Český Krumlov (Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛskiː ˈkrumlof] (listen); German: Krumau or Böhmisch Krumau) is a town in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. Its historic centre, centred around the Český Krumlov Castle, has been a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1992 and was given this status along with the historic Prague castle district.
View over Český Krumlov
Coat of arms
Location in the Czech Republic
|Coordinates: 48°48′40″N 14°18′55″E|
|• Mayor||Dalibor Carda|
|• Total||22.16 km2 (8.56 sq mi)|
|Elevation||492 m (1,614 ft)|
|• Density||590/km2 (1,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Official name||Historic Centre of Český Krumlov|
|Inscription||1992 (16th session)|
Krumlov has its origin in Middle High German Krumme Aue, which can be translated as crooked meadow, after a bend of the Vltava. The town's name begins with Český ("Bohemian") to differentiate it from Moravský Krumlov in south Moravia.
The settlement arose beneath the castle, which was built from about 1240 onwards by a local branch of the noble Vítkovci family, descendants of Witiko of Prčice. The fortress was first mentioned in a 1253 deed as Chrumbenowe. It was also mentioned in the 1255 Frauendienst poem by minnesinger Ulrich von Liechtenstein. Located at a ford of an important trade route in the Kingdom of Bohemia, a settlement arose soon afterwards below the castle. The Czech name Krumlov is documented as early as in 1259.
In 1302 the Vítkovci line became extinct and King Wenceslaus II ceded the town and castle to the Rosenberg family. Peter I of Rosenberg (d. 1347), the Lord Chamberlain of King John of Bohemia, resided here and had the present upper castle erected in the early 14th century. The majority of inhabitants were German-speaking at that time, having migrated from neighbouring Austria and Bavaria in the course of the Ostsiedlung. A Jewish community is documented since 1334. By 1336, Czechs may have formed a small minority, which had its own priest.
The Rosenbergs strongly promoted trade and crafts within the town walls. In the late 15th century, when gold was found next to the town, German miners came to settle, which shifted the ethnic balance even more. In one of the churches the sermons were preached in Czech until 1788, when St. Jošt Church was closed. William of Rosenberg (1535–1592), High Treasurer and High Burgrave of Bohemia, had the castle rebuilt in a Renaissance style.
In 1602 William's brother Peter Vok of Rosenberg (1539–1611) sold Krumlov to the Habsburg emperor Rudolf II, who gave it to his natural son Julius d'Austria. After the Bohemian Revolt and the 1620 Battle of White Mountain, Emperor Ferdinand II gave Krumlov to the noble House of Eggenberg and the town became seat of the mediate Duchy of Krumlov. From 1719 until 1947 the castle belonged to the House of Schwarzenberg.
There were 8,662 inhabitants in Krummau an der Moldau in 1910, of which 7,367 (85%) were Germans and 1,295 (15%) were Czechs. After World War I, the town was a part of the Bohemian Forest Region which was initially declared to be part of German-Austria. By the end of 1918 the Czechoslovak army had occupied the region, which became part of Czechoslovakia. In 1938 it was annexed by Nazi Germany, as part of the Reichsgau Oberdonau unit of Sudetenland under the Munich Agreement. After World War II the town's long-standing German-speaking population was expelled and the town was returned to Czechoslovakia.
During the Communist era of Czechoslovakia, historic Krumlov fell into disrepair, but since the Velvet Revolution of 1989 much of the town's former beauty has been restored, and it is now a popular holiday destination, with large numbers of tourists from Europe and from Asian countries such as China and Japan. In August 2002, the town was damaged in a great flood of the Vltava River.
Český Krumlov is home to the Pivovar Eggenberg brewery.
Český Krumlov has a railway station served by GW Train Regio and České dráhy situated on a line between České Budějovice and Černý Kříž (a railway junction near the village of Stožec). There has been a direct train to Prague since 2016, with a traveling time of 2h 48m. Several bus companies operate direct bus services to Prague. There are also direct shuttle minibus services to several cities including Prague, Munich and Vienna.
Most of the architecture of the old town and castle dates from the 14th through 17th centuries; the town's structures are mostly in Gothic, Renaissance, and Baroque styles. The core of the old town is within a horseshoe bend of the river, with the old Latrán neighborhood and castle on the other side of the Vltava.
Český Krumlov Castle is unusually large for a town of its size; within the Czech Republic it is second in extent only to the Hradčany castle complex of Prague. The castle was first mentioned in written sources in 1240. Inside its grounds are a large rococo garden, an extensive bridge over a deep gap in the rock upon which the castle is built, and the castle itself, which in turn consists of many defined parts dating from different periods. After the garden had been inadequately maintained in the second half of the 20th century, the site was included in the 1996 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund. With financial support from American Express the garden's central fountain was documented and reconstructed, and remains functional today.
