angeles Times
- 1st – Stephen Hunter, The Baltimore Sun
- 1st – Mack Bates, The Milwaukee Journal
- 2nd – Janet Maslin, The New York Times
- 2nd – Steve Persall, St. Petersburg Times
- 3rd – Peter Travers, Rolling Stone
- 3rd – Douglas Armstrong, The Milwaukee Journal
- 3rd – Robert Denerstein, Rocky Mountain News
- 3rd – Todd Anthony, Miami New Times
- 3rd – Sean P. Means, The Salt Lake Tribune
- 4th – Desson Howe, The Washington Post
- 4th – Yardena Arar, Los Angeles Daily News
- 6th – Michael Mills, The Palm Beach Post
- 9th – Peter Rainer, Los Angeles Times
- 10th – Glenn Lovell, San Jose Mercury News
- Top 7 (not ranked) – Duane Dudek, Milwaukee Sentinel
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically, not ranked) – Eleanor Ringel, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically, not ranked) – Steve Murray, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically, not ranked) – Mike Clark, USA Today
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically, not ranked) – William Arnold, Seattle Post-Intelligencer
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically, not ranked) – Jeff Simon, The Buffalo News
- Top 10 (not ranked) – Betsy Pickle, Knoxville News-Sentinel
- Top 10 (not ranked) – Howie Movshovitz, The Denver Post
- Honorable mention – David Elliott, The San Diego Union-Tribune
Academy Awards controversyEdit
When the film, along with the equally acclaimed Crumb a year later, was not nominated in the Best Documentary category of the Academy Awards, public outcry led to a revised nomination process in the category, led by Oscar-winning documentarian Barbara Kopple. According to an angry Roger Ebert, reliable sources said members of the Academy's documentary nomination committee had a system in which one would wave a flashlight on screen when they gave up on the film. When a majority of the lights flashed, the film was turned off. Hoop Dreams did not even make it to 20 minutes. Siskel, while also objecting to Hoop Dreams being passed by for the nomination, said that it led to more widespread media coverage of the film.
Bruce Davis, the Academy's executive director, took the unprecedented step of asking accounting firm Price Waterhouse to turn over the complete results of the voting, in which members of the committee had rated each of the 63 eligible documentaries on a scale of zero to ten. "What I found," said Davis, "is that a small group of members gave zeros to every single film except the five they wanted to see nominated. And they gave tens to those five, which completely skewed the voting. There was one film that received more scores of ten than any other, but it was not nominated. It also got zeros from those few voters, and that was enough to push it to sixth place."
Freida Lee Mock, the director of the winning film Maya Lin: A Strong Clear Vision, was accused by the press (which she recalled was unpleasant, exhausting and stressful) of cronyism who said that the award should've belong to the popular Hoop Dreams and having served several terms as Chairman on the screening committee while praising the film. Ebert apologized to the director after seeing the film.
- 1994 Sundance Film Festival: Audience Award for Best Documentary
- 1994 Los Angeles Film Critics Association: Best Documentary
- 1994 Chicago Film Critics Award: Best Picture
- 1994 Producers Guild of America: Special Merit
- 1994 Academy Award Nomination: Best Editing
- 1995 George Foster Peabody Award
- 1995 Robert F. Kennedy Journalism Award
- National Society of Film Critics: Best Documentary
- New York Film Critics Circle: Best Documentary
- Directors Guild of America: Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Documentary
- National Film Registry inductee (2005)
In 2007, the International Documentary Association named Hoop Dreams as its selection for the all-time greatest documentary.
Neither Agee nor Gates were drafted into the NBA. Nonetheless, both young men were able to turn the film's success and their subsequent fame into a better life for themselves and their families. The producers gave both Gates and Agee almost $200,000 in royalties from the film. Agee was able to buy a house with the money while Gates fell on hard times and lost it all. Additionally Arthur Agee, the younger of the two basketball players, launched a foundation promoting higher education for inner-city youth and began the "Hoop Dreams" sportswear line in 2006. Gates was the senior pastor at Living Faith Community Center in Cabrini–Green, where he worked at the Kids' Club.
In 2001, Gates received a telephone call from Michael Jordan. Jordan was getting in shape so he could return to the NBA and play for the Washington Wizards. Initially Gates was invited to practice with Jordan, then Jordan started inviting professional NBA players to raise the level of competition and Gates stopped coming to practice. Jordan called Gates, "Will, we got your spot. I didn't give it away just because these guys showed up." Before Gates had a chance to try out for the Wizards he fractured his foot and decided to retire from basketball permanently.
The families of both men have experienced losses since the release of the film. On Thanksgiving morning 1994, Agee's younger half-brother, DeAntonio, was shot to death at Cabrini-Green. In September 2001, Gates' older brother, Curtis, 36, was shot to death in the Austin neighborhood. Agee's father, Bo, was murdered in 2004.
The story of Hoop Dreams was not over even after the film was released. Cable TV channel TNT planned a remake of the story as a fictional movie for television. A book based on transcripts from all of the interviews conducted was published in the spring of 1996. After the release of the film, William went to Marquette University to play basketball, while Arthur went to play at Arkansas State. However, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) advised the boys and their families they could not accept any money generated by the film without forfeiting their amateur status, which would cause them to lose their university scholarships and would make them ineligible to participate in NCAA-sanctioned intercollegiate athletic activities.
An unofficial sequel not made by the original filmmakers, Hoop Reality (2007), explores what happened during the decade after Hoop Dreams. Patrick Beverley from Chicago's hardscrabble West Side appears as a struggling potential star also at John Marshall Metropolitan High School and is mentored by Agee and basketball coach Lamont Bryant. As a postscript to Hoop Reality, Beverley was picked for the 2009 NBA draft and as of 2021[update] is with the Los Angeles Clippers.
In October and November 2009, a series of events were organized in Chicago to commemorate the 15th anniversary of Hoop Dreams.
20th anniversary restorationEdit
In December 2013, the Sundance Film Festival announced that Hoop Dreams would screen in the "From the Collection" program at the 2014 Sundance Film Festival, 20 years after the film made its world premiere at the 1994 Festival. Filmmakers Steve James, Peter Gilbert and Frederick Marx and subjects Arthur Agee and Sheila Agee attended for the premiere of a new digital restoration that was the collaborative effort of Sundance Institute, UCLA Film & Television Archive, the Academy Film Archive and Kartemquin Films.
Hoop Dreams was shot primarily on analog Beta SP videotape, so the image was cropped and transferred for its commercial release. Working from multiple elements, including standard definition video masters and a 35mm film print, the project team created a new uncropped, high-definition digital master that better represents the pictorial quality of the original videography. Digitally remastered at Modern VideoFilm with sound restoration by Audio Mechanics, this version allows future audiences to see the film as conceived by its filmmakers. Nora Gully managed the restoration project for Kartemquin with archivist Carolyn Faber, working extensively with Ross Lipman, who oversaw the restoration for UCLA.
The restoration then screened at the following 2014 festivals: Full Frame, BAFICI, Dokufest, BFI London Film Festival, Twin Cities Film Festival, Indie Memphis, and DOC NYC. Special celebratory screenings were also held in Los Angeles, Seattle and Chicago.
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