Academic dress of Chulalongkorn University

The Academic dress of Chulalongkorn University (Thai: ครุยวิทยฐานะของจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย) is a long-sleeved gown made from light mesh and bordered with a specially designed felt strip. The same strip is also attached to elbows and wrists. The gown itself is adapted from ceremonial attire called suea khrui and was designed in Prajadhipok's reign, together with the existing academic badge.[1]

PhD graduate wearing an academic gown (Graduate School)

The gown is open-front and calf-length, resembling the dress used in the United Kingdom, but without hood and cap. Yoke is not gathered or pleated; and sleeves are not loose. Degree and status of the wearer are reflected by colour of the felt strip. The colour scheme is similar to one used in many universities in the United Kingdom, such as the University of Oxford,[2] University of Bristol[3] and University of Manchester.[4]

To comply with regulations and due to its transparency, the gown must be worn over a traditional or polite dress.[5] Since its invention, many Thai universities adopted the similar gown but with different patterns for their graduates.

HistoryEdit

Since the establishment of Chulalongkorn Civil Service College in 1899, there was no symbol marking the graduation of students. In 1914, Vajiravudh ordered the academic badge to be designed. Graduates and school employees may pin the badge on the left chest, just like wearing academic gown.[1] The gown, however, was not yet designed since Chulalongkorn's Civil Service College was unable to confer the bachelor's degree or beyond. Only a diploma was issued to graduates.

As the college became a university in 1917, its academics were rapidly enhanced to the extent that it began granting degrees in 1928.[6] The idea of well-designed and respectable academic dress was raised.[7] At that time, the use of seua khrui was strictly limited that it can only be worn by pre-ordained monks, royal family members and government ministers.[8] Due to the restriction, the university asked Prajadhipok for permission to use the traditional gown. The university also discussed the most suitable pattern of dress and corresponding regulation with the ministers for education and justice. Finally, the king asked that the discussion must be made among ministers and himself. This resulted in the introduction of the present design in 1930.[9][10]

For bachelors and masters, the gowns are decorated with a black felt strip. These resemble black BA and MA gowns used by Oxford,[2] Cambridge[11] and some British universities. Black colour also symbolizes Saturday, Vajiravudh's birthday. Doctor's gown are faced with a scarlet strip, which represents Chulalongkorn's birthday. The colour is also similar to Oxford's full-dress PhD gown.[2] Despite similar colour schemes, shapes of the British and Thai gowns are completely different. Thai gown tends to be simple. The sleeves are as long as wrist and cylindrical in shape for all degrees and statuses. The colours apply only to the strip, not the whole gown. British gown, on the other hand, has more sophisticated features such as gathered or pleated yoke, different sleeves for different degree, various types of hood, and headgear.

Another distinctive design with light yellow strip is reserved for the King of Thailand, who is university's Official Visitor. In 1980, another kind of academic dress for lecturers and university council members was designed in similar pattern to the graduates, but with pink felt.[12][13]

SpecificationEdit

Academic dress consists of a long-sleeved gown faced with 10 cm-wide felt strip decorated with golden brocade. The elbow and wrist is wrapped with the same strip. For the king's gown, yellow facing is used and 5 cm-wide brocade is attached centrally. Two more 1 cm brocade strips are added to both sides of the felt strip. Silver Phra Kiao badges are pinned to the breast portion of the felt strip.

 
Prajadhipok's royal academic dress

For those who are admitted to the doctoral degree, a gown with scarlet facing is used. Two 1 cm brocade strips are added to the outer edges of the felt strip. 0.75 cm blank, 0.5 cm tape, 0.75 cm blank and 1 cm tape are stitched in respective order from outer tapes to the centre. A felt coloured band is attached to the centre of the felt strip, corresponding to the faculty (not to the degree granted). As with the king's gown, silver badges are pinned as well.

The master's gown is similar to the doctor's gown, but a red felt strip is replaced by black one. The coloured band is replaced by yarn for the Bachelor's. For lecturers, the felt strip is pink and centred with golden yarn. Members of the university council may pin gold badges instead of silver ones. Chancellor and chair of the university council,[note 1] and university president use the same gown as council members, but a gold chain of specified pattern is hung between the two badges.[12][13]

Gowns of similar but different patterns have been adopted by other Thai universities. For example, King Mongkut's Universities of Technology,[14] Mae Fah Luang University,[15] Khon Kaen University,[16] Naresuan University,[17] all Rajamangala Universities of Technology[18] and some Rajabhat Universities.[19] It is notable that almost all adaptations do not vary the colour of gown or its facing. Instead, three stripes are added to the arms or elbows of PhD gown, just like three velvet stripes on American doctoral gown. As a deviation from the original traditions, two and one stripes are for master and bachelor respectively.

