Camposipterus

Camposipterus is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous of England. Fossil remains of Camposipterus dated back to the Early Cretaceous, about 112 million years ago.[1]

Camposipterus
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous, 112 Ma
Camposipterus.jpg
C. nasutus holotype
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Order: Pterosauria
Suborder: Pterodactyloidea
Clade: Lanceodontia
Clade: Ornithocheirae
Clade: Targaryendraconia
Family: Cimoliopteridae
Genus: Camposipterus
Rodrigues & Kellner, 2013
Type species
Ornithocheirus nasutus
Seeley, 1870
Species
  • C. nasutus
    (Seeley, 1870)
  • C.? colorhinus
    (Seeley, 1870)
  • C.? sedgwickii
    (Owen, 1859)
Synonyms
List of synonyms
  • Synonyms of C. nasutus
    Synonyms of C.? colorhinus
    • Ornithocheirus colorhinus
      Seeley, 1870
    Synonyms of C.? sedgwickii

Discovery and namingEdit

 
Holotype of C. sedgwickii, and a lower jaw Owen claimed belonged to the same specimen

In 1869, Harry Govier Seeley, based on a fossil found at Haslingfield, Cambridgeshire, named Ptenodactylus nasutus,[2] at the same time disclaiming the name which makes it invalid by modern standards. In 1870, Seeley had realized that the generic name Ptenodactylus had been preoccupied, so he renamed the species into Ornithocheirus nasutus.[3] The specific name means "with a long nose" in Latin. In 2001, David Unwin made this species a junior subjective synonym of Anhanguera fittoni.[4] However, in 2013, Taissa Rodrigues and Alexander Wilhelm Armin Kellner concluded firstly that Pterodactylus fittoni was not a part of the genus Anhanguera and secondly that Ornithocheirus nasutus was not identical to it regardless. They decided to name a separate genus for the species: Camposipterus.[5] The generic name combines that of the Brazilian paleontologist Diogenes de Almeida Campos with a Latinized Greek πτερόν, pteron, "wing". The resulting new combination name, the combinatio nova, which is Camposipterus nasutus, while the type species remains as Ornithocheirus nasutus.[1]

The holotype, CAMSM B 54556, had been found in a layer of the Cambridge Greensand dating from the Cenomanian but probably containing reworked fossils from the older Albian. It consists of the front part of a snout.[1]

Rodrigues & Kellner in 2013 moved two more species to the genus. They renamed Pterodactylus sedgwickii into Camposipterus(?) sedgwickii and Ornithocheirus colorhinus into Camposipterus(?) colorhinus. The question marks indicate the uncertainty of the authors about the correctness of the move.[1]

Pterodactylus sedgwickii had in 1859 been named by Richard Owen based on specimen CAMSM B54422, the front part of a snout from the Cambridge Greensand. Its specific name honors Adam Sedgwick.[6] It was in 1869 renamed by Seeley into a Ptenodactylus sedgwickii,[2] and in 1870 into a Ornithocheirus sedgwickii.[3] In 1874, Owen again renamed it into Coloborhynchus sedgwickii.[7] Owen in 1859 also referred a front of the lower jaws, specimen CAMSM B54421. However, this piece is not of the same individual as the holotype and there is no proof for any connection with Pterodactylus sedgwickii.[1]

In 1869, Seeley also named a Ptenodactylus colorhinus,[2] in 1870 an Ornithocheirus colorhinus based on the syntypes CAMSM B54431 and CAMSM B54432, both front snouts from the Cambridge Greensand. Its specific name means "with a docked nose" from the Greek κόλος, kolos, "docked", and ῥίς. rhis, "nose".[3] In 2001, Unwin considered this species to be a junior synonym of Anhanguera cuvieri.[4] However, this was not accepted by Rodrigues & Kellner, who, rejecting any identity between the Brazilian and English pterosaur material, named a separate Cimoliopterus cuvieri.[1]

DescriptionEdit

Camposipterus as a cladeEdit

Rodrigues & Kellner treated Camposipterus as a group or clade. No synapomorphies could be established but a unique combination of themselves not unique traits was present. In side view the snout is rounded. The snout bears no crest. The front part of the snout is expanded. The palate curves upwards. The first tooth pair is located in the snout tip.[1]

Each of the species of Camposipterus has its own unique derived traits, autapomorphies, and a unique combination of traits.

