The 5th century is the time period from 401 (CDI) through 500 (D) Anno Domini (AD) or Common Era (CE) in the Julian calendar. The 5th century is noted for being a period of migration and political instability throughout Eurasia.
|Categories:||Births – Deaths |
Establishments – Disestablishments
It saw the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, which came to an end in 476 AD. This empire had been ruled by a succession of weak emperors, with the real political might being increasingly concentrated among military leaders. Internal instability allowed a Visigoth army to reach and ransack Rome in 410. Some recovery took place during the following decades, but the Western Empire received another serious blow when a second foreign group, the Vandals, occupied Carthage, capital of an extremely important province in Africa. Attempts to retake the province were interrupted by the invasion of the Huns under Attila. After Attila's defeat, both Eastern and Western empires joined forces for a final assault on Vandal North Africa, but this campaign was a spectacular failure.
In China, the period of the Sixteen Kingdoms continued. This was characterized by the formation and collapse of small sub-kingdoms, ruled by warring ethnic groups. After the fall of the Former Qin towards the end of the previous century, the north of China was once again reunited by Northern Wei in 439. Meanwhile, in the Eastern Jin dynasty, the Jin statesman and general Liu Yu consolidated his power and forced the last Emperor of the Jin dynasty, Emperor Gong of Jin, to abdicate to him in 420. This created the (Liu) Song dynasty, which was also the starting point of the period known as the Northern and Southern dynasties.
Towards the end of the 5th century, the Gupta Empire of India was invaded from Central Asia and occupied by elements of the Huna peoples. These peoples may have been related to the Huns who devastated Rome during the same period.
- 380 – 415: Chandragupta II reigns over the golden age of the Gupta Empire.
- 399 – 412: The Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian sails through the Indian Ocean and travels throughout Sri Lanka and India to gather Buddhist scriptures.
- 401: Kumarajiva, a Buddhist monk and translator of sutras into Chinese, arrives in Chang'an
- Early 5th century – Baptistry of Neon, Ravenna, Italy, is built.
- 5th century - North Acropolis, Tikal, Guatemala, is built. Maya culture.
- 405: Mesrop Mashtots introduces number 36 of the 38 letters of the newly created Armenian Alphabet
- 406: The eastern frontier of the Western Roman Empire collapses as waves of Suebi, Alans, and Vandals cross the then frozen river Rhine near Mainz and enter Gaul.
- 407: Constantine III leads many of the Roman military units from Britain to Gaul and occupies Arles (Arelate). This is generally seen as Rome's withdrawal from Britain.
- 410: Rome ransacked by the Visigoths led by King Alaric.
- 411: Suebi establish the first independent Christian kingdom of Western Europe in Gallaecia.
- 413: St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, begins to write The City of God.
- 415 – 455: Kumaragupta, Gupta emperor
- 420: The Jin dynasty comes to an end by Liu Yu.
- 420 – 589: Northern and Southern dynasties in China.
- 426: K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' re-established Copan.
- 430: The Ilopango volcano erupts, thereby devastating the Mayan cities in present-day El Salvador.
- 431: First Council of Ephesus, the third ecumenical council which upholds the title Theotokos or "mother of God", for Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ.
- 439: Vandals conquer Carthage.
- At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. The traditional story is that they were invited there by Vortigern.
- 450: Historical linguist Albert C. Baugh dates Old English from around this year.
- 450: Several stone inscriptions were made witness to edicts from West Java. Amongst others, the Tugu inscription announced decrees of Purnavarman, the King of Tarumanagara, one of the earliest Hindu kingdoms of Java. (up until the year 669)
- 451: Council of Chalcedon, the fourth ecumenical council which taught Jesus Christ as one divine person in two natures.
- 451: The Persians declare war on the Armenians.
- 451: The Huns under Attila facing the Romans and the Visigoths are defeated in the Battle of Chalons.
- 452: The Metropolis of Aquileia is destroyed by Attila the Hun and his army.
- 452: Pope Leo I meets in person with Attila on the Mincio River and convinces him not to ransack Rome.
- 453: Death of Attila. The Hunnic Empire is divided between Attila's sons.
- 454: Battle of Nedao. Germanic tribes destroy the main Hunnic army and do away with Hunnic domination.
- 455: Vandals sack Rome.
- 455: The city of Chichen Itza is founded in Mexico.
- 455 – 467: Skandagupta, the last great Gupta emperor
- 469: Death of Dengizich, last Khan of the Hunnic Empire.
- 470: Riothamus, King of the Britons, helps the Roman Emperor in Brittany against the Visigoths.
- 476: Deposition of Romulus Augustulus by Odoacer: traditional date for the Fall of Rome in the West.
- 477 or 495: Chan Buddhists found the Shaolin Monastery on Mount Song in Henan, China.
- 480: Assassination of Julius Nepos, the last de jure Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, in Dalmatia.
- 481: Clovis I becomes King of the Western Franks upon the death of Childeric I.
- 482: This year, the territory of modern Ukraine established Kiev.
- 486: Clovis defeats Syagrius and conquers the last free remnants of the Western Roman Empire.