Faculty coloursEdit

A coloured band or yarn is stitched longitudinally to the centre of the felt strip, corresponding to the degree granting faculty. As an example, an MSc graduate from engineering uses firebrick, while yellow is used to denote science. The faculty colours of Chulalongkorn University are listed below.[13][20]

Faculty Acronym (in Thai) Colour
Allied Health Sciences สว   Indigo
Architecture สถ   Brown
Arts   Gray[note 2]
Commerce and Accountancy[note 3] พศ   Sky blue
Communication Arts นศ   Dark blue
Dentistry   Amethyst
Economics   Gold
Education   Orange-red
Engineering วศ   Firebrick[note 2]
Fine and Applied Arts ศป   Red
Law   White
Medicine   Forest green[note 2]
Nursing[note 4] พย   Scarlet
Pharmacy   Olive drab
Political Science   Black
Psychology   Navy blue
Science วท   Yellow[note 2]
Sport Science วก   Orange
School of Agricultural Resources ทก   Vermilion
Veterinary Medicine สพ   Blue-gray
College of Population Studies ปก   Violet
College of Public Health Sciences วส   Tiffany Blue
Petroleum and Petrochemistry College ปป   Maize
Graduate School   Magenta

Academic badgeEdit

 
Academic badge (Graduate School)

The academic badge of the university was designed in 1914 as a silver (or chromium-plated brass) badge depicting Phra Kiao sitting on a round pillow, which is the personal emblem for Chulalongkorn and the university's emblem. The Thai acronym for the faculty is inscribed beneath the pillow. Graduate's name, programme and year of graduation may be etched on the back of the badge. Regardless of degree level, there is only one style for a particular faculty.