Camposipterus nasutusEdit

Rodrigues & Kellner established two autapomorphies of Camposipterus nasutus. At the front of the jaw edge there is a density of three teeth per 3 centimeters (1.2 in), at the rear a density of 2.5 teeth. The snout tip is flat, in front view wider than tall. There is a unique combination of traits: the upper profile of the snout is straight or lightly curved; the midline ridge on the palate is extended forwards until the level of the rear margins of the second tooth pair; to the rear the distance between the teeth gradually increases; the second and third tooth pairs are obliquely pointed sideways; the front of the snout is slightly expanded.[1]

Camposipterus(?) sedgwickiiEdit

 
Holotype of C. sedgwickii and syntype of C. colorhinus

Rodrigues & Kellner established two autapomorphies of Camposipterus(?) sedgwickii. The expanded section of the front snout is suddenly constricted behind the third tooth pair. The tooth sockets of the third tooth pair are much larger than those of the fourth pair. There is a unique combination of traits: the snout is deep; the midline ridge on the palate towards the front reaches a position behind the third tooth pair.[1] This species was reassigned to the genus Aerodraco in 2020.[8]

Camposipterus(?) colorhinusEdit

Rodrigues & Kellner established a single autapomorphy of Camposipterus(?) colorhinus: the depression above the first tooth pair is obliquely directed to below. There is a unique combination of traits: the frontal expansion of the snout is well-developed, without a constriction at its end; there is a depression above the first tooth pair; the second and third tooth sockets have a large diameter; the fourth tooth socket is much smaller than the second and third.[1]

Camposipterus(?) colorhinus has a robust snout tip forming a large rosette to catch slippery prey such as fishes, indicating an animal of considerable size. The depression above the first tooth pair is shared with Uktenadactylus wadleighi, but in this form the depression is horizontally oriented. Seeley speculated that it was the attachment area for a lip but pterosaurs had horny beaks.[1]

PhylogenyEdit

Rodrigues and Kellner assigned Camposipterus to the clade Anhangueria, but incertae sedis, thus in an unknown position. Some cladistic analyses published in the naming article suggested a position in the evolutionary tree above Cimoliopterus and below Cearadactylus atrox.[1] In 2019, Jacobs et al. published a phylogenetic analysis that placed Camposipterus within the family Ornithocheiridae, more specifically the sister taxon of Cimoliopterus.[9] In the same year however, a study by Pêgas et al. placed Camposipterus within the clade Targaryendraconia, and specifically within the family Cimoliopteridae as the sister taxon of both Aetodactylus and Cimoliopterus:[10]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Rodrigues, T.; Kellner, A. (2013). "Taxonomic review of the Ornithocheirus complex (Pterosauria) from the Cretaceous of England". ZooKeys (308): 1–112. doi:10.3897/zookeys.308.5559. PMC 3689139. PMID 23794925.
  2. ^ a b c Seeley, H.G., 1869, Index to the fossil remains of Aves, Ornithosauria, and Reptilia, from the Secondary System of Strata arranged in the Woodwardian Museum of the University of Cambridge. Deighton, Bell and Co., Cambridge, xxiii + 143 pp
  3. ^ a b c Seeley, H.G., 1870, The Ornithosauria: an elementary study of the bones of pterodactyls, made from fossil remains found in the Cambridge Upper Greensand, and arranged in the Woodwardian Museum of the University of Cambridge. Deighton, Bell, and Co., Cambridge, xii + 135 pp
  4. ^ a b Unwin, D.M. (2001). "An overview of the pterosaur assemblage from the Cambridge Greensand (Cretaceous) of Eastern England". Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin, Geowissenschaftliche Reihe. 4: 189–221. doi:10.1002/mmng.4860040112.
  5. ^ Earlier the name "Camposia" had been considered, still appearing in some diagrams of the naming article, but this was preoccupied by the grasshopper Camposia Bolívar 1909
  6. ^ Owen, R., 1859, Monograph on the fossil Reptilia of the Cretaceous formations. Supplement no. I. Palaeontographical Society, London, 19 pp
  7. ^ Owen, R., 1874, Monograph on the fossil Reptilia of the Mesozoic Formations. Palaeontographical Society, London, 14 pp
  8. ^ Holgado, B.; Pêgas, R.V. (2020). "A taxonomic and phylogenetic review of the anhanguerid pterosaur group Coloborhynchinae and the new clade Tropeognathinae". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 65. doi:10.4202/app.00751.2020.
  9. ^ a b Jacobs, M.L., Martill, D.M., Ibrahim, N., Longrich, N. (2019). "A new species of Coloborhynchus (Pterosauria, Ornithocheiridae) from the mid-Cretaceous of North Africa" (PDF). Cretaceous Research. 95: 77–88. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.10.018.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  10. ^ a b Rodrigo V. Pêgas, Borja Holgado & Maria Eduarda C. Leal (2019) On Targaryendraco wiedenrothi gen. nov. (Pterodactyloidea, Pteranodontoidea, Lanceodontia) and recognition of a new cosmopolitan lineage of Cretaceous toothed pterodactyloids, Historical Biology, doi:10.1080/08912963.2019.1690482