2 Timothy 4
2 Timothy 4 is the fourth (and the last) chapter of the Second Epistle to Timothy in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The letter is traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle, the last one written in Rome before his death (c. 64 or 67), addressed to Timothy. There are charges that it is the work of an anonymous follower, after Paul's death in the first century AD. This chapter contains an intensely personal material, more than any other epistles, in relation to Paul's imminent death, ending with personal comments and salutations.
|2 Timothy 4|
Titus 1 →
|Book||Second Epistle to Timothy|
|Christian Bible part||New Testament|
|Order in the Christian part||16|
Places mentioned in this chapter (with the related persons) are:
The Final Charge to Timothy (4:1–8)
- In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead, and in view of his appearing and his kingdom, I give you this charge:
In view of the imminent end of his life, Paul is expressing himself with the utmost solemnity three facts in his concluding charge: 'the reality of the judgment of Christ, the certainty of his return, and the establishment of his kingdom'.
- Preach the word; be prepared in season and out of season; correct, rebuke and encourage—with great patience and careful instruction.
Final Instructions and Personal Information (4:9–18)
- for Demas has forsaken me, having loved this present world, and has departed for Thessalonica—Crescens for Galatia, Titus for Dalmatia.
- "Demas": was once one of Paul's close associates (mentioned together with Luke and Mark in Philemon 24 and Colossians 4:10-14), but now has deserted Paul, perhaps because 'the going was too hard for him and the pull of the world too strong'; this is considered the saddest of all the brief notes.
- "Crescens": only mentioned here.
- "Luke": The 'beloved physician' (Colossians 4:14) and the writer of the "Gospel of Luke" and "the Acts of the Apostles". He was Paul's faithful companion in his travels and sufferings.
- "Get Mark, and bring him with you": who at that time might be at Ephesus, or somewhere along Timothy's way to Rome. Presumably the same John Mark of Jerusalem, the son of Mary (Acts 12:12), Barnabas' sister, who was with Paul and Barnabas in their first journey (Acts 12:25), and departed from them at Pamphylia, causing a great quarrel between Paul and Barnabas leading to their separation in ministry (Acts 15:37–39), but now Paul had a better opinion of him, and was apparently reconciled to him, that he wants his assistance as later noted in Colossians 4:10; Philemon 24.
- "For he is helpful (NKJV; KJV: "profitable") to me for the ministry": to assist in preaching the Gospel.
- And Tychicus I have sent to Ephesus.
- Bring the cloak that I left with Carpus at Troas when you come—and the books, especially the parchments.
The Final Greetings (4:19–22)
This section mentions some familiar and some unfamiliar names, which may be known in the community, before closing it with a blessing modelled on the ones in Galatians 6:18, Philippians 4:23 and Philemon 25.
Catholics regard this verse as an implication that Onesiphorus was already dead, as it is implied previously in 2 Timothy 1:16–18, since Paul directly greets Aquila and Priscilla (here shortened as "Prisca") and seems to give greeting to "the house of Onesiphorus" to comfort his family.
- May & Metzger 1977, pp. 1440, 1446–49.
- Murphy-O'Connor 1996, pp. 356–359.
- Just 2012.
- Drury 2007, p. 1220.
- Drury 2007, p. 1230.
- Towner 2006, p. 600.
- 2 Timothy 4:1 NKJV
- Guthrie 1994, p. 1309.
- 2 Timothy 4:2 NKJV
- Drury 2007, pp. 1230–1231.
- 2 Timothy 4:10 NKJV
- Coogan 2007, p. 361 New Testament.
- Guthrie 1994, p. 1310.
- 2 Timothy 4:11 NKJV
- Gill, John. "2 Timothy 4:11 Commentary - John Gill's Exposition of the Bible". Bible Study Tools. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- 2 Timothy 4:12 NKJV
- 2 Timothy 4:13 NKJV
- 2 Timothy 4:14 NKJV
- Drury 2007, p. 1231.
- 2 Timothy 4:19 NKJV
- Toner 1908
- 2 Timothy 4:20 NKJV
- Guthrie, Donald (1994). "The Pastoral Letters". In Carson, D. A.; France, R. T.; Motyer, J. A.; Wenham, G. J. (eds.). New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition (4, illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). Inter-Varsity Press. pp. 1292–1315. ISBN 9780851106489.
- Coogan, Michael David (2007). Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann; Perkins, Pheme (eds.). The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books: New Revised Standard Version, Issue 48 (Augmented 3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288810.
- Drury, Clare (2007). "Ch. 73: The Pastoral Epistles". In Barton, John; Muddiman, John (eds.). The Oxford Bible Commentary (first (paperback) ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 1220–1233. ISBN 978-0199277186.
- Just, Felix (February 17, 2012). "The Deutero-Pauline Letters". catholic-resources.org. Retrieved 2019-10-22.
- May, Herbert G.; Metzger, Bruce M. (1977). The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha.
- Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome (1996). Paul: A Critical Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Toner, Patrick Joseph (1908). "Prayers for the Dead". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company.