The first millennium of the anno Domini or Common Era was a millennium spanning the years 1 to 1000 (1st to 10th centuries; in astronomy: JD 1721425.5 – 2086667.5). The world population rose more slowly than during the preceding millennium, from about 200 million in the year AD 1 to about 300 million in the year 1000.
In Western Eurasia (Europe and Near East), the first millennium was a time of great transition from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages. The 1st century saw the peak of the Roman Empire, followed by its gradual decline during the period of Late Antiquity, the rise of Christianity and the Great Migrations. The second half of the millennium is characterized as the Early Middle Ages in Europe, and marked by the Viking expansion in the west, the rise of the Byzantine Empire in the east.
In East Asia, the first millennium was also a time of great cultural advances, notably the spread of Buddhism to East Asia. In China, the Han dynasty is replaced by the Jin dynasty and later the Tang dynasty until the 10th century sees renewed fragmentation in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. In Japan, a sharp increase in population followed when farmers' use of iron tools increased their productivity and crop yields. The Yamato court was established. The Indian subcontinent was divided among numerous kingdoms throughout the first millennium, until the formation of the Gupta Empire. Islam expanded rapidly from Arabia to western Asia, India, North Africa and the Iberian peninsula, culminating in the Islamic Golden Age (700–1200).
In Mesoamerica, the first millennium was a period of enormous growth known as the Classic Era (200–900). Teotihuacan grew into a metropolis and its empire dominated Mesoamerica. In South America, pre-Incan, coastal cultures flourished, producing impressive metalwork and some of the finest pottery seen in the ancient world. In North America, the Mississippian culture rose at the end of the millennium in the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys. Numerous cities were built; Cahokia, the largest, was based in present-day Illinois. The construction of Monks Mound at Cahokia was begun in 900–950.
Civilizations, kingdoms and dynasties
|Africa||Asia / Oceania||Europe||Pre-Columbian Americas|
The events in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme
|1st century||AD 70 Kandake Amanikhatashan sends Kushite cavalry to aid Roman Emperor in Jerusalem revolt
AD 100 rise of the Aksum
AD 100 Khoekhoe reach southern coast of Africa
|AD 1 Cahuachi established
AD 50 Pyramid of the Sun began
|AD 25 Han Dynasty reestablished under Guangwu
AD 33 Christianity begins
AD 70 Jewish diaspora
|AD 9 Rhine established as boundary between Rome and Germany
AD 47 London founded
AD 58 Alpes Cottiae becomes a Roman province
AD 79 Pompeii destroyed
|AD 1 Caroline Islands colonized|
|2nd century||150 Rhapta, hint of pre-Swahili, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
200 Bantu reach east Africa
200 Nok culture ends
|150 Cahuachi becomes dominant ceremonial site in southern Peru||184 Yellow Turban Rebellion||106 Dacia becomes a Roman province
166 Siege of Aquileia
180 End of the Macromannic Wars
|3rd century||212 Egyptians granted Roman citizenship
230 Aksum wars with Himyar and Saba alliance
300 Aksum prints own coins
|250 Rise of Laguna de los Cerros
292 Stela 29 inscribed
300 Tikàl conquers El Mirador
|208 Battle of Red Cliffs during the decline of the Han Dynasty
280 Jin reunifies China
|212 Roman citizenship extended to all free people in the empire
214 Hispania divided into Gallaecia, Tarraconensis, Baetica and Lusitania
286 Diocletian divides the empire East and West
|300 Eastern Polynesian culture develops|
|4th century||333 Aksum converts to Christianity
350 Meroe comes to an end
350 King of Anwar, Kaja Maja
|378 Teotihuacan conquers Waka, Tikal, and Uaxactun, the beginning of its conquest of the Maya||319 Rise of Gupta Empire in South Asia
383 Battle of Fei River
393 Last Olympic Games
|5th century||401 c. camel main transport for trans-Sahara
429 Vandal invasion
500 Nubia split into Nobadia, Makuria, Alodia
|420 Southern and Northern Dynasties period begins||407 Vandals enter Iberia
421 Romans defeat Persians
476 Fall of Roman Empire
|500 Settlement of Hawaii, Easter Island, Society Islands, Tuamotus and Mangareva|
|6th century||520 Kaleb attacks Yemen
533 Belisarius invades Africa
540 Nubia converts to monophysite Christianity
|600 Wari' conquer Peru
600 Construction of Palenque
|538 Buddhism introduced in Japan.