It is relatively unique in that it is surrounded by a moat filled not with water, but with bears. This was an attempt by the erstwhile rulers of the castle to associate themselves with the powerful Orsini family – whose name is a pun on the Italian word for bear; orso.
Český Krumlov Castle preserves its Baroque theatre, built in 1680–82 under Prince Johann Christian I von Eggenberg and renovated with up-to-date stage equipment under Josef Adam zu Schwarzenberg from 1765 to 1766. It is one of few such court theaters to retain its original stage machinery, scenery and props. Due to its age, the theater is only used three times a year (only twice open to the public), when a Baroque opera is performed in simulated candlelight. Visitors can take a guided tour beneath the stage to catch a glimpse of the wood-and-rope apparatus that allowed stage settings to be moved in and out at the same time as the audience was diverted with fireworks and smoke. The castle's last private owner was Adolph Schwarzenberg. It was here that he received President Edvard Beneš and gave him a large contribution for the defence of Czechoslovakia against the growing threat of Nazi Germany. His property was seized by the Gestapo in 1940 and then confiscated by the Czechoslovak government in 1947.
Since 1959 the revolving auditorium is located in the gardens.
Český Krumlov hosts a number of festivals and other events each year including the Five-Petaled Rose Festival (a reference to the rose of the Rožmberk crest), which is held on the summer solstice weekend. The downtown area is turned into a medieval town with craftsmen, artists, musicians, and local people in medieval costume. Activities include jousting, fencing, historical dance performances, and folk theater, in the Castle precincts and along the river. It concludes with a fireworks display.
The International Music Festival Český Krumlov begins in July and ends in August, and features international music of various genres. Other such events are held throughout the year. The summer music festivals include the blues, rock, and soul festival Open Air Krumlov, held in late June at Eggenberg Brewery Garden.
Since the Velvet Revolution in 1989, over eighty restaurants have been established in the area. Many restaurants are located along the river and near the castle.
In popular culture
- House of Rosenberg (Czech: Rožmberk(ové), sg. z Rožmberka), since about 1250
- House of Eggenberg (since 1622 until 1717)
- Anton Hickel (1745–1798), painter
- Egon Schiele (1890–1918), painter, lived here; there is a museum devoted to him in the town, the Egon Schiele Art Centrum. He painted townscapes such a Dämmernde Stadt (1913).
- Karel Šmirous (1890–1981), scientist
- Petr Eben (1929–2007), composer
- Anna Chromý (born 1940), painter and sculptor
- Dana Kuchtová (born 1961), politician
- Luděk Sekyra (born 1964), businessman
- Petr Muk (1965–2010), pop singer
- Tomáš Kobes (born 1978), slalom canoeist
- Jan Matura (born 1980), ski jumper
Twin towns – sister cities
Český Krumlov is twinned with:
Friendly towns and cities
- "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2020". Czech Statistical Office. 3 April 2020.
- "Historic Centre of Český Krumlov". Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- "Historie města Český Krumlov" (in Czech). Český Krumlov. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
- Walter Kuhn, Geschichte der deutschen Ostsiedlung in der Neuzeit, Vol. 1 (Cologne 1955), p. 85.
- Ecclesiastical History of Český Krumlov
- Gerald D. Feldman et al., Österreichische Banken und Sparkassen im Nationalsozialismus und in der Nachkriegszeit (München 2006) S. 897.
- History of the town of Český Krumlov
- "Budějovice a jižní Čechy – zprávy". iDNES.cz. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
- "České dráhy, a.s." old.cd.cz. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
- "The Pearl of South Bohemia | Foreigners.cz Blog". blog.foreigners.cz. 22 July 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- World Monuments Fund – Český Krumlov Garden
- "Bear Moat at Český Krumlov Castle". www.castle.ckrumlov.cz. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- Winder, Simon (2013). Danubia: A personal history of Habsburg Europe. London, UK: Picador. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-4472-2977-3.
- There are others at Drottningholm and Gripsholm in Sweden. Much Baroque theater equipment is on display at the Royal Palace of Gödöllő, near Budapest.
- "Home". Moldavite Museum. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
- "Krumlov International Music Festival". Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- IMDb Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- "Partnerská a spřátelená města Českého Krumlova" (in Czech). Český Krumlov. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
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|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Český Krumlov.|