Arthur Hays Sulzberger
Arthur Hays Sulzberger (September 12, 1891 – December 11, 1968) was the publisher of The New York Times from 1935 to 1961. During that time, daily circulation rose from 465,000 to 713,000 and Sunday circulation from 745,000 to 1.4 million; the staff more than doubled, reaching 5,200; advertising linage grew from 19 million to 62 million column inches per year; and gross income increased almost sevenfold, reaching 117 million dollars.
Arthur Hays Sulzberger
|Born||September 12, 1891|
New York City, U.S.
|Died||December 11, 1968 (aged 77)|
New York City, U.S.
|Education||Columbia University (BA)|
|Known for||Publisher of The New York Times|
|Spouse(s)||Iphigene Bertha Ochs|
|Children||Marian Sulzberger Heiskell|
Ruth Sulzberger Golden Holmberg
Judith Sulzberger Levinson
Arthur Ochs Sulzberger
|Parent(s)||Rachel Peixotto Hays|
Cyrus Leopold Sulzberger
|Family||Adolph Ochs (father-in-law)|
Orvil Dryfoos (son-in-law)
Arthur Golden (grandson)
Ben Dolnick (great-grandson)
Cyrus Leo Sulzberger II (nephew)
Sulzberger was born in New York City on September 12, 1891. His parents were Cyrus Leopold Sulzberger, a cotton-goods merchant, and Rachel Peixotto Hays. They came from old Jewish families, Ashkenazi and Sephardic, respectively. His great-great-grandfather, Benjamin Seixas, brother of the famous rabbi and American Revolutionary Gershom Mendes Seixas of Congregation Shearith Israel, was one of the founders of the New York Stock Exchange. His great-grandfather, Dr. Daniel Levy Maduro Peixotto, was a prominent physician, director of Columbia University's Medical College and a member of the Philolexian Society. His great-granduncle was Jacob Hays, the High Constable of New York from 1801 to 1850.
Sulzberger graduated from the Horace Mann School in 1909 and graduated from Columbia College in 1913, and married Iphigene Bertha Ochs in 1917. In 1918 he began working at the Times, and became publisher when his father-in-law, Adolph Ochs, the previous Times publisher, died in 1935. In 1929, he founded Columbia's original Jewish Advisory Board and served on the board of what became Columbia-Barnard Hillel for many years. He served as a University trustee from 1944 to 1959 and is honored with a floor at the journalism school. He also served as a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation from 1939 to 1957. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1950. In 1954, Sulzberger received The Hundred Year Association of New York's Gold Medal Award "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the City of New York."
Sulzberger broadened the Times’ use of background reporting, pictures, and feature articles, and expanded its sections. He supervised the development of facsimile transmission for photographs and built the Times radio station, WQXR, into a leading vehicle for news and music. Under Sulzberger the Times began to publish editions in Paris and Los Angeles with remote-control typesetting machines.
He once stated "...I certainly do not advocate that the mind should be so open that the brains fall out". Sulzberger is also credited with the quote: "We journalists tell the public which way the cat is jumping. The public will take care of the cat."
He died December 11, 1968, in New York City.
A practicing Reform Jew, Sulzberger was an enthusiastic supporter of the American Council for Judaism, founded in June 1942 to oppose Zionism, giving it prominent coverage in his newspaper. In a 1946 speech, Sulzberger claimed that Zionism was to blame for some of the Jewish deaths in the Holocaust, and that the refugee crisis during the war had been “a manageable, social and economic problem” until “the clamor for statehood introduced an insoluable [sic] political element” into the issue. “It is my judgment that thousands dead might now be alive” if “the Zionists” had put “less emphasis on statehood”.
His stand against Zionism and a Jewish state of Israel on principle has been accused by Laurel Leff in her 2005 book Buried by the Times of deliberately burying accounts of Nazi atrocities against Jews in the back pages of the Times. She alleges that Sulzberger went out of his way to play down the special victimhood of Jews and withheld support for specific rescue programs for European Jews.
In 1917, he married Iphigene Bertha Ochs, the daughter of Adolph Ochs and Effie Wise (a daughter of Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise). They had four children: Marian Sulzberger Heiskell (1918–2019), widow first of Times publisher Orvil Dryfoos and then of Time Inc. chairman Andrew Heiskell; Ruth Sulzberger Holmberg (1921–2017), publisher of the Chattanooga Times, married and divorced from Ben Hale Golden; Judith Sulzberger (1923–2011), physician, married Matthew Rosenschein Jr. (divorced), Dick Cohen (divorced), and Budd Levinson; and Arthur Ochs Sulzberger (1926–2012).
- Schwarz, Daniel R. (January 2, 2014). Endtimes?: Crises and Turmoil at the New York Times. SUNY Press. ISBN 9781438438962 – via Google Books.
- "The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography: Current volume". J.T. White. August 7, 1964 – via Google Books.
- "HAYS - JewishEncyclopedia.com".
- "SEIXAS - JewishEncyclopedia.com".
- "PEIXOTTO - JewishEncyclopedia.com".
- "Mrs. Sulzberger's Final Rites Held". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. 1938-02-11. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter S" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
- Sulzberger, Arthur Hays (1 January 1954). "Man's right to knowledge and the free use thereof". s.n. – via Google Books.
- "Arthur Hays Sulzberger | American newspaper publisher". Encyclopedia Britannica.
- "New York Times Column on Anti-Zionism a Reminder of its Own Publisher's Past".
- Novick, Peter (May 1, 2005). "Looking Back in Anger". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- Mcfadden, Robert D. (19 April 2017). "Ruth Sulzberger Holmberg, Newspaper Publisher, Dies at 96" – via NYTimes.com.
- New York Magazine: "Children of the Times - Who's who in the Ochs-Sulzberger clan" retrieved September 27, 2015
- The Trust: The Private and Powerful Family Behind The New York Times, Susan E. Tifft and Alex S. Jones, Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1999.
- The Kingdom and the Power, Gay Talese, New York: Ivy Books, 1992.
- The Story of The New York Times, Meyer Berger, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1951 (Reprinted, 1970).
- Iphigene, I. O. Sulzberger, 1981.