570 Birth of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
|507 Battle of Vouillé
535 Byzantine army invades Italy
585 Visigoths conquer Suevi kingdom
|7th century||641 Muslims invade Africa
690 Za Dynasty founded
697 Carthage destroyed
|650 Settlement of Xochitecatl and Cacaxtla
700 Teotihuacan destroyed
|618 Tang Dynasty established
632 Rise of Islam
651 Islamic conquest of Persia
|c.680 Bulgarian Empire is founded||700 Settlement of the Cook Islands|
|8th century||702 Aksum attacks Arabia
706 Arabic in Egypt
789 Independent Morocco
|738 Quiriguá becomes independent of Copan||738 Caliphate campaigns in India and invasion of India by Umayyad Caliphate is averted
755 An Shi Rebellion
|717 Siege of Constantinople
718 Islamic conquest of Spain
|9th century||801 c. Kanem Empire founded
801c. Aksum declines, capital moved to interior
900c. Igbo-Ukwu founded
|835 Ganlu Incident||872 Norway unites
c.874 Settlement of Iceland
896 Hungarians invade Carpathia
|900 Settlement of New Zealand|
|10th century||905 Tulunids ejected
909 Fatimid established
969 Fustat captured
|950 Great Serpent Mound constructed
990 Toltecs conquer Chichén Itzá
|907 Political upheaval of the Five Dynasties begins
960 Song dynasty established
|958 Denmark unites
985 Erik the Red founds colony in Greenland
|1000 Polynesians build stone temples|
The people in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
|Communication||Math and Science||Agriculture||Transportation||Warfare|
Centuries and decades
- Julian Day Number from Date Calculator (casio.com)
- Klein Goldewijk, K. , A. Beusen, M. de Vos and G. van Drecht (2011). The HYDE 3.1 spatially explicit database of human induced land use change over the past 12,000 years, Global Ecology and Biogeography20(1): 73-86. doi:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00587.x (pbl.nl). Goldewijk et al. (2011) estimate 188 million as of the year 1, citing a literature range of 170 million (low) to 300 million (high). Out of the estimated 188 million, 116 million are estimated for Asia (East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Central Asia, excluding Western Asia), 44 million for Europe and the Near East, 15 million for Africa (including Roman Egypt and Roman North Africa), 12 million for Mesoamerica and South America. North America and Oceania were at or below one million. For 1000, they estimate the world population at 295 million .
- Jr Ph D Grant Bishop Williams(2009). Abraham's Other Sons. AuthorHouse: pp. 50,51. ISBN 9781438997094
- Ehret, Christopher (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, p. 177, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X.
- "World Timeline of the Americas 200 BC - AD 600". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-02-27. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
- "World Timeline of Europe 200 BC-AD 400 Roman". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-03-13. Retrieved 2009-04-06.
- "World Timeline of the Oceania 1500 BC-AD 1". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
- "World Timeline of Africa 332 BC-AD 400". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-02-24. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
- "World Timeline of Oceania AD 1-1100". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-05-29. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
- "World Timeline of Europe AD 400-800 Early medieval". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-06.
- "World Timeline of the Americas AD 600-1000". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
- "World Timeline of Africa AD 600-1500". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-03-13. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
- Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine. The History of African Cities South of the Sahara. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2005, p. 45, ISBN 1-55876-303-1
- "Who Built it First". Ancient Discoveries. A&E Television Networks. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2009-04-03.