2 Timothy 4

2 Timothy 4 is the fourth (and the last) chapter of the Second Epistle to Timothy in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The letter is traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle, the last one written in Rome before his death (c. 64 or 67), addressed to Timothy.[1][2] There are charges that it is the work of an anonymous follower, after Paul's death in the first century AD.[3][4] This chapter contains an intensely personal material, more than any other epistles, in relation to Paul's imminent death, ending with personal comments and salutations.[5]

2 Timothy 4
Titus 1 
Fragments showing 1 Timothy 2:2–6 on Codex Coislinianus, from ca. AD 550.
BookSecond Epistle to Timothy
CategoryPauline epistles
Christian Bible partNew Testament
Order in the Christian part16


The original text was written in Koine Greek. This chapter is divided into 22 verses.

Textual witnesses

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter are:


Places mentioned in (red) and related to (blue) this chapter in the Mediterranean

Places mentioned in this chapter (with the related persons) are:

The Final Charge to Timothy (4:1–8)

Paul charges Timothy to step into Paul's place in the worldwide mission.[6]

Verse 1

In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead, and in view of his appearing and his kingdom, I give you this charge:[7]

In view of the imminent end of his life, Paul is expressing himself with the utmost solemnity three facts in his concluding charge: 'the reality of the judgment of Christ, the certainty of his return, and the establishment of his kingdom'.[8]

Verse 2

Preach the word; be prepared in season and out of season; correct, rebuke and encourage—with great patience and careful instruction.[9]

Timothy's commission is outlined with five imperative verbs (preach, be prepared, correct, rebuke, encourage) which will be described further in the following verses.[6]

Final Instructions and Personal Information (4:9–18)

Here Paul mentions many individuals, friends and companions, as well as some personal requests for Timothy to do.[10]

Verse 10

for Demas has forsaken me, having loved this present world, and has departed for Thessalonica—Crescens for Galatia, Titus for Dalmatia.[11]

Verse 11

Only Luke is with me. Get Mark and bring him with you, because he is helpful to me in my ministry.[14]

Verse 12

And Tychicus I have sent to Ephesus.[16]

Verse 13

Bring the cloak that I left with Carpus at Troas when you come—and the books, especially the parchments.[17]

Verse 14

Alexander the coppersmith did me much harm. May the Lord repay him according to his works.[18]

The Final Greetings (4:19–22)

This section mentions some familiar and some unfamiliar names, which may be known in the community, before closing it with a blessing modelled on the ones in Galatians 6:18, Philippians 4:23 and Philemon 25.[19]

Verse 19

Greet Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus.[20]

Catholics regard this verse as an implication that Onesiphorus was already dead, as it is implied previously in 2 Timothy 1:16–18, since Paul directly greets Aquila and Priscilla (here shortened as "Prisca") and seems to give greeting to "the house of Onesiphorus" to comfort his family.[21]

Verse 20

Erastus stayed in Corinth, but Trophimus I have left in Miletus sick.[22]

See also



  1. May & Metzger 1977, pp. 1440, 1446–49.
  2. Murphy-O'Connor 1996, pp. 356–359.
  3. Just 2012.
  4. Drury 2007, p. 1220.
  5. Drury 2007, p. 1230.
  6. Towner 2006, p. 600.
  7. 2 Timothy 4:1 NKJV
  8. Guthrie 1994, p. 1309.
  9. 2 Timothy 4:2 NKJV
  10. Drury 2007, pp. 1230–1231.
  11. 2 Timothy 4:10 NKJV
  12. Coogan 2007, p. 361 New Testament.
  13. Guthrie 1994, p. 1310.
  14. 2 Timothy 4:11 NKJV
  15. Gill, John. "2 Timothy 4:11 Commentary - John Gill's Exposition of the Bible". Bible Study Tools. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  16. 2 Timothy 4:12 NKJV
  17. 2 Timothy 4:13 NKJV
  18. 2 Timothy 4:14 NKJV
  19. Drury 2007, p. 1231.
  20. 2 Timothy 4:19 NKJV
  21. Toner 1908
  22. 2 Timothy 4:20 NKJV


  • Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome (1996). Paul: A Critical Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
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