- 490: (approximate date) Battle of Mount Badon. According to legend, British forces led by Arthur defeated the invading Saxons.
- 491: King Clovis I defeats and subjugates the Kingdom of Thuringia in Germany.
- 493: Theodoric the Great ousts Odoacer to become King of Italy.
- 494: Northern Gaul is united under the Frankish King Clovis I, founder of the Merovingian dynasty.
- 496: Battle of Tolbiac. King Clovis subjugates the Alamanni, and is baptized as a Catholic with a large number of Franks by Remigius, bishop of Reims.
- Buddhism reaches Burma and Indonesia.
- African and Indonesian settlers reach Madagascar.
- The Hopewell tradition comes to an end in North America.
- Tbilisi was founded by King Vakhtang Gorgasali.
- Aegidius, Gallo-Roman warlord, founder of the Kingdom of Soissons (d. 464/465, reigned 457-464/465).
- Aelia Eudoxia, Roman Empress (before 385-404).
- Alaric I, King of the Visigoths, primarily known for the Sack of Rome in 410 (c. 370/375-410, reigned 395-410).
- Alaric II, King of the Visigoths in Toulouse (c. 458/466-507, reigned 484-507).
- Anastasius I Dicorus, Roman Emperor (c. 431-518, reigned 491-518).
- Anthemius, Roman politician, Praetorian prefect of the East, de facto regent (possibly d. 414). Primarily remembered for constructing the Theodosian_Walls.
- Anthemius, Roman Emperor (c. 420-472, reigned 467-472).
- Arcadius, Roman Emperor (377-408, reigned 383-408).
- Ariadne, Roman Empress (c. 450-515).
- Arvandus, Roman politician, Praetorian prefect of Gaul, and alleged usurper.
- Aspar, Eastern Roman general and politician (c. 400-471).
- Ataulf, King of the Visigoths (c. 370-415, reigned 411-415).
- Attila, King of the Huns
- Avitus, Roman Emperor (c. 380/395-456/457, reigned 455-456).
- Bahram V, Sassanid Shah of Persia
- Basiliscus, Roman Emperor (d. 476/477, reigned 475-476).
- Basiliscus, Roman Caesar (reigned 476-477/478).
- Bonifacius, Roman comes and general, in charge of the Diocese of Africa (d. 432).
- Burdunellus, Roman usurper (d. 496, reigned 496).
- Castinus, Roman patricius, general, and politician.
- Chandragupta II, (380-415) Gupta Emperor
- Clovis I, King of the Franks (c. 466-511, reigned 481-511). The first Frankish King to unite the Franks; first Barbarian King to convert to Catholicism.
- Constans II, Roman Emperor (d. 411, reigned 409-411)
- Chandragupta II,Emperor of Northern India (reigned 375-415)
- Constantine III, Roman Emperor (d. 411, reigned 407-411).
- Constantius III, Roman Emperor (d. 421, reigned 421).
- Euric, King of the Visigoths (c. 440-484, reigned 466-484).
- Galla Placidia, Roman Empress and regent (388-450, reigned 423-437).
- Genseric, King of the Vandals and founder of the Vandal Kingdom in North Africa (c. 389-477, reigned 428-477).
- Glycerius, Roman Emperor (c. 420- after 480, reigned 473-474).
- Goar, King of the Alans (before 390-c. 450, reigned 406-c. 450).
- Gratian, Roman usurper (d. 407, reigned 407).
- Gunderic, King of the Vandals (379-428, reigned 407-428).
- Gundobad, Roman Patrician and later King of the Burgundians (c. 452-516, reigned 473-516).
- Gunthamund, King of the Vandals, ruler of the Vandal Kingdom (c. 450-496, reigned 484-496).
- Gunther, King of the Burgundians (d. 437, reigned c. 407-437). Known primarily for conflicts with the Western Roman Empire and the Huns. He was remembered in medieval legend and he appears as a mythologized figure in the Nibelungenlied.
- Heraclianus, Roman provincial governor and usurper (d. 413, reigned 412-413).
- Honorius, Roman Emperor (384-423, reigned 393-423).
- Huneric, King of the Vandals, ruler of the Vandal Kingdom (d. 484, reigned 477-484).
- Joannes, Roman usurper (d. 425, reigned 423-425).
- Muyal Jol, Ruler of Copan 485-504
- Leo I the Thracian, Roman Emperor (401-474, reigned 457-474).
- Leo II, Roman Emperor (467-474, reigned 474).
- Leontius, Byzantine usurper and rebel (d. 488, reigned 484-488).
- Libius Severus, Roman Emperor (c. 420-465, reigned 461-465).
- Longinus, Byzantine politician and rebel, instigator of the Isaurian War.
- Longinus of Cardala, Byzantine politician and rebel, fought in the Isaurian War (d. 497).
- Majorian, Roman Emperor (c. 420-461, reigned 457-461).
- Marcian, Roman Emperor (392-457, reigned 450-457).
- Marcian, Byzantine usurper (reigned c. 479-484).
- Marcus, Roman usurper (d. 407, reigned 406-407).
