Armenian calendar

The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in Armenia, primarily during the medieval ages.

The Armenian calendar is based on an invariant year length of 365 days. Because a solar day is 365.25 days and not 365 days, the correspondence between it and both the solar year and the Julian calendar slowly drifted over time, shifting across a year of the Julian calendar once in 1,461 calendar years (see Sothic cycle). Thus, the Armenian year 1461 (Gregorian & Julian 2011) completed the first Sothic cycle, and the Armenian Calendar was one year off.

In A.D. 352, tables compiled by Andreas of Byzantium were introduced in Armenia to determine the religious holidays. When those tables exhausted on 11 July 552 (Julian Calendar), the Armenian calendar was introduced.[1]

Year 1 of the Armenian calendar began on 11 July 552 of the Julian calendar.[1] Armenian year 1462 (the first year of the second cycle) began on 11 July 2012 of the Julian calendar (24 July 2012 of the Gregorian calendar).

An analytical expression of the Armenian date includes the ancient names of days of the week, Christian names of the days of the week, days of the month, Date/Month/Year number after 552 A.D., and the religious feasts.[2]

The Armenian calendar is divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus an additional (epagomenal) five days, called aweleacʿ ("superfluous").

Years are usually given in Armenian numerals; which are letters of the Armenian alphabet preceded by the abbreviation ԹՎ for t’vin, meaning "in the year." For example, ԹՎ ՌՆԾԵ, which means "the year 1455."

MonthsEdit

The Armenian month names show influence of the Zoroastrian calendar[3] and Kartvelian influence in two cases (2nd and 3rd months). There are different systems for transliterating the names; the forms below are transliterated according to the Hübschmann-Meillet-Benveniste system:

Months of the year
# Armenian H-M
Romaniz.
Meaning Etymology/Notes
1 նաւասարդ nawasard new year Avestan*nava sarəδa
2 հոռի hoṙi two From Georgian ორი (ori) meaning "two"
3 սահմի sahmi three From Georgian სამი (sami) meaning "three"
4 տրէ trē Zoroastrian Tïr
5 քաղոց kʿałocʿ month of crops From Old Armenian քաղեմ (kʿałem) meaning "to gather" from PIE *kʷl̥-
6 արաց aracʿ harvest-time From old armenian արաց[4](aracʿ), meaning harvest time, harvest of grape/fruit
7 մեհեկան mehekan festival of Mithra Iranian *mihrakān-; Zoroastrian Mitrō
8 արեգ areg sun month From Old Armenian արեւ (arew) meaning "sun" from PIE *h₂rew-i- also meaning sun
9 ահեկան ahekan fire festival Iranian *āhrakān-; Zoroastrian Ātarō
10 մարերի mareri mid-year Avestan maiδyaīrya; Zoroastrian Dīn
11 մարգաց margacʿ
12 հրոտից hroticʿ Pahlavi *fravartakān; Zoroastrian Spendarmat̰
13 աւելեաց[5] aweleacʿ redundant, superfluous Epagomenal days

Days of the monthEdit

The Armenian calendar gives the days of the month names instead of numbering them – something also found in the Avestan calendars.

Zoroastrian influence is evident in five names:[3]

Days of the month
# Name Armenian Text Meaning/derivation
1 Areg Արէկ sun
2 Hrand Հրանդ earth mixed with fire
3 Aram Արամ
4 Margar Մարգար prophet
5 Ahrank’ Ահրանկ half-burned
6 Mazdeł
7 Astłik Աստղիկ Astłik
8 Mihr Միհր Mihr (Armenian deity)
9 Jopaber tumultuous
10 Murç Մուրց triumph
11 Erezhan hermit
12 Ani Անի name of a city
13 Parkhar
14 Vanat Վանատ host, refectioner of a monastery
15 Aramazd Արամազդ Aramazd
16 Mani Մանի beginning
17 Asak Ասակ beginningless
18 Masis Մասիս Mount Ararat
19 Anahit Անահիտ Anahit (Armenian goddess)
20 Aragats Արագած Mount Aragats
21 Gorgor Name of a mountain
22 Kordvik 6th province in Armenia Major
23 Tsmak Ծմակ east wind
24 Lusnak Լուսնակ half-moon
25 Tsrōn dispersion
26 Npat Նպատ Apam Napat
27 Vahagn Վահագն Zoroastrian Vahrām; Avestan Verethragna, name of the 20th day
28 Sim Սիմ mountain
29 Varag Վարագ name of a mountain
30 Gišeravar evening star

HolidaysEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Tumanian, B. (1973). History of Chronology.
  2. ^ Armenian calendar for 2021
  3. ^ a b L. H. Gray, "On Certain Persian and Armenian Month- Names as Influenced by the Avesta Calendar," JAOS 28 (1907), 339.
  4. ^ "արաց - Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org. Retrieved 2018-10-31.
  5. ^ "Hin Haykakan Tomar". haytomar.com.

External linksEdit

LiteratureEdit

  • V. Bănăţeanu, “Le calendrier arménien et les anciens noms des mois”, in: Studia et Acta Orientalia 10, 1980, pp. 33–46
  • Edouard Dulaurier, Recherches sur la chronologie arménienne technique et historique (1859), 2001 reprint ISBN 978-0-543-96647-6.
  • Jost Gippert, Old Armenian and Caucasian Calendar Systems in The Annual of The Society for The Study of Caucasia", 1, 1989, 3-12.[1]Jost Gippert: Old Armenian and Caucasian Calendar Systems [I: Frame]
  • Louis H. Gray, On Certain Persian and Armenian Month-Names as Influenced by the Avesta Calendar, Journal of the American Oriental Society (1907)
  • P'. Ingoroq'va, “Jvel-kartuli c'armartuli k'alendari” (“The Old Georgian pagan calendar”), in: Sakartvelos muzeumis moambe (“Messenger of the Museum of Georgia”), 6, 1929–30, pp. 373–446 and 7, 1931–32, pp. 260–336
  • K'. K'ek'elije, “Jveli kartuli c'elic'adi” (“The Old Georgian year”), in: St'alinis saxelobis Tbilisis Saxelmc'ipo Universit'et'is šromebi (“Working papers of the Tbilisi State University by the name of Stalin”) 18, 1941, reprinted in the author's “Et'iudebi jveli kartuli lit'erat'uris ist'oriidan” (“Studies in the history of Old Georgian literature”) 1, 1956, pp. 99–124.