During silent films, the benshi stood to the side of the screen and introduced and related the story to the audience. In theatrical style, benshi often spoke for the characters on-screen and played multiple roles. Stemming from the traditions of kabuki and Noh theaters, the benshi's narration and general commentary were an important part of the Japanese silent film experience. The benshi also provided translation for foreign (mostly American) movies.
Much like in the West, Japanese silent films were often accompanied by live music (in addition to the benshi). However, unlike Western films, which tended to have a theatre organ as accompaniment, Japanese films had a score which supported the traditional Japanese instruments of a kabuki play. Since benshi performed without external amplification, they had to carefully coordinate with the orchestra to be heard. At that time, theaters typically seated 1000, so a trademark of successful benshi was the ability to project their voices into large spaces.
Famous benshi active in the silent era include Musei Tokugawa (at the Aoikan and Musashinokan theaters), Saburō Somei (at the Denkikan), Rakuten Nishimura, Raiyū Ikoma (at the Teikokukan), Mitsugu Ōkura, and Shirō Ōtsuji.
Influence on film aesthetic
As the film industry and art form developed in Japan, the presence of a benshi came to be part of the film. Benshi read the intertitles on silent films and voiced all on-screen characters. Perhaps most significantly for filmmakers, benshi would add their own commentary, explaining what was happening in a shot or describing what had happened in confusing edits or sudden transitions. Some benshi were known to interpret and add to a script, for example reciting poetry to accompany a moving visual.
In addition, it was traditional for the benshi to introduce the film, even giving a brief lecture about the history of the setting. This meant that filmmakers could assume that a live narrator, accustomed to improvisation, would be present at the showing to explain scenes or even explain missing scenes or unfilmed action.
Perhaps because most early Japanese films were simply kabuki plays adapted to film, the characterization style benshi performed roles strongly influenced by the narrators in kabuki or a noh chorus—a grave, dramatic, exaggerated style. Due to the influence of kabuki, audiences were not distracted by a single benshi voicing male and female roles, regardless of the gender of the benshi.
Influence on film industry
In 1927, there were 6,818 benshi, including 180 women. Many benshi were famous in their own right and garnered great acclaim. The presence of a benshi was the aspect of the film presentation that drew in the audience, more so than the actors appearing in the film, and promotional posters would frequently include a photo of the benshi announcing the movie.
The silent film era lasted until the mid-1930s in Japan in part due to benshi, despite the introduction of sound in full-length films in the late 1920s. The adoption of this new technology was slowed by the popularity and influence of the benshi (in addition to the high costs to the cinemas and production companies). Though the tradition has mostly faded, there are a few remaining active benshi in Japan (e.g., Midori Sawato).
Benshi in other cultures
- The benshi tradition was adopted in Taiwan under the name piansu (Chinese: 辯士; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: piān-sū).
- Benshi were present in Korea from the first decade of the twentieth century where they were called "byeonsa" (변사).
- In the USSR, during the early years of the Brezhnev era, the availability of foreign films was severely restricted. The USSR State Committee for Cinematography held closed-door screenings of many Western films, open mainly to workers in the film industry, politicians, and other members of the elite. Those screenings were interpreted simultaneously by interpreters who specialized in films, where an effective conveyance of humour, idioms, and other subtleties of speech were required. Some of the most prolific "Gavrilov translators" began their careers at such screenings.
New benshi practices
The underlying concept of benshi, live narration of film, continues to work its way into performance practices. The actual practice of "benshi" is most commonly referenced in relation to live film narration largely due to it having been and when the practice was more formalized and financed. As evidenced by the (above) listings of "benshi" in other cultures, the art of cinema accompanied by a live performer was as international then as it is now.
There are groups in the United States seeking to revive this form and to continue exploring the possibilities of altering the form in the spirit of experimentation from which the practice emerged. Likewise, new attempts to subvert traditional notions of storytelling and film watching are underway. Some performers interject commentary into films, drawing from a century of social critique, often presenting popular films along with new dialog and narrative intended to juxtapose their ideas with those of the audience. While some have adopted the term "Neo-Benshi", other performers have chosen to adopt the title "movieteller" as an alternative. They believe it emphasizes the multicultural past and future(s) of the form, while inviting further experimentation with the medium, such as a live narration of one's own films, the implementation of instruments as narrative devices, or any instance where a human contingent mediates between an audience and an image.
- All these forms are abbreviations of katsudō-shashin-benshi (活動写真弁士), where katsudō-shashin (活動写真) means "moving pictures", i.e., an old term for films, and benshi (弁士) is an orator or public speaker; see "katsuben" 活弁. 広辞苑 (Kōjien) (in Japanese) (5th ed.). 岩波書店 (Iwanami shoten). 2000; "benshi" 弁士. Shin-waei-daijiten (新和英大辞典, New Japanese-English Dictionary) (in Japanese) (5th ed.). 研究社 (Kenkyūsha). 2004.
- Standish, Isolde. A New History of Japanese Cinema: A Century of Narrative Film. New York: Continuum, 2005. ISBN 0-8264-1709-4
- Dym, Jeffery (2008). A Brief History of Benshi (Silent Film Narrators). "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-04. Retrieved 2008-04-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Cook, David A. (1990). A History of Narrative Film, New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-95553-2.
- Maliangkay, Roald H. "Classifying Performances: The Art of Korean Film Narrators" Archived April 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Image and Narrative: Online Magazine of the Visual Narrative, Issue 10 (March 2005). ISSN 1780-678X. Accessed 12 April 2009.
- Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey (1996). The Oxford History of World Cinema. ISBN 0-19-874242-8.
- Dym, Jeffrey A. (August 2003). Benshi, Japanese Silent Film Narrators, and their Forgotten Narrative Art of Setsumei A History of Japanese Silent Film Narration. Edwin Mellen Press. p. 312. ISBN 0-7734-6648-7.
- "The Benshi Tradition: Cinema = Performance" by Tosh Berman (1995)
- Gerow, A. A. (1994). "The Benshi's New Face: Defining Cinema in Taisho Japan". Iconics. Archived from the original on 2010-08-10. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
- Introduction to Japanese silent cinema with an interview from a modern-day benshi
- List of Performing benshi from Matsuda Film Productions
- Maliangkay, Roald H. (March 2005). "Classifying Performances: The Art of Korean Film Narrators". Image & Narrative. Archived from the original on 2007-04-16. Retrieved 2007-05-04.
- Deslandes. "Dancing Shadows od Film Exhibition". Retrieved 2014-04-29.