- Marcus, Roman Caesar and briefly co-emperor (d. 476, reigned 475-476).
- Masties, Roman-Berber ruler in North Africa.
- Maximus of Hispania, Roman usurper (d. 422, reigned 409-411, 419-421).
- Niall Noigiallach, founder of one of Ireland's greatest dynasties
- Odoacer, Scirian general, later King of Italy (433-493, reigned 476-493).
- Olybrius, Roman Emperor (d. 472, reigned 472).
- Orestes, Roman general and politician (d. 476).
- Palladius, Roman Caesar (c. 420-455, reigned 455).
- Patricius, Roman Caesar (reigned 470-471).
- Jovinus, Gallo-Roman senator and usurper (d. 413, reigned 411-413).
- Julius Nepos, Roman Emperor (c. 430-480, reigned 474-480).
- K'inich Popol Hol, Ruler of Copan 437-455
- K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo', Ruler of Copan 426-437
- Ku Ix, Ruler of Copan 465-476
- Kumaragupta I, Gupta emperor
- Petronius Maximus, Roman Emperor (c. 396-455, reigned 455).
- Priscus Attalus, Roman usurper (d. after 416, reigned 409, 414-415).
- Pulcheria, Roman Empress and regent (398/399-453, reigned 414-453).
- Rechiar, King of Galicia (d. 456, reigned 448-456).
- Ricimer, Western Roman general, politician, and ruler (c. 405-472).
- Riothamus, King of the Britons, a candidate for the legendary King Arthur
- Romanus, Roman usurper (d. 470, reigned 470).
- Romulus Augustulus, Roman Emperor (c. 461- after 507, reigned 475-476).
- Sebastianus, Roman usurper (d. 413, reigned 412-413).
- Skandagupta, Gupta emperor
- Stilicho, Roman magister militum, de facto regent of the Western Roman Empire (c. 359-408).
- Syagrius, Roman military commander, last ruler of the Kingdom of Soissons (430-486/487, reigned 464-486).
- Theoderic the Great, king of the Ostrogoths and ruler of Italy (454-526, reigned 475-526).
- Theodoric II, King of the Visigoths (c. 426-466, reigned 453-466).
- Theodosius II, Roman Emperor (401-450, reigned 408-450).
- Toramana,Hun king who ruled Northern India(reigned 493-515)
- Valentinian III, Roman Emperor (419-455, reigned 425-455).
- Verina, Roman Empress (d. 484).
- Vortigern, warlord in Sub-Roman Britain, remembered as a King of the Britons.
- Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei, barbaric-born Chinese emperor of northern China who promoted traditional Chinese culture.
- Yazdegerd I, Sassanid Shah of Persia
- Zeno, Roman Emperor (c. 425-491, reigned 474-475, 476-491).
- Augustine of Hippo, Bishop, theologian
- Batuo, first abbot of the Shaolin Monastery
- Bodhidharma, founder of Chan Buddhism
- John Chrysostom, Patriarch of Constantinople
- Cyril of Alexandria, Patriarch of Alexandria, theologian
- Dioscorus, Patriarch of Alexandria
- Faxian, Chinese Buddhist monk
- Gelasius, Bishop of Rome
- Huiyuan, Chinese Buddhist
- Jerome, Christian hermit, priest, Latin translator of the Bible and author of theological works.
- John Cassian, Christian monk and theologian
- Kumarajiva, (344-413), Kuchean Buddhist monk and Chinese translator
- Leo I, Bishop of Rome, theologian
- Mesrop Mashtots, Armenian monk
- Nestorius, Archbishop of Constantinople, father of Nestorian heresy
- Patrick, (Patricius) Catholic Bishop, missionary to Ireland
- Pelagius, Catholic priest; father of Pelagianism
- Tyrannius Rufinus, priest of Aquileia, hermit, Latin translator
- Vincent of Lerins, theologian (d. 445)
Sciences and Philosophy
- Fan Ye, Chinese historian
- Hypatia of Alexandria, woman philosopher
- Pei Songzhi, Chinese historian
- Aryabhata,Indian Scientist and Mathematician
- Varāhamihira,Indian Astronomer and Polymath
- Socrates Scholasticus, Byzantine Church historian
- Sozomen, Christian church historian
- Zu Chongzhi, Chinese astronomer and mathematician
- Dignāga,Indian Logician
- Siddhasena,Jain Philosopher
- Pujyapada,Indian Jain Acharya(Philosopher Monk)
- Kālidāsa, Great Sanskrit poet
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
- Horse collar invented in China
- Chaturang:The precursor Of Chess originated in India.
- Heavy plow in use in Slavic lands
- First instance of a metal horseshoe found in Gaul
- Anglo-Saxon runes alphabet introduced in England
- Charkha(Spinning Wheel) originated in India
- Armenian alphabet created by Mesrob Mashtots c. 405
- The First usage of Zero found in Bakshali manuscript in India
- A History of the English Language (D. Appleton-Century Company, 1935)
- Taylor (2003), p. 19.
- Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.
- "Kyiv's 1,530th birthday marked with fun, protest".
- "Kalidasa - Indian author". britannica.com.