Achaemenid dynasty

The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian: 𐏃𐎧𐎠𐎶𐎴𐎡𐏁𐎡𐎹, romanized: Haxāmanišyaʰ; Persian: دودمان هخامنشی‎; Ancient Greek: Ᾰ̓χαιμενῐ́δαι, romanizedAkhaimenídai)[1] was an ancient Persian royal house. They were the ruling dynasty of the Achaemenid Empire from about 700 to 330 BC.[2]

House of Achaemenes
Achaemenid Falcon.svg
Falcon Standard
CountryPersis
Founded730 BC
FounderAchaemenes
Final rulerDarius III
Titles
Estate(s)Persian Empire
Anshan
Parsumash
Dissolution330 BC
Cadet branchesKingdom of Pontus (Mithridatic dynasty)
Kingdom of Cappadocia (Ariarathid dynasty)

The rulers from the Achaemenid dynasty, starting with Cambyses II, who conquered Egypt, the historian Manetho placed as pharaohs in the Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt.[3][4]

OriginsEdit

The history of the Achaemenid dynasty is mainly known thanks to Greek historians as Herodotus, Ctesias and Xenophon, tales of Old Testament books, and native Iranian sources. According to Herodotus, Achaemenids were a clan from the tribe of the Pasargadae and probably settled surrounding the sites of Pasargadae. They possibly ruled over other Persian tribes in the 9th century B.C.

Darius traced his genealogy to Achaemenes, an unknown lineage named after Haxāmaniš. However, there's no evidence about a king called Achaemenes.[5]

DynastyEdit

Kingship was hereditary within the Achaemenid dynasty. The last element of the King's title was always "an Achaemenid". Succession was designated by the King (usually the first-born son). From Darius I to Artaxerxes II, it was usual a synarchy between the father and the son.[5]

Achaemenid rulers
King Reign (BC) Comments
Achaemenes 730–650 BC Founder of the Achaemenid dynasty and first King of Persia.
Teispes 650–625 BC
Cyrus I 625–580 BC
Cambyses I 580–559 BC
Cyrus II 559–530 BC Cyrus the Great was the most notable ancient Persian king and one of the most celebrated strategists and rulers of all time. Cyrus at the height of his reign was simultaneously King of Persia, King of Babylon, King of Media and "King of the Four Corners of the World".
Cambyses II 530–522 BC Conquered Egypt at the Battle of Pelusium, thus adding Pharaoh of Egypt to the titles of Persian kings.
Smerdis 522 BC Might have been an impostor named Gaumata during his short reign.
Darius I 522–486 BC Brought the empire to its greatest extent; launched initial foray into Greece.
Xerxes I 486–465 BC Launched failed invasion of Greece.
Artaxerxes I 465–424 BC
Xerxes II 424 BC
Sogdianus 424–423 BC
Darius II 423–404 BC
Artaxerxes II 404–358 BC Persia loses Egypt.
Artaxerxes III 358–338 BC Persia regains Egypt.
Artaxerxes IV 338–336 BC
Darius III 336–330 BC Defeated by Alexander of Macedon; Persia conquered; dynasty falls.
Artaxerxes V 330–329 BC Attempted to lead resistance against Alexander; captured and executed.

Family treeEdit

Achaemenes
King of Persia[*]
705–675
Teispes
King of Persia
675–640
Ariaramnes
Prince[*]
Cyrus I
King of Persia
640–600
Arsames
Prince[*]
Cambyses I
King of Persia
600–559
Hystaspes
Prince[*]
Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II)
King of Persia
559–530/28
Darius the Great (Darius I)
King of Persia
522–486
Atossa
Princess
Cambyses II
King of Persia
530–522
Smerdis (Bardiya)
Prince (imposter Gaumata ruled as Smerdis[*])
522
Artystone
Princess
Xerxes the Great (Xerxes I)
King of Persia
485–465
Artaxerxes I
King of Persia
465–424
Xerxes II
King of Persia
424
Sogdianus
King of Persia
424–423
Darius II
King of Persia
423–404
Arsites
Prince
Parysatis
Princess
Bagapaios
Prince
Artaxerxes II
King of Persia
404–358
Amestris
Princess
Cyrus the Younger
Prince
Cyrus (IV)
Prince
Ostanes
Prince
Artaxerxes III
King of Persia
358–338
Ocha
Prince
Rodrogune
Princess
Apama
Princess
Sisygambis
Princess
Arsames (II)
Prince
Artaxerxes IV
King of Persia
338–336
Parysatis (II)
Princess
Darius III
King of Persia
336–330
Oxathres
Prince
Artaxerxes V
King of Persia
330–329
Stateira II
Princess
Alexander the Great (Alexander III)
King of Macedon and Persia
329–323

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kuhrt & Sancisi-Weerdenburg 2006.
  2. ^ "ACHAEMENID DYNASTY". www.iranicaonline.org. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  3. ^ Bresciani, Edda (1998). "EGYPT i. Persians in Egypt in the Achaemenid period". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol VIII, Fasc. 3. pp. 247–249.
  4. ^ Eusebius. Chronicle. p. 149.
  5. ^ a b "ACHAEMENID DYNASTY – Encyclopaedia Iranica". iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2020-11-13.

SourcesEdit

  • Kuhrt, Amélie; Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (2006). "Achaemenids". In Salazar, Christine F.; Landfester, Manfred; Gentry, Francis G. (eds.). Brill’s New Pauly. Brill Online.