All degree holders (including honorary degrees) are eligible to pin this badge on the left breast of national dress, uniform, or polite attire, preferably over the ribbon bar. For diploma graduates, the badge is switched to the right.[5] In the past, this badge can also be worn by university workers in the performance of his/her duties.[1]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In Thailand, chair of the university council is ceremonial head of the university. He/she also leads the university council/board of trustees; approves or rejects the ordinances; and gives advice to the university president/vice-chancellor. Being a ceremonial head, he/she is also a chancellor of the university.
  2. ^ a b c d Original colour proposed in 1930.
  3. ^ The same colour is also for Sasin, whose acronym is ศศ.
  4. ^ Also for graduates from the Royal Thai Police Nursing College and the Thai Red Cross College of Nursing, which are independent institutes associated with the university. They and the university jointly organize teaching and training. At the graduation, however, the university admitted students into appropriate degrees.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระราชกำหนดเข็มโรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือน, เล่ม ๓๑, ตอน ๐ ก, ๑๗ พฤษภาคม พ.ศ. ๒๔๕๗, หน้า ๑๒๙ (Royal Decree on Academic Badge for Chulalongkorn Civil Service College, 1914)
  2. ^ a b c "Academic Dress". University of Oxford.
  3. ^ REGULATIONS FOR ACADEMIC AND OFFICIAL COSTUME
  4. ^ "Schedule of General Regulations:XIII Academic Dress". University of Manchester.
  5. ^ a b "ข้อบังคับจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัยว่าด้วยโอกาสและเงื่อนไขการใช้ครุยวิทยฐานะ เข็มวิทยฐานะ และครุยประจำตำแหน่ง พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๓" (PDF). 5 February 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-02-24. Retrieved 2017-10-06. (University Regulation on usage conditions for academic dress and badge, 2010)
  6. ^ CU's Evolution Archived April 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Chulalongkorn University Memorial Hall (in Thai).
  7. ^ New Students' Manual, Chulalongkorn University, pp.29-31
  8. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระราชกำหนดเสื้อครุย ร.ศ.๑๓๐, เล่ม ๓๑, หน้า ๑๒๙-๑๓๑ (Suea Khrui Act 1911)
  9. ^ First Graduation Ceremony in Thailand Archived April 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Chulalongkorn University Memorial Hall (in Thai)
  10. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระราชกำหนดเสื้อครุยบัณฑิตของจุฬาลงกรณมหาวิทยาลัย พ.ศ.๒๔๗๓, เล่ม ๔๗ หน้า ๙๒-๙๖ (Academic dress act 1930)
  11. ^ "Statues and Ordinances of The University of Cambridge Chapter II" (PDF). 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-06. Retrieved 2017-10-06.
  12. ^ a b ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระราชกฤษฎีกาว่าด้วยปริญญาในสาขาวิชา อักษรย่อสำหรับสาขาวิชา ครุยประจำตำแหน่ง ครุยวิทยฐานะ และเข็มวิทยฐานะ ของจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย พ.ศ.๒๕๒๓, เล่ม ๙๗, ตอน ๑๐๕, ๙ กรกฎาคม ๒๕๒๓, หน้า ๑ - ๘ (Regulation on degree granted, degree acronyms, academic dress and badge, 1980)
  13. ^ a b c ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ประกาศจุฬาฯ ว่าด้วยการกำหนดปริญญาในสาขาวิชา อักษรย่อสำหรับสาขาวิชา ครุยวิทยฐานะ เข็มวิทยฐานะ และครุยประจำตำแหน่ง พ.ศ.๒๕๕๓, เล่ม ๑๒๗, ตอนพิเศษ ๕๒ ง, ๒๖ เมษายน ๒๕๕๓, หน้า ๒๐ - ๒๔ (Regulation on degree granted, degree acronyms, academic dress, academic badge and faculty dress, 2010)
  14. ^ "ประกาศ มจธ. เรื่อง ครุยประจำตำแหน่ง ครุยวิทยฐานะ และเข็มวิทยฐานะฯ พ.ศ.๒๕๔๔". 20 July 2001. Retrieved 6 October 2017. (KMUTT's ordinance on academic gowns and badges, 2001)
  15. ^ "ข้อกำหนด มฟล. ว่าด้วยครุยประจำตำแหน่ง ครุยวิทยฐานะ และเข็มวิทยฐานะฯ พ.ศ.๒๕๔๖" (PDF). 28 February 2003. Retrieved 6 October 2017. (Mae Fah Luang University's specification on officer's dress, academic dress and academic badge, 2003)
  16. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ประกาศ มข. เรื่อง ครุย เข็มวิทยฐานะ และครุยประจำตำแหน่ง ฯ พ.ศ.๒๕๖๐, เล่ม ๑๓๔ ตอนพิเศษ ๑๓๔ ง, หน้า ๓๙-๔๐ (Khon Kaen University's regulation on academic gown and badge, 2017)
  17. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พรฎ ว่าด้วยปริญญา อักษรย่อ ครุย เข็มวิทยฐานะ และครุยประจำตำแหน่งฯ ของ มน. พ.ศ.๒๕๕๐, เล่ม ๑๒๔ ตอนที่ ๑๐๒ ก, หน้า ๑๒ (Naresuan University Phitsanulok's ordinance on academic degrees, gown and badge, 2007)
  18. ^ For example, see ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พรฎ.ว่าด้วยปริญญาฯ ของ มทร.ล้านนา พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๔, เล่ม ๑๒๘ ตอนที่ ๔๘ ก, หน้า ๒๖-๓๒ (Act on Academic Degrees and Gowns for Rajamangala University of Technology, Lanna at Chiang Mai, 2011)
  19. ^ For example, Sakon Nakhon Rajabhat University: "ชุดครุยบัณฑิต มหาวิทยาลัยราชภัฏสกลนคร". 2 September 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  20. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ประกาศจุฬาฯ ว่าด้วยการกำหนดปริญญาในสาขาวิชา อักษรย่อสำหรับสาขาวิชา ครุยวิทยฐานะ เข็มวิทยฐานะ และครุยประจำตำแหน่ง (ฉบับที่ ๒) พ.ศ.๒๕๕๗, เล่ม ๑๓๑, ตอนพิเศษ ๔๙ ง, ๑๘ มีนาคม ๒๕๕๗, หน้า ๓ (An amended regulation on degree and academic dress, 2014)